of the United States
; named at birth Hiram Ulysses
, but, through an error when he entered the Military Academy, he was given the Christian
names which he afterwards adopted; born
in Point Pleasant, O.
, April 27, 1822; graduated at West Point
He served in the war with Mexico
, first under General Taylor
, and then under General Scott
, taking part in every battle between Vera Cruz
and the city of Mexico
He was made captain in 1853, and resigned the next year, when he settled in St. Louis
He was one of the first to offer his services to the national government when the Civil War
broke out, but, as no notice was taken of him, became colonel of the 21st Illinois Infantry.
In May, 1861, he was appointed a brigadier-general of volunteers, and placed in command at Cairo
He occupied Paducah
, broke up the Confederate
camp at Belmont
, and in February, 1862, captured Forts Henry
He was then promoted to major-general; conducted the battle of Pittsburg Landing
, or Shiloh
, and for a while was second in command to Halleck
He performed excellent service in the West and Southwest, especially in the vicinity of the Mississippi River
, and at and near the Tennessee River
, in 1863.
He was promoted to lieutenant-general March 1, 1864, and awarded a gold medal by Congress.
He issued his first order as general-in-chief of the armies of the
, March 17, 1864.
In the grand movements of the armies in 1864, he accompanied that of the Potomac
, with his headquarters “in the field,” and he remained with it until he signed the articles of capitulation at Appomattox Court-house, April 9, 1865.
In 1866 he was promoted to general of the United States army.
After the war Grant
fixed his headquarters at Washington
When President Johnson
from the office of Secretary of War
was put in his place ad interim. Stanton
was reinstated by the Senate, Jan. 14, 1868.
In 1868, Grant
was elected President
of the United States
by the Republican party, and was re-elected in 1872.
He retired from the office March 4, 1877, and soon afterwards made a journey around the world, receiving great honors everywhere.
Towards the close of his life he was financially ruined by an unprincipled sharper.
Congress created him a general on the retired list; and, to make further provision for his family, he began compiling Personal memoirs of U. S. Grant
, a work that was completed shortly before his death, on Mount McGregor, N. Y., July 23, 1885.
His remains lie in the
magnificent mausoleum in Riverside Park
, New York City, that cost $500,000, raised principally by popular subscription.
; army in the Civil War
; disbanding of the Union armies
; Lee, Robert Edward.
Let us have peace.
On the receipt of the official notification of his first nomination for the Presidency, he addressed to General Hawley
the following letter, concluding with one of those brief phrases for which this “silent man” was noted:
The following is General Grant
's address at his first inaugural March 4, 1869:
Last message to Congress.
The following is the opening of his last message to Congress (Dec. 5, 1876), the part in which he reviews the events of his double term of office:
Opening the Centennial Exhibition.
On May 10, 1876, he formally opened the Centennial Exhibition
with the following speech:
's magnanimity was never more
touchingly illustrated than in his efforts to secure justice for Gen. Fitz-John Porter
(q. v. ). The story of his actions in this matter is most fittingly told in his own language.
On Dec. 22, 1881, he addressed the following appeal in behalf of General Porter
to the President
On Feb. 4, 1882, in order to still further impress his convictions of General Porter
's innocence upon influential members of Congress, he addressed the following detailed letter to J. Donald Cameron
, United States
Senator from Pennsylvania
Perhaps no person unconnected with the army contributed in so great a degree to General Grant
's success in the Civil War
as the Hon. Elihu B. Washburne
, to whom the following extremely interesting letter was addressed.
It is certainly of great historical value, and reveals in a very interesting way some of the strongest and most admirable traits of General Grant
(1816-87) was the member of Congress from Galena, Ill.
, where Grant
was employed at the beginning of the war. The two men first
met at that time; they immediately became friends, and during the great struggle Washburne
was the constant supporter and sturdy defender of the Silent Commander
, who would never defend himself from the shameful charges that were frequently made against his private character, and also as a soldier.
he appointed Mr. Washburne
his Secretary of State
, but after occupying that high office for a few weeks, he was sent as the American
representative to France
He filled that position with preeminent ability and signal distinction, publishing after his return to the United States
a valuable and interesting work, in 2 octavo volumes, entitled Recollections of a minister to France