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During the Revolutionary War Great Britain hired a large number of auxiliaries from the Landgrave of Hesse, the Count of Hesse-Hanau, the Duke of Brunswick, the Margrave of Anspach-Bayreuth, the Prince of Waldeck, and the Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst. Nearly 30,000 were brought to America. Nearly 13,000 of them never returned to Germany. A small proportion of these had been killed in battle or had died of their wounds. Many had died of sickness. Others had deserted, and the remainder settled in America at the end of the war. England paid $35 for each man killed, $12 for each man wounded, and in addition paid an annual sum of nearly $60,000 to the Duke of Brunswick, $550,000 to the Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, and proportionate sums to the other princes. The total amount paid by England is unknown, as the records are incomplete and the sums voted by Parliament for the purpose of paying these troops cannot be identified (see German mercenaries). The best book on the subject of the German auxiliaries of Great Britain in the Revolutionary War is The Hessians in the Revolution, by Edward J. Lowell, from which the following tables are taken:

Table of the number of troops sent to America by each one of the German States, and of the number that returned.

The numbers originally given in Schlozer's Staats-Anzeigen (vol. VI. pp. 521, 522), were corrected by Kapp as to the Anspach contingent.

Brunswick sent in 17764,300
Brunswick sent in March, 1777224
Brunswick sent in April, 1778475
Brunswick sent in April, 1779286
Brunswick sent in May, 1780266
Brunswick sent in April, 1782172
Returned in the autumn of 17832,708
Did not return3,015
Hesse-Cassel sent in 177612,805
Hesse-Cassel sent in December, 1777403
Hesse-Cassel sent in March, 1779993
Hesse-Cassel sent in May, 1780915
Hesse-Cassel sent in April, 1781915
Hesse-Cassel sent in April, 1782961
Returned in the autumn of 1783 and the spring of 178410,492
Did not return6,500
Hesse-Hanau, under various treaties2,038
Hesse-Hanau, recruits sent in April, 178150
Hesse-Hanau, recruits sent in April, 1782334
Returned in the autumn of 17831,441
Did not return981
Anspach-Bayreuth sent in 17771,603
Anspach-Bayreuth sent in 1779157
Anspach-Bayreuth sent in 1780152
Anspach-Bayreuth sent in 1781205
Anspach-Bayreuth sent in 1782236
Returned in the autumn of 17831,183
Did not return1,170
Waldeck sent in 1776670
Waldeck sent in April, 177789
Waldeck sent in February, 1778140
Waldeck sent in May, 177923
Waldeck sent in April, 1781144
Waldeck sent in April, 1782159
Returned in the autumn of 1783505
Did not return720
Anhalt-Zerbst sent in 1778600
Anhalt-Zerbst sent in April, 177982
Anhalt-Zerbst sent in May, 178050
Anhalt-Zerbst sent in April, 1781420
Returned in the autumn of 1783984
Did not return168
Total number sent29,867
Total number returned17,313
Total number of those who did not return12,554

Of the 12.554 who did not return Mr. Lowell's estimate is as follows:

Killed and died of wounds1,200
Died of illness and accident6,354


estimate of the losses sustained by the Germans in the principal battles of the Revolutionary War.

Long Island225
Sept. 15, 1776216
Sept. 16, 177611
Oct. 9 to Oct. 23 (including Chatterton Hill)136323
Fort Washington56276
Assanpink (Jan. 2, 1777)411
Burgoyne's Campaign to Oct. 6, 1777164284
Burgoyne's Campaign from Oct. 7 to 162575
Skirmish, Sept. 3, 1777119
Brandywine, Chasseurs739
Brandywine, other Hessians216
Red Bank8222960
Stono Ferry934
Baton Rouge258
Guildford Courthouse15694

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