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Was first explored by French missionaries and traders, and Vincennes was a missionary station as early as 1700. Indiana constituted a part of New France, and afterwards of the Northwest Territory. In 1702 some French Canadians discovered the Wabash, and established several trading-posts on its banks, among others, Vincennes. Little is known of the early settlers until the country was ceded to the English, in 1763. The treaty of 1783 included Indiana in the United States. A distressing Indian war broke out in 1788, but by victories by General Wilkinson (1791) and General Wayne (1794), a dangerous confederacy of the tribes was broken up. Another was afterwards attempted by Tecumseh, but was defeated by the result of the battle of Tippecanoe.

In 1800 the “Connecticut Reserve,” in the northwestern portion of Ohio, having

State seal of Indiana.

been sold to a company of speculators, measures were taken to extinguish certain claims on the part of the United States and the State of Connecticut. The speculators found their bargain to be pecuniarily unprofitable, and likely to prove a serious embarrassment. Fully 1,000 settlers were already on the “Reserve.” Hitherto a confirmation of the Connecticut title to these lands by the United States had been inferentially acknowledged, and Connecticut had given no quit-claim deeds; therefore, it was to the interest of the speculators to obtain from the United States a direct confirmation. On the other hand, it was an object for the United States to extinguish Connecticut's claim of jurisdiction. [29] Congress passed an act (April 28, 1800) authorizing the issue of letters-patent conveying the title of these lands to the governor of Connecticut, for the benefit of those claiming under her, and similar letters-patent were issued by Connecticut, relinquishing all claim to jurisdiction. So the “Reserve” was annexed to the Northwest Territory, which was presently divided, by act of Congress (May 7), into two separate jurisdictions, the western one being called the Territory of Indiana, after one of the old ante-Revolutionary land companies. St. Vincent, or Vincennes, was made the capital, and William Henry Harrison was appointed governor of the Territory. It then included Michigan and Illinois.

In 1803 a movement was made in Congress for suspending for a limited term, in the case of Indiana Territory, the provision of the ordinance of 1787 (q. v.) prohibiting slavery northward of the Ohio River. A committee, of which John Randolph, of Virginia, was chairman, reported strongly against the proposition, believing that “in the salutary operation of this salutary and sagacious restraint the inhabitants of Indiana would, at no distant day, find ample remuneration for a temporary privation of labor and immigration.” At the next session (1804) the subject was brought up and referred to a new committee, of which Rodney, the new Democratic representative from Delaware, was chairman. This committee reported in favor of such suspension, so as to admit, for ten years, the introduction of slaves born within the territory of the United States, their descendants to be free, masculine at the age of twenty-five years, and feminine at twenty-one years. No action was had, but the subject was afterwards before Congress several times on the urgent application of inhabitants of Indiana for the privilege of introducing slavery into the Territory.

When war with Great Britain broke out, in 1812, a fresh impulse was given to Indian depredations, which had never fairly ceased, but the hostiles were beaten, and were quiet after the close of that contest. On June 29, 1816, a convention adopted a State constitution for Indiana, and on Dec. 11 it was admitted into the Union. Rapid and continued immigration ensued. This was greatly increased by the opening of the Erie Canal. During the Civil War Indiana furnished to the National army 195,147 soldiers. In 1899 the assessed valuation of taxable property was $1,342,831,161; total tax rate, $2.96 per $1,000; and total debt, $5,004,615. The population in 1890 was 2,192,404; in 1900, 2,516,462. See Clark, G. R.; United States, Indiana, vol. IX.

Governors of Territory.

William H. HarrisonappointedMay 13, 1800
John Gibsonacting1812
Thomas PoseyappointedMarch 3, 1813

Governors of State.

Jonathan Jenningsassumes officeNov. 7, 1816
William Hendricksassumes officeDec. 4, 1822
James B. Rayassumes officeFeb. 12, 1825
Noah Nobleassumes officeDec. 7, 1831
David Wallaceassumes officeDec. 6, 1837
Samuel Biggerassumes officeDec. 9, 1840
James Whitcombassumes officeDec. 6, 1843
Joseph A. Wrightassumes officeDec. 6, 1849
Ashbel P. Willardassumes officeJan. 12, 1857
Abraham A. Hammondassumes officeOct. 1860
Henry S. Laneelected U. S. SenatorJan. 1861
Oliver P. Mortonassumes officeJan. 1861
Conrad Bakerassumes officeJan. 1867
Thomas A. Hendricksassumes officeJan. 1873
James D. Williamsassumes officeJan. 1877
Albert G. Porterassumes officeJan. 1881
Isaac P. Grayassumes officeJan. 1885
Alvin P. Hovey(died in office)Jan. 1889
Ira J. Chase, lieut.-gov.actingNov. 1891
Claude Matthewsassumes officeJan. 1, 1893
James A. Mountassumes officeJan. 1897
Winfield T. Durbinassumes officeJan. 1901

United States Senators.

Name.No. of Congress.Date.
James Noble14th to 22d1816 to 1831
Waller Taylor14th to 19th1816 to 1825
William Hendricks19th to 24th1825 to 1837
Robert Hanna22d1831 to 1832
John Tipton22d to 25th1832 to 1837
Oliver H. Smith25th to 27th1837 to 1843
AlbertS. White26th to 28th1839 to 1844
Edward A. Hannegan28th to 30th1843 to 1849
Jesse D. Bright29th to 37th1845 to 1861
James Whitcomb31st to 32d1849 to 1852
Charles W. Cathcart32d1852 to 1853
John Petit32d to 33d1853 to 1856
Graham N. Fitch34th to 36th1857 to 1860
Henry S. Lane37th to 39th1861 to 1867
Joseph A. Wright37th1861 to 1862
David Turpie37th1863
Thomas A. Hendricks38th to 40th1863 to 1869
Oliver P. Morton40th to 45th1867 to 1877
Daniel D. Pratt41st to 43d1869 to 1875
Joseph E. McDonald44th to 46th1875 to 1881
Daniel W. Voorhees45th to 55th1877 to 1897
Benjamin Harrison47th to 49th1881 to 1888
David Turpie50th to 56th1888 to 1899
Charles W. Fairbanks55th to —1897 to —
Albert J. Beveridge56th to —1899 to —

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