Manila,City, port of entry, and capital of Luzon and of the Philippine Islands; on the west coast of Luzon and on the west shore of Manila Bay; at the mouth of the Pasig River. The city proper is a walled one, containing a citadel and the public buildings. The remainder of the city consists of a large, straggling business town and a wide fringe of suburban settlements. The walled city is in the angle of land at the south of the river's mouth. Along the sea-front, facing westward, is a narrow strip of low land which has been reclaimed by means of a breakwater. Across the river, north of the walled city, is the large and flourishing business town. The central part is called Binondo, which name is often applied to the whole, though the city has grown so large as to include nearly a dozen other wards. Driving in any direction, it is about 3 miles before one gets away from built — up streets and reaches the open country. Even then the rural settlements are found full of the residences of city business people, and so it is difficult to say exactly what should be considered part of the city and what should not. The city is irregularly laid out, the streets very narrow, and the houses crowded together. The principal business street is crooked and filled with commonplace, mean-looking structures. The Pasig is bridged in several places, connecting the old city with Binondo, and there are tramways running into the outlying parts of the town, and a steam tramway to the northern suburb of Malabon. There is also a railway from Manila to Dagupan, about 120 miles north. A little way back from the sea is the Jesuit Observatory, a splendidly equipped institution. Here, far removed from petty troubles, the monks pursue their meteorological observations, carefully compiling data and employing delicate instruments the like of which is not to be seen east of Calcutta. Outside of the populous suburbs there are more rural and less settled districts, dotted with handsome residences, scattered remotely among the rice-fields and tropical woodlands. The climate of Manila is hot and wet, but salubrious. The city is often swept by typhoons from the China Sea, and is also subject to frequent earthquakes, which are often very destructive. Manila is celebrated for the hemp and cigars which form its principal exports. The city was founded by Miguel Lopez de Legaspi in 1571, and was surrounded by a wall in 1590. It was invaded by the British in 1762. Commerce with Spain,  by way of Cape Horn, was started in 1764. Previously, all trade had been carried on by way of Acapulco, Mexico. In 1789 the port was opened to foreign vessels, but commerce did not thrive until the expiration of the privileges of the Royal Company of the Philippines, in 1834. Manila was connected by cable with Hong-Kong in 1880. On May 1, 1898, the United States Asiatic squadron, under Commodore Dewey, defeated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay, and on Aug. 15 the American land forces, assisted by the navy and the native revolutionists, gained possession of the city. It has since been the seat of the American military authorities. See Luzon.
Capture of the City.The following is an extended synopsis of the official report of Maj.-Gen. Wesley Merritt (q. v.) on the operations around Manila and the capture of the city, under date of Aug. 31, 1898:
Manila Bay, battle of