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Military officer; born in Breckenridge county, Ky., May 30, 1812. His family removed to Illinois while he was a small child. He was admitted to the bar in 1832 served in the Black Hawk War: engaged in trade and journalism; and was in the Illinois legislature at different times between 1836 and 1842. He was in Congress in 1843-51 and 1859-61, when, the war breaking out, he resigned and, with others, raised a brigade of volunteers. He distinguished himself at Belmont (q. v.), and was made brigadier-general. After the battle of Fort Donelson (q. v.) he was promoted major-general; commanded a division at the battle of Shiloh; succeeded General Sherman in command of the army engaged in the Vicksburg expedition in January, 1863; distinguished himself in the battles that followed; commanded the 13th Army Corps till July, 1863; and resigned his commission Nov. 30, 1864. Subsequently he engaged in law  practice in Springfield, Ill., till his death, Sept. 20, 1900.
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