Was discovered and settled by French missionaries and furtraders.
As early as 1610 the site of Detroit
was visited by Frenchmen, and in 1641 some Jesuits reached the falls of St. Mary.
The first European
settlements within the present limits of Michigan
were made there by the establishment of a mission by Father Jacques Marquette
(q. v.) and others in 1668. Three years later Fort Mackinaw was established, and in 1701 Detroit
made slow progress in population from that time until it was made a Territory
of the United States
It came into possession of the English
by the treaty of 1763; suffered from the conspiracy of Pontiac
(q. v.); and it was some time after the treaty of peace, in 1783, before the British
gave up the territory.
did not take possession until 1796.
At first it was a part of the Northwest Territory
, and afterwards it formed a part of the Territory of Indiana
It was erected into an independent Territory in 1805, with William Hull
(q. v.) as its first governor.
In August, 1812, it fell into the hands of the British
), and remained so until the fall of 1813, when General Harrison
reconquered it (Thames
, battle of the). In consequence of alarming despatches from Hull
, in Detroit
, in July, 1812, a force to support him was organized at Georgetown, Ky.
; but before it had crossed the Ohio
news of the surrender at Detroit
That event stirred the patriotic zeal of the whole Western country, and the greatest warlike enthusiasm prevailed.
Volunteers gathered under local leaders in every direction.
Companies were formed and equipped in a single day, and were ready to march the next.
They passed over the Ohio
, and Virginia
; and the governor of Ohio
sent forward 2,000 men under General Tupper
for the recovery of Michigan
. General Harrison
was appointed commander-in-chief of the Army of the Northwest.
For several weeks volunteers found employment in driving the hostile Indians
from post to post, in Ohio
, on the borders of the extreme western settlements.
They desolated their villages and plantations, after the manner of Sullivan
in 1779, and thereby incurred the fiercest indignation of the tribes.
took steps early to relieve the frontier posts—Fort Harrison
, on the Wabash
; Fort Wayne
, at the head of the Maumee
; Fort Defiance
, at the junction of the Auglaize
; and Fort Deposit
At Vincennes General Hopkins
had assembled about 4,000 mounted Kentucky
militia to chastise the Indians on the borders of Illinois
They penetrated the Indian
country beyond the Wabash
; but, becoming alarmed, returned to Vincennes
, and left the honors of the campaign to be gathered by Ninian Edwards
, governor of the Territory of Illinois
, who had advanced up the Illinois River
with about 400 men to co-operate with Hopkins
He succeeded in destroying several Indian villages above Peoria
, meanwhile, was busily employed in pushing forward provisions to forts towards the lake, whence his troops were to march for concentration at the rapids of the Maumee
, where another depot was to be established.
It was a miserable country to pass over —swampy, wooded, and made almost impassable by heavy rains.
The troops became discontented and mutinous.
Orders given to Tupper
's division to advance to the Maumee Rapids
were not, or could not be, obeyed; it fell back to Urbana
had been very anxious to retake Detroit
before winter; but the nature of the country compelled him to wait for the freeing of the swamps.
Another expedition, under Hopkins
, marched up the Wabash
, in November, 1812; but the approach of winter and insufficient clothing of his troops compelled him to return to Vincennes
after destroying one or two Indian villages.
So ended in failure the effort to recover Michigan
in the autumn of 1812.
To this end Harrison
had labored incessantly all through the months of October, November, and December.
The lands of Michigan
were first brought into market for public sale in 1818, and from that time it dates its prosperity.
was authorized in 1819 to send a delegate to Congress, and in the election the right of suffrage was extended to all taxable citizens.
Afterwards the Indians made important territorial concessions, and in 1836 all the lower peninsula and part of the upper were freed from Indian titles.
The same year Wisconsin Territory
was formed from the western portion of Michigan
The legislative power of Michigan
was vested in the governor and judges until 1823, when Congress transferred it to a council of nine persons, selected by the President
of the United States
from eighteen chosen by the citizens.
The council was increased to thirteen in 1825; but two years later the citizens were allowed to elect the councillors without the interference of the President
In 1835-36 there was a territorial dispute between Ohio
that, at one time, threatened civil war; but it was settled by Congress admitting the latter into the Union
as a State, on condition that it should relinquish its claim to the disputed territory and accept in its stead the upper peninsula.
In January, 1837, Michigan
In 1847 the seat of government was removed from Detroit
In 1850 a new constitution was adopted, which, with subsequent amendments, is now in force.
This State took a decided stand for the Union
in the anxious days of 1860.
Its legislature met at the beginning of January, 1861, when its retiring governor (Moses Wisner
) denounced the President
of the United
States as a partisan, and the Democratic party as cause of the alarm, resentment, and discontent in the South
, by persistent misrepresentations of the principles and intentions of the Republican party.
He declared the personal liberty act of his State to be right.
“Let it stand,” he said; “this is no time for timid and vacillating counsels while the cry of treason is ringing in our ears.”
The new governor (Austin Blair
), who was inaugurated Jan. 3, took substantially the same ground.
He recommended the legislature to take action for the support of the national government, and they responded by passing resolutions, Feb. 2, pledging to that government all the military power and material resources of the State
They expressed an unwillingness “to make compromises with traitors,” and refused to send delegates to the peace conference
(q. v.). The best men of the State
, serving in the Union
army, redeemed this pledge.
furnished to the National
army, during the Civil War
, 90,747 soldiers, of which number 14,823 perished.
The expenditures of the State
for carrying on the war were $3,784,408; by counties, cities, and townships for the same purpose, $10,173,336; and for the relief of soldiers' families by counties, $3,591,248, or a total of nearly $17,600,000. Population in 1890, 2,093,889; in 1900, 2,420,982.
See United States, Michigan
, in vol.