; born in Westminster, Mass.
, Aug. 8, 1839; was engaged in mercantile business in Boston
till the outbreak of the Civil War
; entered the volunteer army as a captain in the 22d Massachusetts Infantry, Sept. 9, 1861; promoted lieutenant-colonel 61st New York Infantry, May 31, 1862, and colonel, Sept. 30 following; brigadiergeneral, May 12, 1864; major-general
, Oct. 21, 1865; and was mustered out of the volunteers, Sept. 1, 1866.
On July 28, 1866, he was commissioned colonel of the 40th United States Infantry; March 15, 1869, was transferred to the 5th Infantry; Dec. 15, 1880, promoted brigadier-general; April 5, 1890, major-general
; June 6, 1900, lieutenant-general
, under an act of Congress of that date; and Feb. 5, 1901, was appointed lieutenant-general under the law reorganizing the army.
During the Civil War
he distinguished himself at Fair Oaks
(wounded), Malvern Hill
(wounded), Ream's Station, and in the operations against Richmond
; and after the war conducted a number of campaigns against the hostile Indians
, notably against the Apaches under Geronimo
, whose surrender he forced.
He represented the army at the seat of the war between Turkey
, and also at the Diamond Jubilee
of Queen Victoria in 1897.
In the war against Spain
in 1898 he visited Cuba
and commanded the expedition to Porto Rico