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The first Europeans who trod its soil were two Huguenots, Sieur Groselliers and Sieur Radisson, who, in search of a northwest passage to China, passed through this region in 1659. Returning to Montreal in 1660 with sixty canoes laden with skins, they excited others to go in search of peltries, and this was the beginning of the French furtrade which afterwards interfered with the Hudson Bay Company. To secure this trade, which the English were grasping, Daniel Greysolon du Luth, a native of Lyons, left Quebec in September, 1678, with twenty men, and entered Minnesota. The next year Father Hennepin and two others, who were a part of La Salle's expedition, penetrated the country far above the falls of St. Anthony. The territory was formally taken possession of in the name of the French monarch, by Perrot and his associates, in 1689. They built a fort on the west shore of Lake Pepin; and Le Seur built another fort, in 1695, on an island in the Mississippi, just below the mouth of the St. Croix River, after which the fur-traders flocked into that region. In 1763, Jonathan Carver visited Minnesota and published a description of the country. In 1800, a part of Minnesota lying west of the Mississippi was included in the Territory of Indiana.

The purchase of Louisiana, in 1803, gave the United States possession of the whole country west of the Mississippi, and in 1816 Congress passed a law excluding foreigners from the fur-trade in that region. Fort Snelling was built and garrisoned in 1819, and active trade with [193] the Indians was carried on there. In 1820 that region was explored by a party under Gen. Lewis Cass, and by Major

State seal of Minnesota.

Long in 1821. A third exploring party went there in 1832, led by Henry R. Schoolcraft, who discovered the main source of the Mississippi River. In 1837, some lumbering operations began in

A view of St. Paul.

Minnesota, upon the St. Croix River. The town of St. Paul was founded in 1842, and in 1849 the Territory of Minnesota was ereated. At that time one-half the lands ineluded in the Territory belonged to the Indians, and the white population was less than 5,000. Emigrants flocked in, and at the end of eight years (1857) the number was 150,000. In 1851 the Sioux ceded to the United States all their lands in Minnesota. In 1857 application was made by the people for the admission of Minnesota into the Union as a State. This was effected May 11, 1858. Minnesota furnished to the National army and navy during the Civil War 25,034 soldiers. The population in 1890, a little more than fifty years after the first settlement, was 1,301,826; in 1900, 1,751,394.

The people of the State were faithful to the old flag in 1861; so was the governor, Alexander Ramsey. The legislature that assembled Jan. 26 passed a series of loyal resolutions, in which secession was denounced as revolution, and the acts of the South Carolinians in Charleston Harbor as treasonable; and said that the full strength of the national authority under the national flag should be put forth. It gave assurance that the people of Minnesota would never consent to the obstruction of the free navigation of the Mississippi River “from its source to its mouth by any power hostile to the federal government.”

At midsummer, in 1862, Little Crow, a saintly looking savage in civilized costume, leader of Sioux warriors, began war on the white people, and in August and [194]

A Sioux massacre.

September butchered inhabitants at three points in Minnesota, and at posts beyond the boundary of the State. For nine days the Sioux besieged Fort Ridgely. Fort Abercrombie was also besieged, and twice assaulted; and in that region the Indians murdered about 500 white inhabitants, mostly defenceless women and children. Gen. H. H. Sibley was sent with a body of militia to crush the Indians. He attacked a large force under Little Crow at Wood Lake, and drove them into Dakota, making 500 of their number prisoners. Tried by court-martial, 300 of them were sentenced to be hanged. The President interfered, and only thirty-seven of the worst offenders were executed, Feb. 28. 1863. The “Sioux War” was not ended until the summer of 1863, when General Pope took command of that department, picketed the line of settlements in the far Northwest with 2,000 soldiers, and took vigorous measures to disperse the hostile bands. Generals Sibley and Sully moved against them in June, 1863, fought the Indians at different places, and finally scattered them among the wilds of the eastern slopes of the spurs of the Rocky Mountains. An outbreak by the Pillager band of Chippewas at Leech Lake occurred in October, 1898, because of continued impositions by the whites; but it was quickly suppressed by a detachment of the regular army. See United States, Minnesota, in vol. IX.

Territorial governors.

Alex. Ramsey, of Pennsylvaniaappointed April 2, 1849
Willis A. Gorman, of IndianaappointedMarch 4, 1853
Samuel Medaryappointed1857

State governors.

Henry H. Sibley elected 1857
Alexander RamseyelectedOct. 1858
Stephen Miller elected Oct. 1863
William R. Marshall, RepelectedNov. 7, 1865
Horace Austin, Rep elected Nov. 1869
Cushman K. Davis, Rep elected Nov. 1873
John S. Pillsbury, RepelectedNov. 2, 1875
Lucius F. Hubbard, RepelectedNov. 1881
Andrew R. McGill, RepelectedNov. 2, 1886
William R. Merriam, Repelected Nov. 1888
William R. Merriam, Repterm beginsJan. 1891
Knute Nelson, Repterm begins Jan. 1893
Knute Nelson, Repterm begins Jan. 1, 1895
David M. Clough term begins Jan. 24, 1895
John Lindterm begins Jan. 1, 1899
Samuel R. Van Sant.term beginsJan. 1, 1901


United States Senators

Name. No. of Congress. Term.
James M. Rice 35th to 37th 1858 to 1863
William W. Phelps 35th 1858 to 1859
Morton S. Wilkinson 36th to 38th 1859 to 1865
Alexander Ramsey 38th 1863
Daniel S. Norton 39th to 41st 1865 to 1870
William Windom 41st to 45th 1870 to 1881
Ozora P. Stearns 41st to 43d 1871 to 1875
Samuel J. R. McMillan 44th to 49th 1875 to 1887
Dwight M. Sabin 47th to 49th 1881 to 1887
Cushman K. Davis 50th to 56th 1887 to 1900
William D. Washburn 51st to 54th 1889 to 1895
Knute Nelson 54th to — 1895 to —
Moses E. Clapp 56th to — 1900 to —

Mills at Minneapolis.

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