An archipelago between the Pacific Ocean
and the China Sea
; formerly belonging to Spain
, and ceded to the United States
for $20,000,000 by the treaty of peace between the United States
The following Memoranda
by Maj.-Gen. Francis V. Greene
, U. S. V., forming Senate document no. 62
, of the 55th Congress, 3d session, gives a succinct statement of the islands, their people, productions, and commerce, when they came into our possession.
Area and population.
These islands, including the Ladrones, Carolines, and Palaos, which are all under the government of Manila
, are variously estimated at from 1,200 to 1,800 in number.
The greater portion are small and are of no more value than the islands off the coast of Alaska
The important islands are less than a dozen in number, and 90 per cent. of the Christian
population live on Luzon
and the five principal islands of the Visayas group.
The total population is somewhere between 7,000,000 and 9,000,000.
This includes the wild tribes of the mountains of Luzon
and of the islands in the extreme south.
The last census taken by the Spanish
government was on Dec. 31, 1887, and this stated the Christian
population to be 6,000,000 (in round numbers). This is distributed as follows:
|Islands.||Area.||Population.||Per Square Mile.|
The density of population in the six first islands named is nearly 50 per cent. greater than in Illinois
(census of 1890), greater than in Spain
, about one-half as great as in France
, and onethird as great as in Japan
Various smaller islands, including the Carolines, Ladrones, and Palaos, carry the total area and Christian population to: Area, 140,000; population, 6,000,000; per square mile, 43.
This is considerably greater than the density of population in the States east of the Rocky Mountains
Owing to the existence of mountain ranges in all the islands and lack of communication in the interior, only a small part of the surface is inhabited.
In many provinces the density of population exceeds 200 per square mile.
The total area of the Philippines is about the same as that of Japan
In addition to the Christian
population, it is estimated (in the Official guide
) that the islands contain the following:
|Chinese (principally in Manila）||75,000|
|Moors or Mohammedans in Paragan and Jolo||100,000|
|Moors or Mohammedans in Mindanao and Basalan||209,000|
|Heathens in the Philippines||830,000|
|Heathens in the Carolines and Palaos||50,000|
The Official guide
gives a list of more than thirty different races, each speaking a different dialect, but five-sixths of the Christian
population are either Tagalos or Visayas.
All the races are of the Malay type.
there has been some mixture of Chinese
and Spanish blood with that of the natives, resulting in the Mestizos, or half-breeds, but the number of these is not very great.
As seen in the provinces of Cavite
, the natives (Tagalos) are of small stature, averaging probably 5 feet 4 inches in height and 120 pounds in weight for the women.
Their skin is coppery brown, somewhat darker than that of a mulatto.
They seem to be industrious and hardworking, although less so than the Chinese.
By the Spaniards they are considered indolent, crafty, untruthful, treacherous, cowardly, and cruel; but the hatred
A native Filipino village.|
between the Spaniards and the native races is so intense and bitter that the Spanish
opinion of the natives is of little or no value.
To us they seemed industrious and docile, but there were occasional evidences of deceit and untruthfulness in their dealings with us. The bulk of the population is engaged in agriculture, and there were hardly any evidences of manufactures, arts, or mining.
The greater number seemed to be able to read and write, but I have been unable to obtain any exact figures on this subject.
They are all devout Roman Catholics, although they hate the monastic orders.
(and doubtless also in Zebu and Iloilo
) are many thousands of educated natives, who are merchants, lawyers, doctors, and priests.
They are well-informed and have accumulated property.
The bibliography of the Philippines is said to number 4,500 volumes, the greater part of which has been written by Spanish priests and missionaries.
The climate is one of the best known in the tropics.
The thermometer during July and August rarely went below 79° or above 85°. The extreme ranges in a year are said to be 61° and 97°. There are three well-marked seasons—temperate and dry from November to February, hot and dry from March to May, and temperate and wet from June to October.
The rainy season reaches its maximum in July and August, when the rains are constant and very heavy.
The total rainfall has been as high as 114 inches in one year.
Yellow fever appears to be unknown.
The diseases most fatal among the natives are cholera and small-pox, both of which are brought from China
Very little is known concerning the mineral wealth of the islands.
It is stated that there are deposits of coal, petroleum, iron, lead, sulphur, copper, and gold in the various islands, but little or nothing has been done to develop them.
A few concessions have been granted for working mines, but the output is not large.
The gold is reported on Luzon
, coal and petroleum on Zebu and
, and sulphur on Leyte.
The imports of coal in 1894 (the latest year for which statistics have been printed) were 91,511 tons, and it came principally from Australia
In the same year the imports of iron of all kinds were 9,632 tons.
If the Zebu coal proves to be of good quality, there is a large market for it in competition with coal from Japan
Although agriculture is the chief occupation of the Philippines, yet only one-ninth of the surface is under cultivation.
The soil is very fertile, and even after deducting the mountainous areas it is probable that the area of cultivation can be very largely extended and that the islands can support a population equal to that of Japan
The chief products are rice, corn, hemp, sugar, tobacco, cocoanuts, and cacao.
Coffee and cotton were formerly produced in large quantities—the former for export and the latter for home consumption; but the coffee plant has been almost exterminated by insects and the homemade cotton cloths have been driven out by the competition of those imported from England
The rice and corn are principally produced in Luzon
and Mindoro, and are consumed in the islands.
The rice crop is about 765,000 tons.
It is insufficient for the demand, and 45,000 tons of rice were imported in 1894; also 8,669 tons (say 60,000 barrels) of flour, of which more than two-thirds came from China
and less than one-third from the United States
The cacao raised in the southern islands amounts only to 150 tons, and is all made into chocolate and consumed in the islands.
The sugar-cane is raised in the Visayas.
The crop yielded in 1894, about 235,000 tons of raw sugar, of which one-tenth was consumed in the islands, and the balance, or 210,000 tons, valued at $11,000,000, was exported, the greater part to China
, Great Britain
, and Australia
The hemp is produced in southern Luzon
, Mindoro, the Visayas, and Mindanao.
It is nearly all exported in bales.
In 1894 the amount was 96,000 tons, valued at $12,000,000.
Tobacco is raised in all the islands, but the best quality and greatest amount in Luzon
A large amount is consumed in the islands, smoking being universal among women as well as the men, but the best quality is exported.
The amount in 1894 was 7,000 tons of leaf tobacco
, valued at $1,750,000. Spain
took 80 per cent. and Egypt
10 per cent. of the leaf tobacco
Of the manufactured tobacco
70 per cent. goes to China
, 10 per cent. to England
, and 5 per cent. to Spain
Cocoanuts are grown in southern Luzon
, and are used in various ways.
The products are largely consumed in the islands, but the exports in 1894 were valued at $2,400,000.
Cattle, goats, and sheep have been introduced from Spain
, but they are not numerous.
Domestic pigs and chickens are seen everywhere in the farming districts.
The principal beast of burden is the carabao, or water buffalo, which is used
for ploughing rice-fields as well as drawing heavy loads on sledges or on carts.
Large horses are almost unknown, but there are great numbers of native ponies from 9 to 12 hands high, possessing
A native type.|
strength and endurance far beyond their size.
Commerce and transportation.
The internal commerce between Manila
and the different islands is quite large, and is carried on almost entirely by water, in steamers of 500 to 1,000 tons.
There are regular mail steamers once in two weeks on four routes—viz., northern Luzon
, southern Luzon
, Visayas, and Mindanao; also a steamer every two months to the Carolines and Ladrones, and daily steamers on Manila Bay
These lines are all subsidized.
To facilitate this navigation extensive harbor works have been in progress at Manila
for several years, and a plan for lighting the coasts has been made, calling for forty-three principal lights, of which seventeen have already been constructed in the most substantial manner, besides sixteen lights of secondary importance.
There is only one line of railway, built by English capital, running from Manila
north to Dagupan, a distance of about 120 miles. The roads in the immediate vicinity of Manila
are macadamized and in fairly good order; elsewhere they are narrow paths of soft black soil, which become almost impassable in the rainy season.
Transportation is then effected by sledges drawn through the mud by carabaos.
There are telegraph lines connecting most of the provinces of Luzon
, and cables to the Visayas and southern islands and thence to Borneo
, as well as a direct cable from Manila
The land telegraph lines are owned by the government, and the cables all belong to an English company, which receives a large subsidy.
there is a narrow-gauge railway operated by horse-power, about 11 miles in total length; also a telephone system and electric lights.
Communications with Europe
are maintained by the Spanish Transatlantic Company (subsidized), which sends a steamer every four weeks from Manila
, making the trip in about twenty-seven days; the same company also sends an intermediate steamer from Manila
, meeting the French Messageries
steamer each way. There is also a non-subsidized line running from Manila
every two weeks, and connecting there with the English
, French, and German mails for Europe
, and with the Pacific Mail
and Canadian Pacific steamers for Japan
There has been no considerable development of manufacturing industries in the Philippines.
The only factories are those connected with the preparation of rice, tobacco, and sugar.
manufactures and arts in which Japan
so excels there is no evidence.
The foreign commerce amounted in 1894 to $23,558,552 in imports and $33,149,984 in exports, 80 per cent. of which goes through Manila
About 60 per cent. of the trade is carried in British vessels, 20 per cent. in Spanish, and 10 per cent. in German.
The value of the commerce with other countries in 1894 was as follows:
(In millions of dollars, silver.)
Next to Great Britain
we are the largest consumers of the products of the Philippines, and they export to us nearly three times as much as to Spain
On the other hand, Spain
sells to the Philippines fifteen times as much as we do.
With the construction of railroads in the interior of Luzon
, it is probable that an enormous extension could be given to this commerce, nearly all of which would come to the United States
cigars of the best quality are unknown in America
They are but little inferior to the best of Cuba
and cost only one-third as much.
The coffee industy can be revived and the sugar industry extended, mainly for consumption in the far East
The mineral resources can be explored with American energy, and there is every reason to believe that when this is done the deposits of coal, iron, gold, and lead will be found very valuable.
On the other hand, we ought to be able to secure the greater part of the trade which now goes to Spain
in textile fabrics, and a considerable portion of that with England
in the same goods and in iron.
Revenue and expenses.
The budget for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1897, was as follows:
|Proceeds of monopolies||1,222,000|
|Income of government property||257,000|
articles of import and their values in 1894.
(In millions of dollars, silver.)
|Articles.||Spain.||Great Britain.||China.||Germany.||United States.||Other Countries.||Total.|
|Cotton goods ||3.9||4||0.4||0.3||0.7||9.3|
articles of export and their values in 1894.
(In millions of dollars, silver.)
|Articles.||Spain.||Great Britain.||China.||United States.||Australia.||Other Countries.||Total.|
The direct taxes were as follows:
|Real estate, 5 per cent. on income||$140,280|
|Industry and commerce||1,400,700|
|Cedulas (poll tax)||5,600,000|
|Chinese poll tax||510,190|
|Tribute from Sultan of Jolo||20,000|
Indirect taxes were as follows:
|Fines and penalties||27,000|
|Special tax on liquors, beer, vegetables, flour, salt, and mineral oils||301,000|
|Stamped paper and stamps||646,000|
|General expenses, pensions, and interest||$1,506,686|
|Diplomatic and consular service||74,000|
|Clergy and courts||1,876,740|
|Railroads, 10 percent. on passenger receipts||$32,000|
|Income tax, 10 per cent. on public salaries||730,000|
|Sale of tickets, less cost of prizes||$964,000|
Income of government property:
|Sale and rent of public land and buildings||85,000|
The largest source of income is the cedula or poll tax. Every man and woman above eighteen years of age residing in the Philippines, whether Spanish subject or foreigner, is required to have in his or her possession a paper stating name, age, and occupation, and other facts of personal identity.
Failure to produce and exhibit this when called upon renders any one liable to arrest and imprisonment.
This paper is obtained from the internalrevenue office annually, on payment of a certain sum, varying, according to the occupation and income of the person, from 75 cents to $20, and averaging about $3 for each adult.
An extra sum of 2 per cent. is paid for expenses of collection.
The tax is collected at the tribunal in each pueblo, and 20 per cent. is retained for expenses of local administration and 80 per cent. paid to the general treasury.
This tax falls heavily on the poor and lightly on the rich.
The tax on industry and commerce is similarly graded, according to the volume of business transacted by each merchant or mercantile corporation.
The tax on real estate
is absurdly low and is levied only on municipal property and on the rent, not the value.
The tax on imports is specific and not ad valorem; it amounts to about 13 per cent. of estimated values.
The free list is very small, nearly everything of commercial value which is imported being subject to duty.
The revenue from imports has increased from $566,143 in 1865 to $3,695,446 in 1894.
It was about the same in 1897.
On the other hand, the export tax, which was nothing in 1892, the loading tax, which was nothing in 1893, and the unloading tax, which was nothing in 1894, have all been increased in the last few years in order to meet the expenses of suppressing the insurrection.
These three items yielded nearly $2,700,000 in 1897.
The monopoly of importing and selling opium is sold by auction to the highest bidder for a term of three years. The present contract runs until 1899, and yields $48,000 per month.
Every legal document must be drawn up on paper containing a revenue stamp engraved and printed in Spain
, and every note, check, draft, bill of exchange, receipt, or similar document must bear a
revenue stamp in order to be valid.
These stamps and stamped paper yielded a revenue of $646,000 in 1897.
The lottery is conducted by the government, the monthly drawings taking place in the treasury (hacienda) department.
The sale of tickets yielded $1,000,000 over and above the prizes in 1897.
The standard of value has always, until within a few years, been the Mexican
All valuation of goods and labor are based on the silver dollar, and a change to the gold standard would result in great financial distress.
While trade would
eventually adjust itself to the change, yet many merchants would be ruined in the process and would drag some banks down with them.
dollar is the standard also in Hong-Kong
, and the whole trade of the far East
has for generations been conducted on a silver basis.
has within the last year broken away from this and established the gold standard, but in doing so the relative value of silver
was fixed at 32 1/2 to 1, or about the market rate.
I was unable to obtain any precise information in regard to the colonial debt.
The last book on statistics of imports and exports was for the fiscal year 1894; and the last printed budget was for 1896-97, which was approved by the Queen Regent
in August, 1896.
Subsequent to this date, according to the statements made to us by foreign bankers, the Cortes authorized two colonial loans of $14,000,000 (silver) cash, known as Series A and Series B. The proceeds were to be used in suppressing the insurrection.
Both were to be secured by a first lien on the receipts of the Manila custom-house.
Series A is said to have been sold in Spain
and the proceeds to have been paid in the colonial office, but no part of them has ever reached the Philippines.
Possibly a portion of it was used in sending out the 25,000 troops which came from Spain
to the Philippines in the autumn of 1896.
Series B was offered for sale in Manila
, but was not taken.
An effort was then made to obtain subscribers in the provinces, but with little or no success.
The government then notified the depositors in the Public Savings Bank (a branch of the treasury department similar to the postal savings bureaus in other countries) that their deposits would no longer be redeemed in cash, but only in Series B bonds.
Some depositors were frightened and took bonds; others declined to do so. Then came the blockade of Manila
, and all business was practically suspended.
Americanizing the Islands.
On Jan. 17, 1899, President McKinley
his Cabinet the appointment of the following commission to visit and report on the affairs of the archipelago: Messrs. Jacob G. Schurman
, president of Cornell University; Admiral George Dewey
, U. S. N.; Maj.-Gen. Elwell S. Otis
, U. S. A.; Col. Charles Denby
; and Prof. Dean C. Worcester
, of the University
The report of this commission was sent to Congress in February, 1900.
After reviewing the situation the commission reached the following conclusions:
1. The United States
cannot withdraw from the Philippine Islands
We are there and duty binds us to remain.
There is no escape from our responsibility to the Filipinos and to mankind for the government of the archipelago and the amelioration of the condition of the inhabitants.
2. The Filipinos
are wholly unprepared for independence, and if independence were given to them they could not maintain it.
3. Under the third head is included a copy of Admiral Dewey
's letter to Senator Lodge
, which was read in the Senate the other day, denying Aguinaldo
's claim that he was promised independence.
4. There being no Philippine nation, but only a collection of different peoples, there is no general public opinion in the archipelago; but the men of property and education, who alone interest themselves in public affairs, in general recognize as indispensable American authority, guidance, and protection.
5. Congress should, at the earliest practicable time, provide for the Philippines the form of government herein recommended or another equally liberal and beneficent.
6. Pending any action on the part of Congress, the commission recommends that the President
put in operation this scheme of civil government in such parts of the archipelago as are at peace.
7. So far as the finances of the Philippines permit, public education should be promptly established, and, when established, free to all.
8. The greatest care should be taken in the selection of officials for administration.
They should be men of the highest character and fitness, and partisan politics should be entirely separated from the government of the Philippines.
On the return of this commission the President
appointed a second one, and prescribed their duties in the following letter of instructions:
Code of Civil government.
On Jan. 31, 1901, the Taft Commission enacted into law a code of civil government for the islands, thus outlined in the official report of the commission:
of these islands sometimes include a hundred or more square miles.
They are divided into so-called barrios, or wards, which are often very numerous and widely separated.
In order that the interests of the inhabitants of each ward may be represented in the council, on the one hand, and that the body may not become so numerous as to be
unwieldy, on the other, it is provided that the councillors shall be few in number (eighteen to eight, according to the number of inhabitants), and shall be elected at large; that where the wards are more numerous than are the councillors the wards shall be grouped into districts, and that one councillor shall be in charge of each ward or district with power to appoint a representative from among the inhabitants of every ward thus assigned to him, so that he may the more readily keep in touch with conditions in that portion of the township which it is his duty to supervise and represent.
The subject of taxation has been made the object of especially careful attention.
The effect of the old Spanish system was to throw practically the whole burden on those who could least afford to bear it. The poor paid the taxes, and the rich, in many instances, went free, or nearly so, unless they were unfortunate enough to hold office and thus incur responsibility for the taxes of others which they failed to collect.
There was a considerable number of special taxes, many of which were irritating and offensive to the people, and yielded at the best a pitifully small revenue.
In dealing with the question of taxation it has been our purpose, first, to do away with all taxes which, through irritating those from whom they were collected or through the small amount of resulting revenue, were manifestly objectionable; second, to remove the so-called industrial taxes, except where levied on industries requiring police supervision; third, to abolish special taxes, such as the tax for lighting and cleaning the municipality and the tax for the repair of roads and streets; fourth, to provide abundant funds for the legitimate needs of the township by a system which should adjust the burden of contribution with some reference to the resources of those called upon to bear it. To this end provision has been made for a moderate tax on land and improvements thereon.
It is reasonably certain that at the outset there will be more or less opposition to this tax. This opposition will come from the rich, who have thus far escaped their fair share of the burden of taxation, and who will naturally be more or less unwilling to assume it. It is believed, however, that this opposition will be transient and will disappear as the people come to realize that the payment of taxes results in direct benefit to the communities in which they live and to themselves individually.
The exact rate of taxation on land and improvements is left to the several municipal councils, within certain limits.
They may reduce it to one-fourth of 1 per cent. of the assessed valuation or raise it to one-half of 1 per cent.; but in any event they must spend the amount accruing from a tax of at least one-fourth of 1 per cent. on free public schools.
Education is the crying need of the inhabitants of this country, and it is hoped and believed that the funds resulting from the land tax will be sufficient to enable us to establish an adequate primary-school system.
Careful and, it is believed, just provisions have been made for the determination of values and for the protection of the rights of property owners.
In the matter of collection of revenues a complete innovation has been introduced, which, it is believed, will be productive of satisfactory results.
It is intended to create for the islands a centralized system for the collection and disbursement of revenues, the head officer
of which shall be the insular treasurer at Manila
It is proposed to establish subordinate offices in the several departments, and others, subordinate in turn to the several department al offices, in the various provinces.
All revenues within any given province, whether for the municipal, provincial, departmental, or insular treasury, will be collected by deputies of the provincial treasurer, who will immediately turn over to the several municipalities all funds collected for them.
It is believed that by this means a much higher degree of honesty and efficiency can be secured than would be the case were the collectors appointed by the municipalities or chosen by suffrage, while it will be of great convenience to the taxpayer to be able to meet his obligations to all departments of the government at one time, and thus escape annoyance at the hands of a multiplicity of officials, each of whom is collecting revenue for a different end. Furthermore, the provincial treasurer will know the exact amount paid in to each municipal treasury, and
will thus have a valuable check on the finances of every one in his province.
In order to meet the situation presented by the fact that a number of the pueblos
have not as yet been organized since the American
occupation, while some 250 others are organized under a comparatively simple form of government and fifty-five under a much more complicated form on which the new law is based, the course of procedure which must be followed in order to bring these various towns under the provisions of the new law has been prescribed in detail, and every effort has been made to provide against unnecessary friction in carrying out the change.
In view of the disturbed conditions which still prevail in some parts of the archipelago it has been provided that the military government should be given control of the appointment and arming of the municipal police, and that in all provinces where civil provincial government hams not been established by the commission the duties of the provincial governor, provincial treasurer, and provincial “fiscal” (prosecuting attorney) shall be performed by military officers assigned by the military governor
for these purposes.
The law does not apply to the city of Manila
or to the settlements of non-Christian tribes, because it is believed that in both cases special conditions require special legislation.
The question as to the best methods of dealing with the non-Christian tribes is one of no little complexity.
The number of these tribes is greatly in excess of the number of civilized tribes, although the total number of Mohammedans and pagans is much less than the number of Christanized natives.
Still, the non-Christian tribes are very far from forming an insignificant element of the population.
They differ from each other widely, both in their present social, moral, and intellectual state and in the readiness with which they adapt themselves to the demands of modern civilization.
The necessity of meeting this problem has been brought home to the commission by conditions in the province of Benguet.
, who inhabit this province, are a pacific, industrious, and relatively honest and truthful people, who have never taken any part in the insurrection, and who have rendered our forces valuable service by furnishing them with information, serving as carriers, and aiding them in other ways.
They certainly deserve well of us. They are, however, illiterate pagans, and it is stated on good authority that there are not three Igorrotes in the province who can read or write.
They are uncomplaining, and, when wronged, fly to the mountain fastnesses in the centre of the island, instead of seeking redress.
The conditions in Benguet may be taken as fairly typical of those which prevail in many other provinces, populated in whole or in part by harmless and amiable but ignorant and superstitious wild tribes.
The commission has already passed an act for the establishment of township governments in this province, and it is believed that this measure will serve as a model for other acts necessitated by similar conditions in other provinces.
The division of the province into townships and wards is provided for. The government of each township is nominally vested in a president and council, the latter composed of one representative from each ward of the township.
The president and vice-president are chosen at large by a viva voce vote of the male residents of the township eighteen or more years of age, and the councillors are similarly chosen by the residents of the several barrios.
The difficulties arising from the complete illiteracy of the people are met by providing for the appointment of a secretary for each town, who shall speak and write Ilocano, which the Igorrotes understand, and English or Spanish.
He is made the means of communication between the people and the provincial governor, makes and keeps all town records, and does all clerical work.
The president is the chief executive of the township, and its treasurer as well.
He is also the presiding officer of a court consisting of himself and two councillors chosen by the council to act with him. This court has power to hear and adjudge violations of local ordinances.
It is believed that, by encouraging the municipal councils to attempt to make ordinances, and then giving them the benefits of the criticism and suggestions of the provincial governor with reference to such
attempts, they may be gradually taught much-needed lessons in self-government, while sufficient power is given to the governor to enable him to nullify harmful measures and to take the initiative when a council fails to act.
are tillers of the soil, and a few of the inhabitants of each township have acquired very considerable wealth.
Civil government inaugurated.
On July 4, 1901, the authorities in Manila
ceremoniously inaugurated civil government in the Philippines.
The President had previously appointed Judge Taft civil governor
of the islands, and Gen. Adna R. Chaffee
(q. v.) military governor
in succession to Gen. Arthur MacARTHURrthur
was escorted by Generals MacArthur
from the palace to a great temporary tribune opposite the Plaza Palacio
Standing on a projecting centre of the Tribuna, Judge Taft
took the oath of office, which was administered by Chief-Justice Arellano
. Governor Taft
was then introduced by General MacArthur
, a salute being fired by the guns of Fort Santiago.
A feature of the inaugural address of Governor Taft
was the announcement that on Sept. 1, 1901, the Philippine Commission would be increased by the appointment of three native members, Dr. Wardo Detavera
, Benito Legarda
, and Jose Luzuriaga
Before Sept. 1 departments would exist as follows, heads having been arranged thus: Interior Commissioner
; Commerce and Police Commissioner
; Justice and Finance Commissioner
; Public Instruction Commissioner
Of the twenty-seven provinces organized, Governor Taft
said the insurrection still existed in five.
This would cause the continuance of the military government in these provinces.
Sixteen additional provinces were reported without insurrection, but as yet they had not been organized.
Four provinces were not ready for civil government.
predicted that with the concentration of troops into larger garrisons it would be necessary for the people to assist the police in the preservation of order.
Fleet launches would be procured, which would facilitate communication among the provinces as well as aid the postal and revenue departments.
In connection with educational efforts, Governor Taft
said that adults should be educated by an observation of American methods, He said that there was a reasonable hope that Congress would provide a tariff that would assist in the development of the Philippines instead of an application of the United States
According to the civil governor
, there was an unexpended balance in the insular treasury of $3,700,000, and an anual income of $10,000,000.
The reading of President McKinley
's message of congratulation was enthusiastically cheered.
The entire front of the Tribuna, a block long, was decorated with flags, and several hundred officers, with their families and friends, were seated therein.
, Civil Governor Taft
, and Military Governor Chaffee
, with the other generals.
and his staff, the United States
commissioners and the justices of the Supreme Court were present.
The mass of the people stood in the park opposite.
The Filipino leaders were there, but there were more Americans
than Filipinos present.
The transfer of the military authority to General Chaffee
was carried out in the presence of the generals in General MacArthur
There was no formality.
Military and naval operations.
For an account of the principal operations of the United States forces against Spain
and the Filipino insurgents the reader is referred to Aguinaldo
, War with, and other readily suggested titles.
In his last annual report as military commander of the Division
of the Philippines, General MacArthur
gave the folowing statistics of military operations from May 5, 1900, to June 30, 1901: 1,062 contacts between American troops and insurgents, involving the following casualties: Americans
—killed, 245; wounded, 490; captured, 118; missing, 20.
Insurgents—killed, 2,854; wounded.
1,193; captured, 6,572; surrendered, 23,095.
During the same period the following material was captured from or surrendered by the insurgents: rifles, 15,693; rifle ammunition, 296,365 rounds; revolvers, 868; bolos, 3,516; cannon, 122; cannon ammunition, 10,270 rounds.
Chronology of the War.
The following is a list of the more important events from
the outbreak of the insurrection to October, 1901:
Feb. 4, 1899.
, under Aguinaldo
, attacked the American
defences at Manila
assumed the offensive the next day, and in the fighting which ensued for several days the American
loss was fifty-seven killed and 215 wounded. Five hundred Filipinos were killed, 1,000 wounded, and 500 captured.
Feb. 10. Battle of Caloocan
March 13-19. General Wheaton
attacked and occupied Pasig
March 21-30. General MacArthur
advanced towards and captured Malolos
Military operations were partially suspended during the rainy season.
Meanwhile the southern islands were occupied by the American
by General Miller
, Feb. 11; Cebu
by the Navy, March 27; and Negros, Mindanao, and the smaller islands subsequently.
A treaty was concluded with the Sultan of Sulu, in which his rights were guaranteed, and he acknowledged the supremacy of the United States
With the advance of the dry season military operations on a much larger scale than heretofore were begun, the army of occupation having been reinforced by 30,000 men.
The commission issued a proclamation promising “The amplest liberty of self-government, reconcilable with just, stable, effective, and economical administration, and compatible with the sovereign rights and obligations of the United States
April 22–May 17. General Lawton
led an expedition to San Isidro
April 25–May 5. General MacArthur
captured Calumpit and San Fernando
June 10-19. Generals Lawton
advanced south to Imnus.
June 26. General Hall
Aug. 16. General MacArthur
Sept. 28. General MacArthur
, after several days' fighting, occupied Porac.
Oct. 1-10. General Schwan
's column operated in the southern part of Luzon
and captured Rosario and Malabon.
The Philippine commission appointed by the President
, consisting of J. G. Schurman
, Prof. Dean Worcester
, Charles Denby
, Admiral Dewey
, and General Otis
, which began its labors at Manila
, March 20, and returned to the United States
in September, submitted its preliminary report to the President
A military expedition on board transports, under General Wheaton
, captured Dagupan.
Dec. 25. Gen. S. B. M. Young
appointed military governor of northwestern Luzon
The Filipino general Santa Ana
, with a force of insurgents, attacked the garrison at Subig; the Americans
successfully repelled the attack.
Dec. 27. Colonel Lockett
, with a force of 2,500 men, attacked a force of insurgents near Montalban; many Filipinos were killed.
Jan. 1, 1900.
General advance of the American
troops in southern Luzon
; Cabuyac, on Laguna de Bay
, taken by two battalions of the 39th Infantry; two Americans
killed and four wounded.
Jan. 7. Lieutenant Gillmore
and the party of Americans
held as prisoners by the Filipinos arrive at Manila
A troop of the 3d Cavalry defeated the insurgents near San Fernando
de la Union; the Americans
lose two killed and three wounded. General Otis
reports all of Cavite
province as occupied by General Wheaton
Jan. 17. Lieutenant McRae
, with a company of the 3d Infantry, defeated an insurgent force under General Hizon
and captured rifles and ammunition near Mabalacat.
Feb. 5. Five thousand Filipino insurgents attacked American garrison at Duroga and were repulsed.
Expedition under Generals Bates
to crush rebellion in Camarines.
March. Civil commission appointed by President McKinley
, Dean C. Worcester
, Luke E. Wright
, Henry C. Ide
, Bernard Moses
). They reached the Philippines in April.
April 7. General Otis
May 5. Gen. Pantelon Garcia
, the chief Filipino insurgent in central Luzon
, is captured.
Insurgents capture San Miguel
de Mayamo, five Americans
wounded, and Capt. Charles D. Reports
made a prisoner.
June 8. Gen. Pio del Pilar
is captured at San Pedro Macati.
June 12. General Grant
reports the capture of an insurgent stronghold near San Miguel
June 21. General MacArthur
issues a proclamation of amnesty.
Nov. 14. Major Bell
Brisk fighting near San Jacinto
. Maj. John A. Logan
Nov. 24. General Otis
announced to the War Department that the whole of central Luzon
was in the hands of the United States
authorities; that the president of the Filipino congress, the Filipino secretary of state, and treasurer were captured, and that only small bands of the enemy were in arms, retreating in different directions, while Aguinaldo
, a fugitive with a small escort, was being pursued towards the mountains.
Bautista, president of the Filipino congress, surrenders to General MacArthur
The navy captured Vigan on the coast.
, island of Panay, the 18th and 19th Regiments drive the Filipinos out of their trenches; a captain and one private killed.
Nov. 28. Colonel Bell
disperses the insurgents in the Dagupan Valley
Bayombong, in the province of Nueva Viscaya, defended by 800 armed Filipinos, surrenders to Lieutenant Monroe
and fifty men of the 4th Cavalry.
Dec. 3. Gen. Gregorio del Pilar
, one of the Filipino insurgent leaders, is killed in a fight near Cervantes
Vigan, held by American troops under Lieutenant-Colonel Parker
, attacked by 800 Filipinos; they are driven off, leaving forty killed and thirty-two prisoners; the Americans
lose eight men.
Dec. 11. General Tierona
, the Filipino insurgent commander in Cagayan, surrenders the entire province to Captain McCalla
, of the Newark
The President directed General Otis
to open the ports of the Philippines to commerce.
Dec. 19. General Lawton
was killed in attacking San Mateo
Jan. 22, 1901.
Treaty with Spain
for the purchase of the island of Cibutu and Cagayan for $100,000 ratified by United States Senate.
Petition from Filipino federal party praying for civil government presented to the Senate.
March 1. Twenty-one officers and 120 bolomen surrender.
captured by General Funston
takes oath of allegiance.
April 20. General Tinio
June 15. United States
Philippine Commission appoints Arellano
, and six other Supreme Court judges.
Promulgation of President McKinley
's order establishing civil government and appointing William H. Taft
the first governor.
June 23. General MacArthur
is succeeded by General Chaffee
Civil government established.
July 24. General Zunbano
with twenty-nine officers and 518 men surrender at Zabayas.
Massacre of forty-eight Americans at Balangiga
October. General Hughes
, with a portion of the 9th United States Infantry, sent to Samar
; burns Balangiga
and pursues the insurgents.