State of Ohio,
Was first explored by La Salle
about 1680, his object being trade and not settlement.
Conflicting claims to territory in that region led to the French and Indian War
(q. v.). The
French held possession of the region north of the Ohio River
until the conquest of Canada
in 1760 and the surrender of vast territory by the French
to the English
After the Revolution disputes arose
between several States as to their respective rights to the soil in that region.
These were settled by the cession of the territory to the United States
by the respective States, Virginia
reserving 3,709,848 acres near the rapids of the Ohio
, and Connecticut
a tract of 3,666,921 acres near Lake Erie
In 1800 jurisdiction over these tracts was relinquished to the national government, the States retaining the right to the soil, while the Indian
titles to the rest of the State
were bought up by the national government.
In the autumn of 1785 United States troops began the erection of a fort on the right bank of the Muskingum
, at its mouth.
The commander of the troops was Maj. John Doughty
, and he named it Fort Harmar, in honor of his commander, Col. Josiah Harmar
It was the first military post of the kind built in Ohio
The outlines formed a regular pentagon, embracing three-fourths of an acre.
United States troops occupied Fort Harmar until 1790, when they left it to construct Fort Washington
, on the site of Cincinnati
After the treaty of Greenville
it was abandoned.
In 1788 Gen. Rufus Putnam
, at the head of a colony from Massachusetts
, founded a settlement at the mouth of the Muskingum River
, and named it Marietta
, in honor of Marie Antoinette
, the Queen
of Louis XVI.
A stockade fort was immediately built as a protection against hostile Indians
, and named Campus Martius
In the autumn of the same
year a party of settlers seated themselves upon Symmes's purchase
(q. v.), and founded Columbus
, near the mouth of the Little Miami.
was soon afterwards built, a little below, on the site of Cincinnati
was soon afterwards organized into a separate territorial government.
The settlers were annoyed by hostile Indians until Wayne
's victories in 1794 and the treaty at Greenville
gave peace to that region.
In 1799 the first territorial legislature assembled, and Ohio
was admitted into the Union
as a State April 30, 1802.
From 1800 to 1810 the seat of government was at Chillicothe
For a while it was at Zanesville
, then again at Chillicothe
, and finally, in 1816, Columbus
was made the permanent seat of the State
Its people were active on the frontiers in the War
The President called on Gov. R. J. Meigs
for 1,200 militia to be prepared to march to Detroit
Gov. William Hull
, of Michigan
, was persuaded to accept the commission of brigadier-general and take command of them.
's call was generously responded to, and at the mouth of the Mad River
, near Dayton, O.
, the full number had assembled at the close of April, 1812.
They were organized into three regiments, and elected their field-officers before the arrival of Hull
The colonels of the respective regiments were Duncan McArthur
, James Findlay
, and Lewis Cass
The 4th Regiment of regulars, stationed at Vincennes
, under Lieut.-Col. James Miller
, had been ordered to join the militia at Dayton
The command of the troops was surrendered to Hull
by Governor Meigs
on May 25, 1812.
They began their march northward June
1; and at Urbana
they were joined by Miller
's 4th Regiment, which, under Colonel Boyd
, had participated in the battle of Tippecanoe
(q. v.). They encountered
heavy rains and terrible fatigue all the way to Detroit
, their destination.
See Hull, William.
In March, 1851, a convention revised the
State constitution, and it was ratified in June; but a new constitution, framed by a convention in 1873, was rejected by the people at an election in 1874.
At the beginning of the Civil War
, the governor of Ohio
, William Dennison, Jr.
, was an avowed opponent of the slave system.
The legislature met on Jan. 7, 1861.
In his message the governor explained his refusal to surrender alleged fugitive slaves on the requisition of the authorities of Kentucky
; denied the right of secession; affirmed the loyalty of his State; suggested the repeal of the fugitive slave law as the most effectual way of procuring the repeal of the personal liberty acts; and called for the repeal of the laws of the Southern States
which interfered with the constitional rights of the citizens of the freelabor States.
“Determined to do no wrong,” he said, “we will not contentedly submit to wrong.”
The legislature denounced (Jan. 12) the secession movements; promised for the people of Ohio
their firm support of the national government; and, on the 14th, pledged “the entire power and resources of the State
for a strict maintenance of the Constitution
and laws of the general government by whomsoever administered.”
These promises and pledges were fulfilled to the utmost, the State
furnishing to the National
army during the war 317,133 soldiers.
Population in 1890, 3,672,316; in 1900, 4,157,545.
See United States, Ohio,