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State of Vermont,

First settled by white people in 1724, by the erection of Fort Dummer near the (present) site of

State seal of Vermont.

Brattleboro, then supposed to be in Massachusetts. The portion of country between the Connecticut River and Lake Champlain was known as “New Hampshire grants” (see New Hampshire). At the middle of January (15-17), 1777, the people of the “Grants” assembled in convention at Windsor, and declared the “Grants” an independent State, with the title of Vermont. The territory was yet claimed by New York. At the same time the convention adopted a petition to the Continental Congress, setting forth reasons for their position of independence, and asking for admission into the confederacy of free and independent States and seats for delegates in the Congress. This petition, presented to Congress April 8, 1777, was dismissed by resolutions on June 30, in one of which it was declared “That the independent government attempted to be established by the people styling themselves inhabitants of the New Hampshire Grants can derive no countenance or justification from the act of Congress declaring the United Colonies to be independent of the crown of Great Britain, nor from any other act or resolution of Congress.” The Vermonters had adopted

Old-fashioned sugar camp, Vermont.

[42] a constitution modelled on that of Pennsylvania, and on July 8 a convention at Windsor adopted it. Under this frame of

Trees Tapped for maple sugar, Vermont

government Vermont successfully maintained its independence and sovereignty until 1791.

In July, 1780, the mysterious movements of Governor Chittenden, Ethan and Ira Allen, and other leaders in Vermont, excited grave suspicions of their loyalty, because of their secret correspondence with the British. In June the Congress had appointed a committee to visit Vermont, and had declared their disapprobation of the proceedings of the people in setting up an independent government before a decision of Congress should be made concerning their right to separate. The governor of New York suspected a combination against his State, and intimated, in a letter to a member of Congress, that New York might be compelled to use all her resources for the defence of that State. He also called the attention of Washington to the subject; and he especially condemned the conduct of Ethan Allen, whose motives he suspected. General Schuyler, who had been ordered by Washington to arrest Allen, wrote to Governor Clinton at the close of October, saying, “The conduct of some of the people to the eastward is alarmingly mysterious. A flag, under pretext of settling a cartel with Vermont, has been on the Grants. Allen has disbanded his militia, and the enemy, in number upwards of 1,600, are rapidly advancing towards us. . . . Entreat General Washington for more Continental troops; and let me beg of your excellency to hasten up here.” There was general alarm concerning the perplexing movements of the Vermonters, which, in the light of subsequent history, was only a piece of coquetry for their benefit. The shrewd diplomats of Vermont were working for a twofold object—namely, to keep back the British from a threatened invasion by a show of friendly feeling, and to so alarm the Congress as to induce them to admit Vermont into the Union.

After the ratification of the Articles of Confederation, in 1781, Congress offered to admit it, with a considerable [43] curtailment of its boundaries. The people refused to come in on such terms, and for ten years they remained outside of the Union. Finally, on Jan. 10, 1791, a convention at Bennington adopted the national Constitution, and Vermont, having agreed to pay to the State of New York $30,000 for territory claimed by that State, was, by resolution of Congress passed on Feb. 18, admitted into the Union on March 4, to have two representatives in Congress until an apportionment of representatives should be made.

In the War of 1812-15 the governor refused to call out the militia, and forbade troops to leave the State; but Vermont volunteers took an active part in the battle at Plattsburg in 1814. During the troubles in Canada (1837-38), sympathizing Vermonters to the number of fully 600, went over to the help of the insurgents, but were soon disarmed. During the Civil War Vermont furnished to the National army 35.256 troops. Population in 1890, 332,422; in 1900, 346,641.

State governors.

Assumes Office.Assumes office.
Thomas Chittenden1777Ryland Fletcher1856
Moses Robinson1789Hiland Hall1858
Thomas Chittenden1790Erastus Fairbanks1860
Paul Brigham1797Frederick Holbrook1861
Isaac Tichenor1797J. Gregory Smith1863
Israel Smith1807Paul Dlllingham1865
Isaac Tichenor1808John B. Page1867
Jonas Galusha1809Peter T. Washburn1869
Martin Chittenden1813G. W. Hendee1870
Jonas Galusha1815John W. Stewart1870
Richard Skinner1820Julius Converse1872
C. P. Van Ness1823Asahel Peck1874
Ezra Butler1826Horace Fairbanks1876
Samuel C. Crafts1828Redfield Proctor1878
William A. Palmer1831Roswell Farnham1880
S. H. Jenison1835John L. Barstow1882
Charles Paine1841Samuel E. Pingree1884
John Mattocks1843Ebenezer J. Ormsbee1886
William Slade1844William P. Dillingham1888
Horace Eaton1846Carroll S. Page1890
Carlos Coolidge1848Levi K. Fuller1892
Charles K. Williams1850Urban A. Woodbury1894
Erastus Fairbanks1852Josiah Grout1896
John S. Robinson1853Edward C. Smith1898
Stephen Royce1854William W. Stickney1900

United States Senators.

NameNo. of Congress.Term.
Stephen R. Bradley2d to 4th1791 to 1795
Moses Robinson2d to 4th1791 to 1796
Isaac Tichenor4th to 5th1796 to 1797
Elijah Paine4th to 7th1795 to 1801
Nathaniel Chipman5th to 8th1797 to 1803
Stephen R. Bradley7th to 13th1801 to 1813
Israel Smith8th to 10th1803 to 1807
Jonathan Robinson10th to 14th1807 to 1815
Dudley Chace13th to 15th1813 to 1817
Isaac Tichenor14th to 17th1815 to 1821
James Fisk15th1817 to 1818
William A. Palmer15th to 19th1818 to 1825
Horatio Seymour17th to 23d1821 to 1833

United States Senators— continued.

Name.No. of Congress.Term.
Dudley Chace19th to 22d1825 to 1831
Samuel Prentiss22d to 27th1831 to 1842
Benjamin Swift23d to 26th1833 to 1839
Samuel S. Phelps26th to 32d1839 to 1851
Samuel C. Crafts27th1842 to 1843
William Upham28th to 33d1843 to 1853
Samuel S. Phelps33d1853 to 1854
Solomon Foot32d to 39th1851 to 1866
Lawrence Brainerd33d1854 to 1855
Jacob Collamer34th to 39th1855 to 1865
George F. Edmunds39th to 52d1866 to 1891
Luke P. Poland39th1865
Justin S. Morrill40th to 56th1867 to 1900
Redfield Proctor52d to ——1891 to ——
William P. Dillingham56th to ——1900 to ——

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