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A territory of the United States between lat. 31° and 37° N., and between long. 109° and 114° 40′ W. Utah and Nevada lie on the north, on the east is New Mexico, Mexico on the south, California and Nevada on the west. It contains about 113,916 square miles. It has eleven counties—Apache, Cochiso, Coconimo, Gila, Graham, Maricopa, Mohave, Pima, Pinal, Yavapai, and Yuma. Population, 1880, 40,440; 1890, 59,620; 1900, 122,931. Capital, Phoenix.

First explorations made by Vasquez Coronado, sent from Mexico by Viceroy Mendozo......1540

Spaniards again enter and establish a military post where Tucson now stands......1580

Jesuit missionaries on Santa Cruz River, about......1600

Spaniards from Mexico form settlements from Tucson to the Mexican line, and partly occupy the country for nearly 150 years. They are finally driven out by the Indians before......1821

First hunters and trappers from the United States probably visited Arizona in......1824

All Arizona north of the river Gila is included in cession by Mexico to United States by treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo......Feb. 2, 1848

First American settlers were persons on their way to California, who stopped on the Gila to engage in stock-raising......1849

Gadsden purchase brought to the United States all of Arizona south of the Gila......Dec. 30, 1853

Act of Congress organizing the Territory......Feb. 24, 1863 [275]

Gov. John N. Goodwin, in camp at Navajo Springs, formally organizes the territorial government and fixes its temporary seat near Fort Whipple......Dec. 29, 1863

First territorial legislature adopts a mining law and the so-called Howell code of general laws; sits......Sept. 26–Nov. 10, 1864

Tueson made the capital by a majority of one vote......1867

Arizona a military district by order of General Halleck......October, 1867

Act to establish public schools in the Territory and a board of education and levying a tax of 10 cents on each $100......1868

Major J. W. Powell, for the Smithsonian Institution with a party of ten, in four boats, descends the cañon of the Colorado from Green River to Rio Virgin......May–August, 1869

Arizona and southern California made a military department, headquarters at Fort Whipple......1869

Forty citizens and 100 Papagos from Tucson and vicinity massacre eighty-five Indian prisoners of war (seventy-seven of them women and children) at Camp Grant, and capture thirty, who are sold to the Papagos as slaves. (One hundred and eight persons were afterwards tried for murder and acquitted)......April, 1871

Arizona diamond swindle.” Excitement over supposed diamond fields in Arizona; the San Francisco and New York Mining and Commercial Company, with a capital of $10,000,000, formed; Clarence King, United States geologist, finds the field “salted” with rough diamonds from Africa, Brazil, etc.......1872

A long war waged by General Crook with hostile Apaches in Arizona ends by surrender of the Tontos, Hualapais and Yavapais in 1873, and other bands in......1874

Mormon colonists from Utah settle in Apache county......March, 1876

Prescott chosen as capital......1877

New public-school law enacted......1883

Raid of Loco's band of Chiricahua Indians in the valley of the Gila begins......April 19, 1883

Acts to establish an insane asylum at Phoenix, a normal school at Tempe, and the University of Arizona at Tucson......January–March, 1885

Act providing that no polygamist or bigamist shall vote or hold office......January–March, 1885

Congress appropriates $2,000 to repair the ruin of Casa Grande, reserving from settlement the entire site of the ancient city......March 2, 1889

State capital removed from Prescott to Phoenix......Feb. 4, 1890

Forty lives lost by broken mining-dam on the Hassayampa River......Feb. 23, 1890

Friday after Feb. 1 each year made a legal holiday as Labor Day......Jan. 19–March 19, 1891

Yuma devastated by flood......Feb. 27, 1891

Eleven bills submitted to Governor Zulick for approval, March 21, 1889; unsigned, as sixty consecutive days had passed since the organization of the legislature. The territorial Supreme Court declared the session legal for sixty days of actual legislative work, and the bills became laws without the governor's approval......1891

Discovery of a lake forming in Salton Sink from the overflow of the Colorado River......June 29, 1891

Constitutional convention meets at Phoenix, Sept. 7, and adopts a complete constitution......Oct. 2, 1891

Ex-Gov. A. P. K. Safford dies at Tarpon Springs, Fla.......Dec. 16, 1891

Land reclaimed by irrigation, 343,000 acres up to......1892

[Capable of being reclaimed under the present water development, 1,730,000 acres. Supposed amount that can be reclaimed with the water available in the Territory, 24,000,000 acres.]

Indians attack Nogales Aug. .12, are pursued by United States cavalry, three killed, thirty captured......Aug. 17, 1896

New capitol finished......August, 1900


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