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New Mexico,

A territory of the United States, lying between lat. 31° 20′ and 37° N., and long. 103° 2′ and 109° 2′ W. It is bounded on the north by Colorado, east by Texas, south by Texas and Mexico, and west by Arizona. Area, 122,580 square miles. Population, 1890, 153,593; 1900, 195,310. Capital, Santa Fe.

Francisco Vasquez de Coronado, with 400 Spaniards and 800 Indians, makes an expedition from Mexico to the Pueblo Indian villages near Santa Fe, which he conquers, and explores the surrounding region......July, 1540

Augustin Rodriguez, a Franciscan friar of San Bartolome, Mexico, with two associates and an escort of twelve soldiers, ascends the Rio Grande, and 8 miles from the site of Albuquerque the party separate, the soldiers returning to Mexico, the three friars remaining......August, 1581

Don Antonio Espejo, with a relief party, ascends the Rio Grande, and, finding the missionaries located among the Pueblo Indians in 1581 had been killed, he returns to San Bartolome by way of the Pecos River......1582-83

Don Juan de Oñate, a wealthy citizen of Zacatecas, under authority from Don Luis de Valasco, viceroy of New Spain, settles with a colony of 130 families, ten friars, and a number of soldiers in the valley of the Chama River, just above its junction with the Rio Grande......1598

Santa Fe founded under the title La Ciudad Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco......1605

Religious persecution of the Indians by the Spanish, who whip, imprison, and hang forty natives who would not renounce their old faith, results in an unsuccessful revolt of Indians......1640

Native Indian tribes unite in a project to make a simultaneous attack on the Spanish settlements, but the plan is discovered and broken up by Governor Concha, who arrests and imprisons the leaders, hanging nine, and selling the others into slavery......1650

Four Indians hanged and forty-three whipped and enslaved on conviction by a Spanish tribunal of bewitching the superior of the Franciscan monastery at San Yldefonso......1675

Pueblo Indians under Pope reduced to abject slavery by the Spanish, rise in rebellion. Their plan of a general massacre on Aug. 10, 1680, being discovered, they begin two days earlier a massacre of the Spanish, who are obliged to flee the country, the Pueblos taking possession of Santa Fe......Aug. 21, 1680

New Mexico reconquered by the Spanish under Diego de Vargas Zapata Lujan......1692

Severe famine arising in the Spanish settlements, the Indians of fourteen pueblos enter upon a desolating but unsuccessful war for the expulsion of the Spanish......1696

Albuquerque founded during the administration of Duke of Albuquerque......1701-10

Lieutenant-Colonel Carrisco discovers the Santa Rita mines near Silver City......1800

Baptiste Lalande, a Frenchman from Kaskaskia, reaches Santa Fe with a stock of merchandise, which he disposes of at a very large profit......1804

James Pursley, a Kentuckian, leaves St. Louis in 1802, and after three years wandering reaches Santa Fe......1805

Lieut. Zebulon M. Pike, of the United States army, builds a fort on the Rio del Norte on Spanish soil, supposing it to be the Red River and American possessions, during the month of Feb. 1807. With his party he is taken to Santa Fe by a Spanish escort, where they arrive March 3. From there he is sent to Chihuahua under escort, arriving April 2, and has an audience with the commanding general Don Nemecio Salcedo. After some detention he is sent forward, reaching San Antonio, Tex., June 7, and Natchitoches......July 1, 1807

Captains Glenn, Becknell, and Stephen Cooper visit Santa Fe with small parties and a limited quantity of goods for trade......1821-22

First public school law in New Mexico; action of the provincial deputation: “Resolved, that the said ayuntamientos be officially notified to complete the formation of primary public schools as soon as possible according to the circumstances of each community” ......April 27, 1822 [449]

Francisco Xavier Chaves, appointed political chief, relieving Facundo Malgares, the last governor of New Mexico under Spanish rule......July 5, 1822

The United States makes overtures to New Mexico to join the American Union. Bartolome Baca, political chief......1824

First wagon-trains from Independence, Mo., to Santa, Fe......1824

New Mexico made a territory of the republic of Mexico......July 6, 1824

Santa Fe trail made an authorized road by act of Congress; the bill introduced by Thomas H. Benton passed......January, 1825

Caravans being often attacked by Indians, United States government details four companies as an escort on the Santa Fe road......1828

Old Placer gold-mines discovered about 30 miles southwest of Santa Fe......1828

Oxen first used on Santa Fe trail......1830

A Spanish newspaper, El Crepusculo, published at Taos......1835

New Mexican constitution goes into effect, changing the territory into a department, centralizing power, and imposing extra taxes. The new system being obnoxious, the arrest and imprisonment of a local judicial officer on what the people considered a false charge provokes a revolution, Aug. 1, 1837, which is central at Santa Cruz, but which is soon quelled by Gen. Manuel Armijo......1837

New Placer gold-mines discovered......1839

Expedition under General McLeod sets out from Austin, Texas, June 18, 1841, to ascertain the feeling of the New Mexican people with respect to a union with Texas. When near San Miguel the force is met by Damacio Salazar and his Mexican troops seized and imprisoned at San Miguel, from whence they are marched under guard to the city of Mexico......Oct. 17, 1841

President Santa Ana, by decree, closes the frontier custom-house at Taos, Aug. 7, 1843, but repeals the act......March 31, 1844

Gen. Stephen W. Kearney, in command of a body of United States troops known as the “Army of the West,” enters Santa Fe and takes formal possession......Aug. 18, 1846

General Kearney establishes a government for the Territory of New Mexico, with Santa Fe as capital, proclaiming himself provisional governor......Aug. 22, 1846

Fort Marcy established near Santa Fe......Aug. 23, 1846

General Kearney promulgates the

Kearney code of laws,” and proclaims Charles Bent governor of the Territory......Sept. 22, 1846

Donaciano Vigil becomes acting governor in the room of Gov. Charles Bent, who is assassinated at Taos......Jan. 19, 1847

Revolt against the United States government in New Mexico, planned by Dons Diego Archuleta and Tomas Ortiz, breaks out at Taos, but is suppressed by American troops under Col. Sterling Price, and Governor Montoya, prominent in the rebellion, is tried by court-martial and executed, Feb. 7. Six others, convicted of participating in the murder of Governor Bent, are executed......Aug. 3, 1847

Santa Fe Republican, the first newspaper printed in English, issued......1847

By the treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, concluded Feb. 2, 1848, and proclaimed in Santa Fe in August following, New Mexico becomes a part of the United States......August, 1848

People of New Mexico, in convention at Santa Fe, petition Congress for a territorial government, oppose the dismemberment of their Territory in favor of Texas, and ask protection of Congress against the introduction of slavery......Oct. 14, 1848

By proclamation of Governor Munroe, in April, 1850, a convention at Santa Fe, May 15, frames a constitution for the Territory of New Mexico, May 25, prohibiting slavery and fixing the east and west boundaries at 100° and 111°. This constitution was ratified by the people, June 20, by a vote of 8,371 to 39, and Henry Connelly was elected governor, but the movement was not recognized......1850

Act of Congress establishing a territorial government for New Mexico approved......Sept. 9, 1850

F. X. Aubrey rode from Santa Fe to Independence, Mo., 850 miles, in five days and sixteen hours, on a wager, and won $10,000......June, 1850

Elias T. Clark imported through a French firm in St. Louis, Mo., the first Alfalfa seed sown in New Mexico, at a cost of $5 per pound......January, 1850

Mr. Clark also brought the first Bartlett pear and Ben Davis apple trees across the Great American Plains and thus [450] became the father of modern horticulture in New Mexico......1851

First legislative Assembly convenes at Santa Fe, and declares it the capital of the territory......June 2, 1851

Santa Fe incorporated as a city......1851

Gov. James S. Calhoun dies while on his way to the States, and John Greiner becomes acting governor......June 30, 1852

Academy of Our Lady of Light, in charge of the sisters of Loretto, organized at Santa Fe......1852

Christopher or “Kit” Carson appointed Indian agent in New Mexico......1853

Beall & Whipple's railroad survey, 35th-parallel route......1853

Thirty-second parallel survey for railroad by Capt. John Pope (east half) and Lieut. J. G. Park (west half)......1854

Territory acquired from Mexico under the Gadsden purchase is incorporated with the Territory of New Mexico......Aug. 4, 1854

Overland mail-coach line to Pacific coast, via Mesilla, N. M., established, making the trip from San Francisco to southwest Missouri in twelve to fourteen days......July 24, 1858

Overland transportation business employs 5,405 men; 1,532 wagons; 4,377 mules; 360 horses; 12,545 oxen; carrying capacity 7,660 tons......1859

School law passed requiring compulsory attendance and the appointment of teachers by the justice of the peace in each precinct, who is entitled to collect the sum of 50 cents per month for each child attending......Jan. 23, 1860

Miguel A. Otero having thrice served as delegate to Congress, also as attorney-general and United States district attorney for the Territory, appointed secretary of New Mexico by President Lincoln......1861

Maj. Isaac Lynde, U. S. A., in command at Fort Fillmore, surrenders the fort and his entire command of 700 to Lieut.-Col. John R. Baylor, Confederate......July 27, 1861

Confederates under Gen. H. F. Sibley defeat the Federals under Colonel Canby at Valverde, 10 miles below Fort Craig......Feb. 21, 1862

Battle at Apache Cañon, near Santa Fe; Colonel Slough defeats the Confederates under Colonel Scurry......March 28, 1862

Santa Fe, in possession of the Confederates since March 11, 1862, is recovered by the Federals......April 21, 1862

Territory of Arizona formed from part of New Mexico......Feb. 24, 1863

Governor Connelly dies; W. F. M. Arny acting governor......1865

Portion of New Mexico above 37° attached to Colorado......1867

By act of Congress peonage is abolished and forever prohibited in the territory of New Mexico......March 2, 1867

Governor in his message announces telegraphic communication with the North......1868

Archives of New Mexico, partly destroyed in 1860, are further depleted under the rule of Governor Pile, when they are sold for waste paper and only about onequarter of them recovered......1870

Legislature provides for common schools, under a board of supervisors and directors elected by each county......1871

Serious election riot at Mesilla......Sept. 2, 1871

Total indebtedness of New Mexico $74,000......November, 1871

Governor Marsh Giddings dies, and is succeeded by William G. Ritch as acting governor......Jan. 3, 1875

The legislature enacts a law requiring places of business to close on Sunday......1876

Ute Indians removed from New Mexico to the Colorado reservation......April–July, 1878

Gen. Lew. Wallace, governor of New Mexico......Oct. 1, 1878

First railroad track laid within New Mexico, the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe, crossing Raton Pass......Nov. 30, 1878

Locomotive on the new Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railroad reaches Las Vegas......July 4, 1879

Apache Indians under Chief Victorio kill the herds and capture the horses of Captain Hooker's command at Ojo Calient, Socorro county, and open an Indian war which lasted several months, resulting in the death of many settlers and the destruction of much property......Sept. 3, 1879

Massacre by Apaches at McEver's ranch, rear Hillsboro, followed in a few weeks by other massacres and destruction of property at and near Mason's and Lloyd's ranches, west of Mesilla......Sept. 11, 1879

The New Mexican Christian advocate [451] (M. E. Church), No. 1, Vol. I,, English and Spanish monthly, 32-column quarto, issued at Santa Fe by Rev. Thomas Harwood, A. M.......May, 1880

New Mexico Historical Society, organized 1859-60 is reorganized......1880

Bureau of immigration established by act of legislature......1880

All-rail connection established across the continent, Via New Mexico and Arizona, being the date of the railway connection at Deming between the New Mexico and Southern Pacific (A., T., & S. F.) and the Southern Pacific.......March 10, 1881

Educational association of New Mexico incorporated......June 17, 1881

First annual territorial fair held at Albuquerque......Oct. 3-8, 1881

Public school law passed, creating the office of county superintendent, and providing for the election by the people of three commissioners for each precinct......1884

Act of Assembly passed establishing an orphans' home and industrial school at Santa Fe......1884

Destructive raids in the southwestern portion of the Territory by Apache Indians from Arizona......May, June, and October, 1885

Territorial prison at Santa Fe completed and opened......1885

New Mexico school for the deaf and dumb at Santa Fe opened......1885

New capitol building completed at Santa Fe, under act of March 28, 1884, creating a capitol-building committee......1886

Legislature passes over the governor's veto an act abolishing the office of attorney-general and substituting that of solicitor-general......Feb. 15, 1889

Acts of the legislature passed creating a State university at Albuquerque, an agricultural college at Las Cruces, and a school of mines at Socorro......1889

Insane asylum at Las Vegas created by act of legislature......1889

Territorial board of health provided for by act of legislature......1889

Constitutional convention meets at Santa Fe Sept. 3, adopts a constitution for the proposed State of New Mexico, and appoints a committee to present it to Congress......Sept. 21, 1889

A. M. Howland, a wealthy retired wool merchant from Boston, in connection with “Dr. Tanner, the faster,” locates a colony of vegetarians in Mesilla Valley, and produces a voluminous volume which is called Oahspe, a new bible, a curious compilation of all the religious beliefs of the earth, alleging that the manuscript was written out on a typewriter through spiritual inspiration. The word “Oahspe” is said to be from the language of the continent of Pan, buried under the Pacific ages ago, and is compounded of O, the sky, ah, the earth, and spe, the spirit......1889

Agricultural college at Las Cruces opened......Jan. 21, 1890

Constitution amended by a convention which reconvened at Santa Fe, Aug. 18, is rejected by the people by 16,180 votes for and 7,943 against, at an election held......Oct. 7, 1890

Ballot-box in Santa Fe county disappears mysteriously, and the commissioners of Santa Fe refuse to canvass the vote in that precinct, while Democratic commissioners in Taos county throw out returns favoring Republicans. After litigation before Justice Seeds, of the district court, in December, Sec. Benjamin M. Thomas, acting governor, swears in the Republican candidates in both precincts......December, 1890

Second Friday in March designated as Arbor Day, a territorial board of education created, and a high license bill passed by the legislature, at session......Dec. 29, 1890–Feb. 26, 1891

United States land court act passed Congress, which secured that settlement of land titles guaranteed by the treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo forty-three years previous......March 3, 1891

J. L. Workman and O. A. Peterson, of the American Museum of Natural History, Central Park, New York, in a search for fossils in San Juan Valley, N. M., find over 500 valuable specimens, among them a complete skull, the only one ever found, of the primitive elephant; other specimens found fill a gap in the geological calendar that is not represented elsewhere in the world......May 1, 1891

Ex-Gov. Samuel B. Axtell dies at Morristown, N. J., aged seventy-two......Aug. 6, 1891

Forest preserve in New Mexico set apart by proclamation of President Harrison......Jan. 11, 1892 [452]

Territorial capitol building at Santa Fe burned......May 12, 1892

“An act to empower and enable the territorial board of education to organize and conduct teachers' normal institutes” passed by the legislature......Feb. 9, 1893

New Mexico Normal University at Las Vegas and New Mexico Normal Training School at Silver City established......Feb. 11, 1893

New Mexico Military Institute established at Roswell, N. M.......Feb. 23, 1893

Bulletin No. 36, United States Department of Agriculture, announces result of an exhaustive series of tests with sugar beets in which New Mexico is shown to lead the world, the average figures for the territory being: precentage of solids in the beets, 19.4; percentage of sugar, 15.34; ratio of purity, 83.2......April 10, 1893

W. T. Thornton succeeds L. Bradford Prince as governor......April 26, 1893

The Pecos Company organized in New Jersey with $5,000,000 to construct in southeastern New Mexico the largest irrigation enterprise in the United States......May 15, 1893

New Mexico School of Mines opens its first session......Sept. 5, 1893

Irrigation congress meets at Deming......November, 1893

Prehistoric ruins opened near Santa Cruz, from which is taken a large collection of ancient stone idols or household gods which were objects of worship to the Pueblo Indians.......Jan. 18, 1894

The Postal Cable Telegraph Company enters New Mexico......June, 1894

House of Representatives passes a bill for the relief of the Ceran St. Vrain volunteers of 1847, the only surviving members of this gallant band being Nicolas Pino, of Galisteo, and Henry Cuniffe, of Mesilla......July, 1894

Public schools of New Mexico awarded prizes for their exhibits at the World's Fair, Chicago......July 15, 1894

Antonio Joseph renominated for delegate to Congress......Sept. 17, 1894

Headquarters 10th United States Infantry ordered to Fort Reno, and historic Fort Marcy abandoned......Sept. 19, 1894

New Mexico awarded first prize for wheat and second for oats in the agricultural section at the World's Fair......Sept. 23, 1894

Artesian wells developed in southeastern New Mexico......October, 1894

Peralta land-grant claim by J. Addison Reavis for 12,800,000 acres in New Mexico and Arizona declared a fraud by the United States court of private land claims and Reavis sentenced to pay a fine of $10,000 and serve two years in prison......June 25, 1895

Silver City suffers disastrous flood......July 23, 1895

San Juan county apple crop estimated at 4,000,000 lbs......Sept. 1, 1895 The national irrigation congress opens its fourth annual session at Albuquerque......Sept. 16, 1895

United States government establishes the United States marine hospital sanitorium at Fort Stanton and the general hospital for the care of army patients afflicted with tuberculosis at Fort Bayard......November, 1895

Francis Schlatter, “the divine healer,” creates a sensation in New Mexico and Colorado because of his alleged marvellous cures of human ills......December, 1895 “Resolved, that we recognize that the early attainment of Statehood is a matter of paramount importance to the people of New Mexico at present, and insist that no partisan or personal advantage shall stand in the way of that object of which the Republican party has always been the champion, and we call on all patriotic citizens to unite in the strongest possible effort to secure this boon to our people at the earliest moment.” Adopted by the Republican territorial central committee......Jan. 21, 1896

The New Mexico pioneers organized......Jan. 7, 1897

Miguel A. Otero, second son of the former territory secretary under Lincoln, appointed governor by President McKinley, succeeding W. T. Thornton......June 7, 1897

Manuel R. Otero and Howard Leland appointed registers of the United States land offices at Santa Fe and Roswell, respectively......Sept. 17, 1897

Frank W. Parker appointed associate justice......Jan. 10, 1898

William J. Mills appointed chief-justice of Supreme Court, and John R. McFie associate justice......Jan. 31, 1898

The legislature adopts memorial to Congress requesting that New Mexico be [453] favorably considered in the apportionment of the national appropriations for geological surveys......March 16, 1899

[In 1829 the Spanish population of New Mexico was 43,433, and it had eighteen schools taught by eighteen teachers. The Territory in 1900 had 53,008 children of school age, of whom 47,700 were enrolled as scholars in the public schools, with an average daily attendance of 31,800; number of schools, 800; number of teachers, 1,000; value of school property, $1,000,000.]

Dedication of the new capitol......June 4, 1900

Bernard S. Rodey, Republican, defeats O. A. Larrazola, Democrat, for delegate to Congress, receiving 21,557 out of a total vote of 39,414......Nov. 5, 1900

Public interest aroused in the preservation of the historic ruins west of the Rio Grande near Española, and Congress is appealed to to establish there a national park. The three best ruins are the Puye, Pajarito, and the old Cochiti, all of which were known to have been occupied in the sixteenth century......October, 1900

Daniel H. McMillan appointed associate justice......Dec. 18, 1900

The Rock Island road enters northeastern New Mexico and inaugurates a period of great industrial development......March, 1901

George H. Wallace, territorial secretary, dies......April 13, 1901

James Wallace Raynolds appointed secretary of the Territory......April 20, 1901

Assault upon any railroad train, with intent to commit murder or any other felony, has, under the laws of New Mexico, been punishable by death since 1897. The notorious “Black JackKetchum executed under this act at Clayton......May, 1901

Gov. M. A. Otero, appointed by President McKinley to succeed himself, is inaugurated for a second time amid brilliant ceremonies......June 22, 1901

New corporations filed with the territorial secretary represent $89,735,925, for the fiscal year ending......June 30, 1901

The coal and coke industry gives employment to 2,000 persons. Production of coal was 1,217,530 tons, valued at the mines at $1,606,174, and coke 21,361 tons, valued at $60,000, for the fiscal year ending......June 30, 1901

Unveiling of marble slab in the plaza at Santa Fe by the Daughters of the American Revolution......Aug. 19, 1901

[The inscription on the top facet of the monument is as follows: “In this plaza, Gen. S. W. Kearney, U. S. A., proclaimed the peaceable annexation of New Mexico on Aug. 19, 1846.” On the face of the stone fronting towards the Old Palace are inscribed the following extracts from General Kearney's address on that memorable day: “We come as friends to make you a part of the United States. In our government all men are equal. Every man has a right to serve God according to his heart.” ]

Grand Commandery, Knights Templar, organized at Santa Fe......Aug. 21, 1901

[The records of the Civil War and the late war with Spain show that, in proportion to her population, New Mexico has furnished more troops to uphold the national flag than any other State or Territory in the Union.]

According to a bulletin issued by the census bureau, of the entire population of 195,310, 104,228 are males, and 91,083 females. There are 13,625 foreign-born persons, constituting 7 per cent. of the population. There are 15,103 colored people, including 1,610 negroes, 341 Chinese, 8 Japanese, 13,144 Indians......Aug. 29, 1901

Executive proclamation designating Thursday, Sept. 19, as a day of fasting and prayer, and “earnestly recommending that every church and house of worship on this day hold a memorial service to commemorate the life and services to his country of one of the most distinguished and exemplary Americans since the birth of the republic,” which was generally observed. Issued......Sept. 14, 1901

New York

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