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A Western frontier State of the United States, between lat. 45° 40′ and 49° N., and long. 117° and 124° W., is bounded on the north by the Strait of Juan de Fuca and British America, east by Idaho, south by Oregon, and west by the Pacific Ocean. Area, 69,180 square miles, in thirty-six counties. Population in 1890, 349,390; 1900, 518,103. Capital, Olympia.

Juan Perez, in the ship Santiago, coasts the shore of Washington and discovers Mount Olympus, naming it Santa Rosalia......Aug. 10-11, 1774

Bruno Heceta, at the head of a Spanish expedition, discovers the mouth of the Columbia River......1775

Strait of Juan de Fuca explored and named by Captain Meares after a Greek mariner of that name......1788

Captain Meares sails from Nootka southward, rediscovers and names Mount Olympus, and discovers and names Shoalwater Bay......July 5, 1788

Capt. Robert Gray discovers Gray Harbor, which he names Bulfinch Harbor, and Columbia River, which he enters......May 11, 1792

Lieutenant Broughton, of the British navy, ascends Columbia River about 100 miles......October–November, 1792

Puget Sound discovered, named, and explored by George Vancouver......April–July, 1792

Lewis and Clarke United States government exploring expedition descends the Columbia River, reaching its mouth......Nov. 5, 1805

Capt. Meriwether Lewis explores the coast from Columbia River to Shoalwater Bay......Nov. 18, 1805

Astoria, first American settlement on Pacific coast, established by John Jacob Astor's Pacific Fur Company......April 12, 1811

Fort Okanagan, built by David Stuart on the Okanagan, a branch of the Columbia......August, 1811

Pierre Dorion and two others massacred by Indians on the Snake River......January, 1814

Fort Walla Walla, on the Columbia River, built by the Hudson Bay Company......1818

Exploring party under James McMillan leaves Astoria, Nov. 18, 1824; ascends the [554] Chehalis River to Black River, thence to Tumwater Lake; thence by an Indian portage it descends the Eld Inlet to Puget Sound......December, 1824

Convention with Russia at St. Petersburg, April 5-7, 1824, regulating fishing and trading on the Pacific coast, and fixing 54° 40′ as the northern boundary of the United States, ratified......Jan. 12, 1825

Dr. John McLoughlin, of the Hudson Bay Company, moves headquarters from Astoria to Vancouver, which thus becomes first settlement in present State of Washington......1825

Fort Colville built by the Hudson Bay Company at Kettle Falls, on the Columbia......1825

Nathaniel J. Wyeth, with twenty-one men, starts from Boston overland for Oregon, and with a remnant of his party descends the Columbia, arriving at Fort Vancouver......Oct. 29, 1832

Fort Nisqually built by Archibald McDonald 4 or 5 miles from the mouth of the Nisqually River.......1833

Mission station established at Waiilatpu, near Walla Walla, by the Revs. Whitman, Spaulding, and Gray......1836

Lieut. R. E. Johnson, of the United States exploring expedition, with three men from Nisqually, visits Forts Okanagan, Colville, Lapwai, and Walla Walla, and returns by Yakima River......May–July, 1841

Michael T. Simmons, with five families, settles at Tumwater, at the head of Budd Inlet, naming it New Market......October, 1845

Congress notifies Great Britain that the conventions of 1818 and 1827, for joint occupation of Oregon Territory (including Washington) will terminate after twelve months......Feb. 9, 1846

Smithfield, afterwards (1850) Olympia, founded by Levi L. Smith and Edmund Sylvester......1846

Indian massacre at the Presbyterian mission at Waiilatpu; Dr. M. Whitman and family killed......Nov. 29, 1847

Fort Steilacoom, on Puget Sound, established......July, 1849

Convention of twenty-six delegates at Cowlitz Landing memorializes Congress for a separate government for “Columbia” (Oregon north of the Columbia)......Aug. 29, 1851

Seattle founded; named from a noted Indian chief......1852

Coal discovered near Bellingham Bay by William Pattle......1852

First number of the Columbian, a weekly newspaper, issued at Olympia......Sept. 11, 1852

Congress establishes a territorial government for Washington (Oregon north of the Columbia), and confirms titles of lands held by missionary stations before the establishment of Oregon, not exceeding 640 acres each, to their religious societies......March 2, 1853

T. J. Dryer and party ascend Mount St. Helen, which they discover to be an expiring volcano......1853

Wagon-road opened over the Cascade Mountains, and thirty-five wagons, with 100 or 200 emigrants, reach Puget Sound......1853

Henry L. Yesler builds Puget Sound's first steam saw-mill at Seattle......1853

I. I. Stevens, appointed governor of the Territory, arrives at Olympia, Nov. 26, and organizes the government......Nov. 28, 1853

First federal court held in Washington at Cowlitz Landing by Judge Monroe......Jan. 2, 1854

Treaty at Point Elliott, near the mouth of Snohomish River, with 2,500 Indians, agreeing upon a reservation on the Lummi River, Jan. 22, and later with the tribes farther north, selecting a reservation about the head of Hood Canal......January, 1854

Capital fixed at Olympia by act of legislature......1854

Gold discovered near Fort Colville......1855

Treaty with the Nez Perces, Cayuses, Walla Wallas, and Yakimas at Waiilatpu, by commissioners from Governor Stevens......June 11, 1855

Indian war begins; Indians attack eighty-four soldiers under Maj. G. O. Haller, sent from Fort Dalles, Oct. 3, for the Yakima country......Oct. 6, 1855

Three families massacred by Indians in White River Valley......Oct. 28, 1855

Indians under Leschi, Owhi, and Tecumseh, attacking Seattle, dispersed by shells from the sloop-of-war Decatur......Jan. 26, 1856

Indians defeated in an attack on troops at White River......March 8, 1856

Yakimas and Klikitats sweep down [555] upon the Cascades, massacre the family of B. W. Brown, March 26, and besiege the garrison until relieved by troops under Colonel Wright......March 28, 1856

Leschi, arrested November, 1856, is three times tried for murder and condemned, and is finally hanged......Feb. 19, 1858

Col. George Wright subdues the Coeur d'alenes and Spokanes, and executes treaties of peace at the mission on a branch of the Coeur d'alenes......Sept. 17-23, 1858

Light-house on Cape Shoalwater, first illuminated......Oct. 1, 1858

First vessel direct from China to enter Puget Sound, the Lizzie Jarvis, arrives and secures a cargo of spars......October, 1858

That part of Oregon Territory not included in the State is added to Washington Territory by Congress......Feb. 14, 1859

Fort Colville established a few miles east of the old Hudson Bay Company's fort......June 20, 1859

First cargo of yellow-fir spars shipped to Atlantic ports of the United States from Port Gamble, in the Lawson, of Bath, Me......1860

University of Washington at Seattle, chartered 1861, opened......1862

Act of Congress approved, organizing as the Territory of Idaho that part of Washington east of Oregon and of the 117th meridian of west longitude......March 3, 1863

Capitol at Olympia completed......1863

Tacoma, on Commencement Bay, Puget Sound, selected as the western terminus of the Northern Pacific Railroad......1872

[Then the site of a saw-mill and a few cabins.]

Emperor William I. of Germany, as arbitrator, decides San Juan dispute, giving islands involved to United States......Oct. 21, 1872

Walla Walla volunteers go to Idaho to help United States troops in Nez Perce Indian war......July, 1877

First settler at Spokane Falls......1878

Constitutional convention meets at Walla Walla, June 11, 1878, sits twenty-four days. Constitution ratified by the people......November, 1878

Citizens generally participate in goldspike celebration of completion of Northern Pacific Railroad......September, 1883

Attempts of Knights of Labor to expel the Chinese from Washington lead to riots. Governor Squire, by proclamation, calls on citizens to preserve peace, Nov. 5, 1885; and a riot occurring in Seattle, Feb. 7, 1886, he declares martial law......Feb. 8, 1886

State school for defective youth established at Vancouver......Jan. 26, 1888

Washington admitted to the Union......1889

Constitution framed by a convention which meets at Olympia, July 3; ratified by the people, 40,152 to 11,879. Articles for woman suffrage and prohibition are rejected......Oct. 1, 1889

President proclaims Washington a State from......Nov. 11, 1889

Cities of Seattle, Spokane, Ellensburg, and Vancouver visited by disastrous fires......1889

New insane asylum at Medical Lake erected......1889-90

Legislature passes the Australian ballot bill......March 19, 1890

State normal school established at Cheney......March 22, 1890

Soldiers' home established at Orting......March 26, 1890

Reform school established at Chehalis......March 28, 1890

State normal school established at Ellensburg......March 28, 1890

Forty-five men buried under 20,000 cubic feet of rock by the premature explosion of a blast at Spokane Falls......Sept. 7, 1890

New legislative apportionment law, on the census of 1890, enacted by the legislature at special session......Sept. 3-11, 1890

Work begun at excavating for commerce a solid deposit of borax in Douglas county, 8 1/2 feet thick, 1 1/2 miles long, and 1/2 mile wide, discovered in 1875......1891

Washington Agricultural College and School of Science established at Pullman......March 9, 1891

New United States naval station established at Port Orchard......September, 1891

Centennial of the discovery of Puget Sound celebrated at Port Townsend......May 7, 1892

Legislative deadlock over election of United States Senator......1893

State expended about $200,000 for magnificent display at the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago......1893 [556]

University of Washington reorganized and relocated on new campus of 355 acres within city limits of Seattle......March 14, 1893

Office for engineer corps of United States army located at Seattle, having jurisdiction of Washington, Alaska, northern Idaho, and western Montana......1896

Office of quartermaster's department of the United States army located at Seattle......1896

New United States army posts located at Spokane and Seattle......1896

President Cleveland, by proclamation, increased the forest reserve area in this State to 8,110,080 acres......Feb. 22, 1897

Arrival of steamship Portland at Seattle with $750,000 in Alaska gold-dust precipitated the Klondike gold rush......July, 1897

Governor Rogers called for the State's quota (one regiment) of volunteers in the American-Spanish War, which regiment later achieved a fine reputation in the Philippines......May, 1898

United States assay office located at Seattle......July, 1898

Mount Rainier National Park created......1899

Power of Snoqualmie Falls brought by electricity to Seattle and Tacoma......1900

Pay office of the United States navy established at Seattle......1901

Port Orchard naval station, enlarged, becomes Puget Sound navy-yard......July, 1901

First contracts let for work on the United States government canal between Puget Sound and Lake Washington......1901

State undertakes work of making a geological survey under auspices of scientists in State University and State Agricultural College......1901

Eighteen salmon fish-hatcheries established and maintained by the State......1891-1901

West Virginia

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