Chapter 6: Essex County.This county is bounded north-west by Rockingham County, New Hampshire; south-west by Middlesex County, south by Suffolk County, east and north-east by the Atlantic Ocean, and south-east by Massachusetts Bay. Essex County is one of the most historical in the State, and the birthplace of many wise and great men. It has an extensive sea-coast, indented with numerous bays, inlets, and harbors; it has many delightful farms and beautiful ponds; it is to Eastern Massachusetts what Berkshire County is to Western Massachusetts,—a place of pleasant resort in the warm months of summer, to those who love the sea more than they do the valleys and the mountains. In former years the chief interests of Essex County were foreign commerce and the fisheries. At the present day, although the fishing interest holds its place, the foreign commerce of the county has in a great measure been transferred to Boston and New York. It is now largely devoted to manufactures. At the commencement of the present century, the school-books in their enumeration of large commercial places always spoke of Marblehead, which, although it is now larger than at any previous time, has been outstripped by Gloucester as a fishing and commercial town, and is as much interested in the manufacture of shoes as in commerce and the fisheries. The number of municipalities in the county is thirty-four; of these Gloucester, Haverhill, Lawrence, Lynn, Newburyport, and Salem are large and flourishing cities. In 1860 the population of the county was 165,611, in 1865 it was 171,192, being an increase in five years of 5,581. The population of the county in 1870 was 200,843, which is an increase in five years of 29,651. The valuation of the county in 1860 was  $84,637,837, in 1865 it was $90,393,467, being an increase in five years of $5,755,630. According to the returns made by the city and town authorities in 1866, with the exception of Salem and Saugus, which made no return, Essex County furnished 17,806 men for the war. Since that time Salem has made a return, in which it claims to have furnished 2,789. Saugus has made no return, but it probably furnished 210 men. Add these to the returns made in 1866, and they make the whole number furnished by all the cities and towns in the county 20,805, which we believe to be nearly the exact number which was furnished and credited. Every city and town furnished its contingent upon every call made by the President, and each at the end of the war had a surplus over and above all demands, which in the aggregate amounted to 1,678. The total amount of expenses incurred by all the cities and towns in Essex County on account of the war, exclusive of State aid paid to the families of volunteers in the army and navy, was $1,409,536.05. The amount paid during the war years for State aid to the families and dependants of volunteers, and which was afterwards reimbursed by the Commonwealth, was $1,625,184.18. Total amount, $3,034,720.23. The following is the record of each city and town in the county:—
William J. Boardman, David M. Tukesbury, Frederick A. Sargent; in 1862, William J. Boardman, David M. Tukesbury, Nathan Martin; in 1863, David M. Tukesbury, Phillip Osgood, Daniel Gould; in 1864, William J. Boardman, David M. Tukesbury, W. F. M. Huntington; in 1865, David M. Tukesbury, W. F. M. Huntington, S. S. Blodgett. The town-clerk during all these years was Joseph Merrill. The treasurer in 1861 was William F. Vining; in 1862, 1863, 1864, and 1865, E. M. Morse.  1861. On the 27th of April a town-meeting was held, at which a preamble and resolutions prepared by William C. Binney were adopted. The preamble sets forth in strong language, and at considerable length, that the Government was formed to secure the blessings of liberty; that the Rebellion was without adequate cause, and that it was the duty of all good citizens to maintain and uphold the Union to the extent of their ability. It was resolved, therefore, to furnish the Governor of the Commonwealth to their utmost extent with men and money, ‘to enable him to respond promptly and efficiently to the present, or any other requisition of the Government of the United States, to put down rebellion, and to enforce the laws of the land;’ that five thousand dollars be raised to assist in uniforming and equipping such of the inhabitants as may enlist in the military service, and to assist in supporting their families while they are in the service; also, that ten dollars a month ‘be paid to every single man, and twenty dollars to every married man, who may enlist and are inhabitants of Amesbury, in addition to the pay allowed by the Government,’ the pay to begin ‘as soon as the company is organized and commence drilling;’ and Patten Sargent, William H. Haskell, John E. Cowden, John S. Poyen, William C. Burney, Benjamin A. Follensbee, were chosen to act with the selectmen in the expenditure of the money and to encourage recruiting. Immediately after the meeting a company was organized, and commenced drilling. It afterwards formed part of the First Regiment of Heavy Artillery Massachusetts Volunteers. November 5th, The town authorized the selectmen ‘to hire such sums of money as may be needed to aid the families of volunteers.’ 1862. July 9th, The town voted ‘to pay each volunteer, to the number of forty-one, a bounty of one hundred dollars, who shall enlist for the period of three years and be credited to the quota of the town.’ The selectmen were instructed ‘to use all diligence to fill the quota of the town without delay,’ and to employ suitable aid for that purpose. They were also authorized to borrow money for the payment of bounties, and to cooperate with the adjoining town of Salisbury in organizing a new company to be composed of volunteers from each town;  and, if the arrangement could not be made, they were to induce volunteers to enlist to fill up the ranks of the Amesbury company in the First Regiment Heavy Artillery. The same bounty was to be paid as had previously been fixed upon. August 14th, A town-meeting was held, at which it was voted to increase the bounty to two hundred dollars for three-years men, and to pay a bounty of one hundred and fifty dollars to men enlisting for nine months; and the selectmen were authorized to borrow a sufficient amount of money ‘to carry the foregoing votes into effect,’ and to confer with the Governor and with the authorities of Salisbury in regard to raising a full company for nine months service. September 18th, Another meeting was held, at which it was voted to pay a bounty of one hundred and fifty dollars to forty-two men, already in camp, as soon as they should be mustered in to the credit of the town; and the selectmen were authorized to borrow the money to pay them. 1863. December 14th, The town authorized the selectmen to advance to each recruit such an amount of money as they might deem proper, provided the recruit agreed to refund the same from his State bounty when received; and five hundred dollars were set apart for that purpose. A committee of six was chosen to co-operate with the selectmen. 1864. April 18th, The selectmen were authorized to borrow whatever sums of money they might require to procure recruits for the quota of the town, upon any call of the President up to the 1st of March, 1865, provided the bounty paid to each volunteer shall not exceed one hundred and twenty-five dollars. May 25th, The town voted to borrow a sum not exceeding five thousand dollars, from which to pay three hundred dollars to each drafted man to procure a substitute, or pay commutation-fee. November 8th, The selectmen were directed to continue recruiting, and to borrow ten thousand dollars for the purpose, and three thousand dollars additional for recruiting purposes. 1865. March 6th, The selectmen were directed to continue recruiting, and to raise a sum not exceeding ten thousand dollars for that purpose. The town furnished four hundred and eighty-four men for the war, which was a surplus of twenty-eight over all demands.  Eighteen were commissioned officers. The total amount of money appropriated and expended by the town on account of the war, exclusive of State aid, was forty thousand five hundred and fifty-seven dollars ($40,557.00). The amount of money raised and expended by the town during the four years of the war for State aid to soldiers' families, and afterwards repaid to it by the Commonwealth, was as follows: In 1861, $1,151.20; in 1862, $4,822.96; in 1863, $8,518.57; in 1864, $7,827.07; in 1865, $4,500.00. Total amount, $26,819.80.
William S. Jenkins, Asa A. Abbott, Benjamin Boynton; in 1863 and 1864, John B. Abbott, Benjamin Boynton, George Foster; in 1865, William S. Jenkins, John B. Abbott, Herman Phelps. The town-clerk and town-treasurer during all the years of the war was