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The Grand Army in Cambridge.

John D. Billings.
If faith is to be judged by works, then must the faith of those who regard Cambridge as one of the most patriotic of towns find abundant justification. The history of the settlement, from its earliest beginning, is rich in testimony to this point. Every page is illumined with patriotic achievement or endeavor, the somewhat limited patriotism of the village expanding into a broader regard for the colony and State, and later comprehending the whole country.

While the patriotic spirit should mark every department of civil life, it is to affairs martial that we are prone to turn for its most conspicuous illustrations, and turning in that direction the generations of this city to-day have inspiring ideals set before them, inciting them to still higher endeavor. Every call for men to defend colonial interests or national integrity has met in Cambridge a most prompt and generous response. No better proof of this statement can be adduced than is shown by her contribution of men to serve in the armies of the Revolution, aggregating in number one fourth of her entire population. And when the Union was threatened, in 1861, her promptness and patriotism were conspicuous, for, as is well known, the first volunteer company of the war was raised in this city, and her total enrollment in the various arms of the service equaled one sixth of her population,—a showing, it is confidently believed, which has few parallels and no superiors among municipalities in the State.

After the enemies of the Union had been overthrown, the conquering legions returning to their homes were confronted with a new duty which they had scarcely anticipated, yet one which they took up with characteristic promptness. It was the care of those men who, having borne the brunt of battle, had come home crippled for life; the care of the widowed and [288] the orphaned; the aid of such as found their places in the workshop and the factory filled by others. The men who lived to fight it out were not willing to have their comrades who had touched elbows with them in the thick of the fray finish a painful existence in the almshouse, or stand with extended palm at a street corner. They believed that a grateful country would keep its promises with these men whenever an organized movement was set on foot in their behalf. So the Grand Army of the Republic was born, and once fairly established and cut loose from all political entanglements, found its mission clearly defined and pressing for attention.

Massachusetts stands tenth in the order of States to enlist in the ranks of this organization. Perhaps no one of the earlier posts entered into the spirit of the new order more heartily than did John A. Andrew Post 15 of Boston, and no Post, it is believed, had so large a suburban membership. A natural outgrowth of this situation, as the order became popular, was the withdrawal of members from the suburbs to establish new Posts in their own towns or villages. Such a withdrawal occurred under the enthusiastic lead of the late Captain J. Warren Cotton. Thus Post 30 was founded. It took the name of William H. Smart, an estimable Cambridge soldier, the first of her long list of martyrs in the war. The preliminary meetings were held at the house of Mr. Cotton, on Austin Street, and the following names appear on the charter, which was granted October 23, 1867, by Grand Commander Austin S. Cushman: J. Warren Cotton, J. A. Hildreth, E. G. Dike, A. C. Wellington, A. M. Lunt, F. A. Lull, David P. Muzzey, H. 0. Marcy, Charles Munroe, Jonas F. Capelle. Of these, all but four had been members of Post 15. The Post was instituted at Friendship Hall on Pearl Street, where it subsequently made headquarters for many years.

The first roster of officers of the Post was as follows: Commander, J. Warren Cotton; Senior Vice-Commander, Jonas F. Capelle; Junior Vice-Commander, David P. Muzzey; Adjutant, Austin C. Wellington; Quartermaster, Frederick A. Lull; Chaplain, H. O. Marcy. The commander appointed Edward G. Dike, Officer of the Day; J. A. Hildreth, Officer of the Guard; Charles Munroe, Musician; Alphonso M. Lunt, Sentinel.

About 680 veterans have been mustered into the Post; of [289] these, 82 have died. January 1, 1896, its membership in good standing was 231. Its estimated expenditure for relief work of various kinds is $18,000; the following are the officers of 1896: Commander, George A. Dietz; Senior Vice-Commander, B. F. Hastings; Junior Vice-Commander, William Gallagher; Surgeon, Charles J. Collins; Chaplain, John G. Ellis; Officer of the Day, G. W. Belcher; Adjutant, James B. Soper; Quartermaster, George H. Hastings; Officer of the Guard, James E. Hill; Sergeant-Major, Amos D. Jarvis; QuartermasterSer-geant, Richard M. O'Brien. Partly through disappointments resulting from an election of officers, but largely through local desire to have Posts established in other sections of the city, then less compact than now, two withdrawals from the Post occurred, having in view the formation of Posts in Old Cambridge and East Cambridge.

Post 56 of Old Cambridge was the first of these to receive a charter. It bears the date June 26, 1868, and the signature of A. B. R. Sprague as Grand Commander. The name Charles Beck was adopted in honor of a worthy citizen who had been a professor in Harvard College at one time. Too old to enlist himself, he spent time and money in obtaining recruits for the service, and generously contributed to the comfort of the men in the field. He was a thoroughly loyal and large-hearted citizen. The following were the charter members of the Post: Edward G. Dike, Charles Munroe, Henry L. Mitchell, Stephen S. Harris, George H. Prior, Charles H. Bate, George A. Cole, James A. Munroe, J. A. Hildreth, Lemuel Pope, Samuel K. Williams, A. P. Clarke.

The post elected the following as its first officers: Commander, Edward G. Dike; Senior Vice-Commander, Lemuel Pope; Junior Vice-Commander, J. S. Winkley; Adjutant, Henry L. Mitchell; Quartermaster, Stephen S. Harris; Surgeon, A. P. Clarke; Chaplain, David B. Muzzey; Officer of the Day, J. A. Munroe; Sergeant-Major, E. C. Coombs; Quartermaster-Sergeant, Nathaniel Munroe; Musician, Charles Munroe.

The Post bears on its rolls the names of more than 400 veterans. Sixty-two have died. Its present membership is 128. It has expended a large amount in relief work. Its present officers are these: Commander, A. H. Ricker; Senior Vice-Commander, T. J. Breen; Junior Vice-Commander, F. J. O'Reilly; Adjutant, A. W. Glidden; Quartermaster, William [290] N. Eveleth; Surgeon, Matthias Fleck; Chaplain, A. W. Curtis; Officer of the Day, M. C. Beedle; Officer of the Guard, A. J. Littlefield; Sergeant-Major, M. J. Conry; Quartermaster-Sergeant, George W. Warren.

P. Stearns Davis Post 57 of East Cambridge was chartered June 29, 1868, by Grand Commander Sprague. It was named in honor of the lamented colonel of the Thirty-Ninth Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, who had been a resident of that ward, and lost his life in the field before Petersburg. These names appear on the charter: A. M. Lunt, Robert L. Sawin, John T. Wilson, Jonas F. Capelle, I. M. Bennett, C. F. Blaisdell, A. F. Fifield, James A. Grant, John H. Blair, Albert L. Norris, Oliver H. Webber, John Ford, Henry C. Hobbs, Otis S. Brown, Jeremiah W. Coveney, Thomas McIntire, Jr.

July 10 the Post was mustered by J. Warren Cotton, and the following-named comrades chosen officers: Commander, Robert L. Sawin; Senior Vice-Commander, J. H. Blair; Adjutant, A. M. Lunt; Quartermaster, T. J. Mclntire; Surgeon, A. L. Norris; Sergeant-Major, O. S. Brown. At subsequent meetings C. H. Mclntire, Jr., was made Junior Vice-Commander, George Graves, Jr., Chaplain, and John Ford Quartermaster-Sergeant.

The Post bears on its rolls 462 names; 91 comrades have deceased. It has expended over $11,000 in its relief work. It now numbers 129 members. Its present officers are: Commander, T. I. Quinn; Senior Vice-Commander, Andrew Metzger; Junior Vice-Commander, F. O. Mansfield; Surgeon, Andrew Burke; Officer of the Day, William Voit; Adjutant, John Donelan; Quartermaster, John S. Kenney; Officer of the Guard, John Gilligan; Chaplain, T. H. Ball; Sergeant-Major, M. F. Davlin; Quartermaster-Sergeant, Peter B. Haley.

Late in 1886 Mr. John D. Billings, then a member of E. W. Kinsley Post 113 of Boston, aided by Captain John S. Sawyer and Lieutenant John H. Webber, obtained signatures for a new Post in Cambridge. The application for a charter was signed largely by men who, for various reasons, had never joined the order, and by a few who had dropped out of it. A preliminary meeting was held in St. George's Hall, Hyde's Block, Main Street, Thursday evening, January 6, 1887, when the name of John A. Logan was agreed upon for the new organization, that distinguished general having recently deceased. [291] The meeting nominated a list of officers. January 13 a charter was granted to John A. Logan Post 186 by Department Commander Richard F. Tobin. The following officers were elected and installed: Commander, John D. Billings; Senior Vice-Commander, John S. Sawyer; Junior ViceCom-mander, James G. Harris; Surgeon, Charles E. Vaughan; Adjutant, W. P. Brown; Quartermaster, Thomas Pear; Officer of the Day, D. Webster Bullard; Officer of the Guard, Emery J. Packard; Sergeant-Major, James E. Hall; QuartermasterSer-geant, J. H. Robinson; Chaplain, W. A. Start.

This Post, though so young, bears on its rolls 128 names. Fifteen veterans have deceased. Its present membership is 96. It has expended about $1500 in relief work. Its present officers are these: Commander, Joseph T. Batcheller; Senior Vice-Commander, Samuel Spink; Junior Vice-Commander, Fred. A. Libbey; Surgeon, Marshall L. Brown; Adjutant, William P. Brown; Quartermaster, Thomas Pear; Chaplain, J. Willard Brown; Officer of the Day, Thomas Allan; Officer of the Guard, George E. Seward; Sergeant-Major, G. W. B. Litchfield; Quartermaster-Sergeant, George B. Smith.

Each of the Posts has an associate membership connected with it, and all but Post 186 have an organization of the Woman's Relief Corps as an auxiliary. The Posts hold occasional campfires, have lectures, and in various ways aim to keep alive the fraternal spirit, and by fairs and divers forms of entertainment replenish their relief funds whenever necessary, loyally and generously supported in their work by their fellow-citizens, to whom they have never yet appealed in vain.

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J. Warren Cotton (5)
Charles Munroe (4)
Alphonso M. Lunt (4)
Edward G. Dike (4)
J. A. Hildreth (3)
Jonas F. Capelle (3)
John D. Billings (3)
Austin C. Wellington (2)
A. B. R. Sprague (2)
John S. Sawyer (2)
Robert L. Sawin (2)
Lemuel Pope (2)
Albert L. Norris (2)
David P. Muzzey (2)
James A. Munroe (2)
Henry L. Mitchell (2)
Frederick A. Lull (2)
John A. Logan (2)
Stephen S. Harris (2)
A. P. Clarke (2)
William P. Brown (2)
Otis S. Brown (2)
John H. Blair (2)
J. S. Winkley (1)
John T. Wilson (1)
Samuel K. Williams (1)
Oliver H. Webber (1)
John H. Webber (1)
George W. Warren (1)
Charles E. Vaughan (1)
Richard F. Tobin (1)
W. A. Start (1)
Samuel Spink (1)
James B. Soper (1)
George B. Smith (1)
William H. Smart (1)
George E. Seward (1)
J. H. Robinson (1)
A. H. Ricker (1)
T. I. Quinn (1)
George H. Prior (1)
Thomas Pear (1)
Emery J. Packard (1)
F. J. O'Reilly (1)
Richard M. O'Brien (1)
David B. Muzzey (1)
Nathaniel Munroe (1)
Andrew Metzger (1)
T. J. Mclntire (1)
C. H. Mclntire (1)
Thomas McIntire (1)
Henry O. Marcy (1)
H. O. Marcy (1)
F. O. Mansfield (1)
A. J. Littlefield (1)
G. W. B. Litchfield (1)
Frederick A. Libbey (1)
E. W. Kinsley (1)
John S. Kenney (1)
Amos D. Jarvis (1)
Jonathan Hyde (1)
Henry C. Hobbs (1)
James E. Hill (1)
George H. Hastings (1)
B. F. Hastings (1)
James G. Harris (1)
James E. Hall (1)
Peter B. Haley (1)
George Graves (1)
James A. Grant (1)
A. W. Glidden (1)
John Gilligan (1)
William Gallagher (1)
Matthias Fleck (1)
A. F. Fifield (1)
N. Eveleth (1)
John G. Ellis (1)
John Donelan (1)
George A. Dietz (1)
M. F. Davlin (1)
P. Stearns Davis (1)
Austin S. Cushman (1)
A. W. Curtis (1)
Jeremiah W. Coveney (1)
E. C. Coombs (1)
M. J. Conry (1)
Charles J. Collins (1)
George A. Cole (1)
Andrew Burke (1)
D. Webster Bullard (1)
Marshall L. Brown (1)
J. Willard Brown (1)
T. J. Breen (1)
C. F. Blaisdell (1)
I. M. Bennett (1)
G. W. Belcher (1)
Melville C. Beedle (1)
Charles H. Bate (1)
Joseph T. Batcheller (1)
T. H. Ball (1)
John A. Andrew (1)
Thomas Allan (1)
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