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Chapter 5:

On the 29th of August, General Beauregard, who had been in command of the army in Mississippi, was ordered to take charge in South Carolina. General Pemberton was directed to report for duty at Richmond. His policy of abandoning the attempt to defend the mouth of Broad river and the harbor of Georgetown, and especially his removal of the guns from the mouth of the Stono, had made him unpopular; but his energy, ability and patriotism commanded the respect of the military, and the government at Richmond reposed in him the highest confidence. Upon taking the command at Charleston in September, General Beauregard made a careful inspection of the department, and writing to Richmond, expressed his admiration for the amount and character of defensive work which General Pemberton had done, especially in the defense of Charleston.

Having requested General Pemberton to give his views upon the situation, and particularly as to the forces, guns, etc., necessary to the proper defense of the cities of Charleston and Savannah and their dependencies, General Beauregard received the following reply from Pemberton, dated September 24, 1862:

I have the honor to state in answer to your inquiry, that in my opinion this department can be successfully defended against any reasonable force which it is probable [95] the enemy may bring against it [by the following forces], to wit:

James island: 1,000 infantry, 1,000 heavy artillery, 500 cavalry, 6 field batteries. Morris island: 1,000 infantry, 250 heavy artillery, 50 cavalry. Sullivan's island: 1,500 infantry, 800 heavy artillery, 50 cavalry, 1 field battery. Christ Church: 1,000 infantry, 100 heavy artillery, 200 cavalry, 1 field battery. St. Andrew's: 2,000 infantry (movable column), 200 heavy artillery, 200 cavalry, 2 field batteries. Second military district: 5,000 infantry, 800 cavalry, 200 heavy artillery, 2 field batteries. Third military district: 5,000 troops of all arms. Savannah: 10,000 infantry, 1,200 heavy artillery, 2,000 cavalry, 8 field batteries. Fort Sumter: 500 heavy artillery, 100 riflemen. Georgetown (merely for preventing marauding, the defense of Winyaw bay requiring obstructions and a numerous heavy artillery, both of which are entirely out of the question): 7 companies of cavalry, 3 batteries of artillery, 3 companies of infantry. The above estimate is based upon the supposition that attacks may be made simultaneously upon different points.

Upon this communication, General Beauregard endorsed: ‘Approved as the minimum force required, as above stated, to guard with security the department of South Carolina and Georgia.’

General Beauregard was warmly received by the governor and council of South Carolina, by the military and by the citizens. Governor Pickens addressed him the following letter a few days after his taking command:

Dear General: I enclose the within to you, being a letter from myself to General Lee, dated May 23d, and one from him in reply, dated May 29th, containing an order to General Pemberton relating to the defense of Charleston. It strikes me that the defense of Charleston is now of the last importance to the Confederacy, and in my very full interview yesterday, I took the liberty of urging that Fort Sumter was the key to the harbor and in fact was almost absolutely essential to enable the South to hold communication with the foreign world. . . . I am rejoiced to see you here again, as there is no general who could have been selected to whom South Carolina would look with more confidence for her defense than [96] yourself. Our whole coast involves the most complicated difficulties in defense, and all the highest range of science in war is required to make that defense successful. Feeling the greatest confidence in your abilities, and well knowing that this position is well suited to your peculiar talents and scientific knowledge, it affords me the greatest pleasure to co-operate with you in anything that you may suggest, and to offer you all the resources of the State that I may be able to command.

After an inspection of the harbor defenses, and the lines and work on James island, General Beauregard reported the result of his examination in the following letter, of date October 3, 1862, addressed to Adjutant-General Cooper at Richmond:

Accompanied by Major-General Pemberton, Brigadier-General Jordan, my chief of staff, Colonel Gonzales, chief of artillery, and Lieut.-Col. George Lay, on a tour of inspection, under orders of the war department, on September 16th I proceeded to inspect the harbor defenses, beginning with four new sand batteries, in barbette, near the west end of Sullivan's island, bearing on and commanding the floating boom under construction across the channel thence to Fort Sumter. Those batteries are not finished, but two guns, 10-inch columbiads, were in position, one only being ready for service and the magazines not yet built The boom is composed of railroad iron, strongly linked together with heavy iron links and bands, protected and buoyed by spars of timber of the same length with the bars of iron, and banded closely together with iron. The bars are suspended four feet under water, and the whole structure is anchored every sixth section with an anchor. About one-fourth of this boom is laid. I am informed that it has been tested by running against it a heavily-loaded vessel towed by a steamboat. This test it resisted, parting the towline, a 10-inch hawser. It was also proposed to lay another line about 100 yards in rear of that now under construction, if sufficient time is allowed and enough chains and anchors can be procured. In addition, a rope obstruction has been prepared to place in advance of the wooden and iron boom for the purpose of entangling the enemy's propellers while under fire of our heavy guns in the adjacent forts and batteries. [97]

It is proper for me to notice that since my inspection the plan of the boom was found to be defective, at least in one particular; the great length of it made it unable to bear the pressure of the tide, and the boom parted in several places. This, it is hoped by the projector, may be remedied by breaking the continuous character of the barrier and laying it in sections, and on that plan it is now being carried on . . . .

The armament of the four new sand batteries is to consist, as planned, of seven 10 and one 8 inch columbiad, and two 42-pounder rifle guns. Fort Sumter has thirty-eight heavy guns above the caliber of 32-pounders, and Fort Moultrie nine, bearing at once on the obstructions. There will be also two strong ironclad gunboats, each armed with four guns, to give important, indeed vital, assistance. These, I am advised, will be completed before the 15th instant, and could even now yield some aid in an emergency. I regard them as absolutely indispensable to the successful defense of the harbor. The Neck battery on Morris island [afterward Battery Wagner] was next visited, which was found incomplete, wanting at least two weeks work to finish it according to plan, and needing a closed gorge to secure against surprise. It was erected to defend that approach to Fort Sumter. In addition, a few rifled guns ought to be placed to bear on the main channel.

Subsequently I visited a small work, Fort Ripley, now under construction in cribs in the bay, about midway between Fort Johnson and Castle Pinckney. It is nearly ready for its armament of five heavy guns in barbette, but must be protected outside to the high-water mark by rubbish before it can be relied on. A series of similar smaller works erected in the shallow water nearer to the mouth of the harbor would materially add to the strength of our defenses. I did not visit Castle Pinckney, the armament of which is nine 24-pounders and one 24-pounder rifled gun. I am well acquainted with this work, and regard it as nearly worthless at this juncture.

On the 17th of September, accompanied by MajorGen-eral Pemberton, I inspected the defensive lines on James island from the Wappoo to Mellichamp's, a distance of about 3 miles. These lines consist of a system of forts, redoubts, redans, cremailleres, not very properly arranged and located, with the exception of Fort Pemberton, on [98] the Stono and some of the redoubts; and in my opinion a simpler system, one requiring a smaller force to hold and defend, might have been originally devised with advantage. However, this line ought to serve our purpose with a proper force of about 3 men for every 2 yards of development. Each redoubt and redan has at least one heavy gun in position. That part of the lines between Dill's creek and the Wappoo will be completed in two weeks. Fort Pemberton is a strong work, and has an armament of twenty guns of various calibers. There are two batteries on the Ashley river and the entrances of Dill's and Wappoo creeks, but for want of guns the works are without armaments, except the battery at Lawton's, which has four 32-pounders in position, which, however, are of little use against any probable attack.

On the 18th, accompanied as on the previous days, I inspected Forts Sumter and Moultrie, which were found in fine order and condition, considering the repairs in progress at the latter work. The armament of Moultrie consists of thirty-eight guns of various calibers, from 24-pounders to 8-inch columbiads, with a garrison of some 300 effective men. The armament of Sumter consists of seventy-nine guns of all calibers, from 32pounders to 10-inch columbiads, and seven 10-inch mortars. It has a garrison of about 350 effective men. The barracks are being cut down to protect them from the fire of the enemy. . . . Battery Beauregard, across Sullivan's island, in advance of Fort Moultrie, to defend the approach from the east, is armed with five guns. The work at the eastern extremity of the island, placed to defend the interior approach by water to the rear and west of Long island, is a redoubt armed with eight guns (two 32-pounders and six small guns). I am informed by General Pemberton that all these works are sufficiently garrisoned.

My conclusions are as follows: That when the works contemplated and in progress for the defense of the harbor, especially when the obstructions and ironclad gunboats shall have been completed and are properly armed with guns of the heaviest caliber, the enemy's fleet will find it extremely difficult to penetrate sufficiently within the harbor to injure or reduce the city; but until these works are finished, armed as indicated, and properly garrisoned, the city cannot be regarded as protected.

Accompanied as on previous days, on the 19th of September [99] I examined the works at Secessionville, which are irregular and of poor construction. A force of some 200 men was still at work increasing and strengthening them. The position is naturally strong, being surrounded by two marshes and a wide creek, except on one side [the front], where there is a very narrow strip of level ground, along which the abolitionists made their attack, which was a surprise, when they were defeated by one-fifth of their numbers. I do not see the necessity or advantage of holding in force this advanced position. A strong picket would be sufficient. The armament of this work consists of two 8-inch naval guns, one 18pounder howitzer, six 32-pounders, one 32-pounder and two 24-pounder rifled guns, and two 10-inch mortars. All of which is respectfully submitted, etc.

This communication gives a clear view of the character of the defenses of Charleston in October, 1862, and shows also the activity and engineering skill of General Pemberton, under whose direction the works, for the most part, were prosecuted after the abandonment of Cole's island early in May. The position for the fort at Secessionville was originally selected by Col. Lewis M. Hatch of Charleston, whose practical knowledge of the waters and islands surrounding Charleston and patriotic zeal in planning for their defense made his services most valuable, especially at the beginning of the defensive work, when so very few military men in Charleston had made a study of the approaches by land and water to the city. The victory of the 16th of June bore ample testimony to the value of the exact spot on which Fort Lamar stood.

In July, Col. Johnson Hagood was promoted to brigadier-general, and the First regiment came under the command of Col. Thomas Glover. Early in August, Generals Drayton and Evans were sent from South Carolina to reinforce General Lee, in Virginia. These generals took with them the First regiment, Colonel Glover; the Fifteenth, Col. W. D. De Saussure; the Seventeenth, Col. (Governor) J. H. Means; the Eighteenth, Col. J. M. [100] Gadberry; the Twenty-second, Col. Joseph Abney; the Twenty-third, Col. H. L. Benbow; Holcombe legion, Col. P. F. Stevens; Third battalion, Lieut.-Col. G. S. James, and Capt. R. Boyce's battery, all South Carolina organizations. Upon taking command, General Beauregard assigned Gen. S. R. Gist to command the First district, with headquarters at Charleston. This district embraced the coast from the North Carolina line to Rantowles creek, and included the islands touching the harbor. Col. R. F. Graham commanded on Morris island, Col. L. M. Keitt on Sullivan's island, Col. C. H. Stevens on James island, and Major Emanuel at Georgetown. Lieut.-Col. William Butler, First regular infantry, commanded at Fort Moultrie, and Maj. Alfred Rhett, of the First regular artillery, at Fort Sumter. Fort Pemberton on the Stono was commanded by Maj. J. J. Lucas, and the post of Secessionville by Lieutenantcolo-nel Capers. General Gist had under his command 133 companies of all arms. In this enumeration by companies were included the following South Carolina regiments: First regular artillery, First regular infantry, First volunteer artillery, Twentieth, Twenty-first, Twenty-fourth and Twenty-fifth volunteers, ten companies each.

Brigadier-General Hagood, in charge of the Second military district, with headquarters at Adams' run, had in his command one regiment (the Sixteenth), Smith's and Nelson's battalions of infantry, two companies of cavalry, the Stono scouts, and two batteries (the Washington and Morrison artillery)—twenty-nine companies of all arms, all South Carolinians.

Col. W. S. Walker, commanding the Third military district, with headquarters at McPhersonville, had under his orders an aggregate of forty companies of all arms, as follows: Eleventh volunteers, First and Second battalions of sharpshooters, Third regiment of cavalry, First, Second and Sixth battalions of cavalry, Rutledge mounted riflemen, Charleston dragoons, Kirk's partisan rangers, [101] Elliott's Beaufort artillery, Kavanaugh's Lafayette battery, all South Carolina commands, and Nelson's Virginia battery. The whole Confederate force in South Carolina upon General Beauregard's assuming command, September 24, 1862, amounted to 202 companies of all arms, and aggregated 12,544 officers and soldiers present for duty.

On October 22d, the battle of Old Pocotaligo was fought by Col. W. S. Walker, with a small force of infantry, dismounted cavalry, and sections from two batteries of artillery, amounting in all to 675 men and officers. On the same day the railroad and turnpike bridges crossing the Coosawhatchie were successfully defended by the Lafayette artillery, Lieut. L. F. Le Bleux commanding; a section of Elliott's Beaufort battery, Lieut. H. M. Stuart commanding, and Capt. B. F. Wyman's company of the Eleventh South Carolina infantry. These engagements will be described separately.

A Federal force of 4,448 of all arms, under the command of Brigadier-General Brannan, sailed from Hilton Head on the evening of October 21st in transports supported by gunboats, destined for Mackay's point, on Broad river, with orders from the Federal commanding general ‘to destroy the railroad and railroad bridges on the Charleston and Savannah line.’ Landing his forces at Mackay's point during the night of the 21st and on the early morning of the 22d, General Brannan marched with all of his troops except the Forty-eighth New York and two companies of engineers, immediately up the road leading to Old Pocotaligo. The force detached was sent by boat up the Broad, and thence up the Coosawhatchie to destroy the railroad bridge over the latter river, where the main column, in case of victory at Pocotaligo, should unite with it in tearing up the railroad on either hand, including the bridge over the Pocotaligo and Tulifinny rivers.

If General Brannan had succeeded, he would have cut very effectually the communication between Savannah [102] and Charleston, captured the military stores at Coosawhatchie and Pocotaligo, and inflicted a serious blow to General Beauregard's line of defense. But his expedition signally failed, and he was defeated with brilliant success by Colonel Walker's troops at Old Pocotaligo and at Coosawhatchie bridge. Learning of his landing at Mackay's point and of his advance, Colonel Walker ordered by wire the artillery and infantry named above to repair to the bridge, and himself marched down the Mackay's point road, with all the force he could command, to meet General Brannan. Meanwhile, Col. C. J. Colcock, at Grahamville, commanding the Third South Carolina cavalry, dispatched Lieutenant-Colonel Johnson with five companies of his regiment, and Major Abney, with two companies of his battalion of sharpshooters, to march rapidly to Coosawhatchie and intercept the force which he had learned was moving up the river. These dispositions were effective, as the result showed.

Walker's force consisted of Nelson's Virginia battery, two sections of Elliott's battery, and the following commands: Maj. J. H. Morgan's battalion of cavalry, the Charleston light dragoons, Captain Kirk's partisan rangers, Captain Allston's company of sharpshooters, Capt. D. B. Heyward's company of cavalry, and Capt. A. C. Izard's company of the Eleventh South Carolina, Lieut. W. L. Campbell commanding. The aggregate of these troops was 475, one-fourth of whom were horse-holders and not in the engagement now to be described. Walker took position near Dr. Hutson's residence, on a salt marsh, crossed by a causeway and skirted by woods on both sides. A section of Elliott's guns, Allston's sharpshooters, and two companies of cavalry, under Maj. J. H. Morgan, had gone in advance of Walker's position and were skirmishing with the head of Brannan's advance and holding him in check. In this affair Major Morgan was severely wounded, but his command held the advance of the Federal troops sufficiently long to allow Walker to [103] post his gallant little force at Hutson's. Elliott's guns were posted in and near the road, and Nelson's in the field in rear of the skirmishers, and screened by woods in front. The rest of the command was put in line to the right and left of the road, covered by the trees which fringed the marsh.

General Brannan, encouraged by his success in driving in Major Morgan, pushed up with his infantry and attacked at once. Walker replied with the guns of Elliott and Nelson (Lieutenant Massie commanding) and with his rifle fire. The marsh was impracticable, but Brannan pushed his troops to its edge and opened an infantry fire from a force so much superior to Walker's as to inflict serious damage to his batteries by killing horses and wounding the gunners. The Federal artillery fired so incessantly that their ammunition fell short and their fire slackened.

Meanwhile Elliott and Massie raked the woods opposite with shell and canister. General Brannan reports that this fire twice drove his infantry out of the woods ‘with great slaughter;’ ‘the overwhelming fire of the enemy tore through the woods like hail.’ But the position was not strong enough to be held against so superior a force, and as the Federal regiments pushed out into the edge of the marsh, enveloping both flanks of the Confederate position, and delivering a damaging fire from their superior rifles, Walker ordered a retreat upon Old Pocotaligo, some 2 1/2 miles in his rear.

This was well executed and without confusion, Capt. J. B. Allston's sharpshooters and part of Company I, Eleventh volunteers, covering the movement. On the retreat, Capt. W. L. Trenholm, with his splendid company, the Rutledge mounted riflemen, joined Walker from outpost duty, and took command of all the cavalry.

Arriving at Old Pocotaligo, Walker took position in the old houses and behind the scattered trees of the hamlet, the Pocotaligo creek with its impracticable marsh [104] being in his front, and the ground higher and better adapted for defense than the position at Dr. Hutson's.

Capt. John H. Screven, just as the enemy appeared, opened fire, and after the last man of the rear guard had crossed, took a party of men and effectually tore up the long bridge on the causeway, and the fight began in earnest. Brannan brought up all his troops and artillery and poured in a galling fire, to which Walker's men replied from trees and houses and every bush on the edge of the marsh. Two of Elliott's guns and all of Morris' but one were disabled by the loss of the gunners, killed or wounded, and after the battle had been in progress some two hours, Walker had only three guns left. One of these he withdrew from the position commanding the causeway and put it in position under Sergeant Fuller, about 300 yards to his right, where it opened on the Federal left. Nelson's battalion (Seventh), 200 strong, under Capt. W. H. Sligh, came up at this juncture on Walker's right, and swelled his gallant little band to about 800 men. Half of Sligh's command, under Capt. J. H. Brooks, took position beyond Fuller's place, and opened fire from the woods fringing the Pocotaligo 700 or 800 yards beyond the hamlet of Pocotaligo. This fire created the impression of a strong reinforcement on Walker's right, and threatened the Federal left, which was in full view ‘in air.’

General Brannan had sufficient force to hold Walker at Old Pocotaligo, and move at least 2,500 men around his right flank, crossing the Pocotaligo a mile or so above, where it becomes very narrow. But he cautiously held on to his position and kept up his fire on Walker's force, relieving his regiments as they became slack of ammunition. He could not get to Walker without forcing the causeway and relaying the bridge, and this he could not do as the fire of the artillery and every musket would be turned on the least advance. The creek was deep and the banks boggy and made an impassable ditch in Walker's [105] front. Finally the Federal artillery ceased firing, and the entire force opened on Walker's left an incessant discharge from their rifles. Captain Sligh and the Charleston light dragoons on Walker's left replied with so much spirit and effect that Brannan gave up the fight, and at 6 p. m. withdrew from range and began his retreat to his boats at Mackay's point.

The bridge being destroyed and Walker's men thoroughly exhausted, it was some time before Colonel Walker could organize and direct the pursuit. Lieut. L. J. Walker, commanding the Rutledge mounted riflemen and Kirk's rangers, passing around the head of the Pocotaligo, pushed on down the Mackay's point road in the rear of Brannan's force; but the bridges were torn up and Walker could not reach the flying foe until the night made it impracticable to proceed. Brannan reached his gunboats in safety and re-embarked for his base at Hilton Head.

The force which attacked the bridge over the Coosawhatchie was met by Le Bleux's and Stuart's artillery and the fire of Captain Wyman's company, and was promptly repelled. A detachment, however, while the main force attacked the bridge, marched to the railroad, cut down a telegraph pole, cut the wire, and tore up two or three rails. A train carrying a portion of the Eleventh regiment and one company of Abney's battalion, under the command of Maj. J. J. Harrison, unhappily ran up just in time to receive a volley from the party on the railroad, by which the engineer was killed and Major Harrison lost his life.

Lieutenant-Colonel Johnson, with his cavalry, arriving at this juncture, the Federal force retreated and joined the force retiring from the bridge. The destruction of several bridges over marshes and creeks, which are numerous in the tidewater section, so impeded Colonel Johnson that he dismounted his men, and thus moved three companies in line to within 130 yards of the boats [106] and fired on the troops as they embarked. The gunboats returned the fire, and a gallant soldier, Private Thomas B. Fripp, was killed, and Lieut. T. G. Buckner and Corp. Thomas Farr wounded. When the train was fired upon and the engineer killed, the conductor, Mr. Buckhalter, with coolness and courage, ran his train on in the face of the ambuscading party. Thus ended the expedition to destroy the railroad and bridges on the Charleston line.

Walker lost 21 killed, 124 wounded, 18 missing; total, 163. Brannan's loss reported was 43 killed, 294 wounded, 3 missing; total, 340. Colonel Walker closed his report of the battle of Pocotaligo by commending in highest terms the conduct of the whole command, mentioning particularly Capt. H. J. Hartstene, naval aid; Capt. W. W. Elliott, ordnance officer; Capts. John H. Screven and George P. Elliott; Corp. D. L. Walker, and Privates Fripp and Martin and E. B. Bell, all of whom served on his staff. R. M. Fuller and the Messrs. Cuthbert, father and son, serving on the staff, rendered efficient service to the colonel commanding. The battle over, and the enemy safe on his gunboats, ample reinforcements arrived from Hagood and Gist, and from Savannah, but too late to do more than congratulate Colonel Walker and his heroic and victorious troops.

With the battle of Pocotaligo and the repulse of the New York regiment at Coosawhatchie bridge, the aggressive movements of the land forces of the enemy on the coast of South Carolina closed for the year 1862.

The Federal position at New Bern, N. C., protected by the heavy batteries of the fleet and held by a strong force under Major-General Foster, in 1862, afforded a safe and easy base of operations against the railroad line connecting Wilmington with Petersburg and Richmond. Goldsboro, on this railroad, was connected directly with New Bern by a railroad which ran through Kinston, the latter place being about halfway between New Bern and Goldsboro. [107]

At Kinston, Gen. N. G. Evans was in command, with his South Carolina brigade and some North Carolina troops, including Lieutenant-Colonel Pool's heavy battery on the river. The Neuse, open to gunboats, runs by both Goldsboro and Kinston, crossing the railroad line within four miles of the former place. General Foster planned an attack, first on Kinston and then on the railroad at the bridge near Goldsboro. For this purpose he marched from New Bern on December 11, 1862, with 10,000 infantry, eight light batteries, forty guns, and a regiment of cavalry 640 strong. Foster's force was composed of twelve Massachusetts, one Connecticut, one New Jersey, four New York, two Pennsylvania, and one Rhode Island regiments, light batteries from Rhode Island and New York, and cavalry from New York.

Evans' brigade was composed of the Holcombe legion, Col. P. F. Stevens; the Seventeenth South Carolina, Col. F. W. McMaster; the Twenty-second South Carolina, Col. S. D. Goodlett; the Twenty-third South Carolina, Col. H. L. Benbow, and Boyce's light battery. With this brigade and Radcliffe's regiment, Mallett's battalion and Bunting's and Starr's light batteries, North Carolina troops, he fought the battle of Kinston. Lieutenant-Colonel Pool, commanding the work on the river just below Kinston, successfully repelled the attack of the gunboats. Taking post on Southwest creek, about 4 miles due west of Kinston, Evans was attacked by Foster on the morning of the 13th. The Federal general marched up the west bank of the Neuse. With his overwhelming force, he turned both flanks of General Evans and compelled his retreat to a position about a mile from the town, covering the bridge over the Neuse. Foster moved on this position at once and attacked again with his infantry and artillery. The conduct of Evans' little command was heroic, and their firmness enabled him to hold Foster in check throughout the day.

Early the next morning the battle was renewed, General [108] Evans taking the offensive; but the superior force of the Federal army enveloped the small command of General Evans, and after three hours of gallant battle, he ordered a retreat across the river and through the town. At the bridge Evans lost between 400 and 500 of his command, taken prisoners, but succeeded in taking over his artillery and most of his troops. He took up a strong position, toward Goldsboro, about 2 miles from Kinston, and was awaiting General Foster's advance when he received a summons from that general to surrender! This he promptly declined and prepared for battle, but night coming on, Foster gave up the further pursuit of General Evans on the east bank of the Neuse, and crossed to the west side of the river, encamping in that position for the night. On the 15th he resumed his march up the west bank toward the railroad bridge near Goldsboro, and followed with his attack upon the bridge and its destruction on the 17th. In this affair an attack was also made upon the county bridge crossing the Neuse, which was successfully defended by General Clingman and his gallant command of North Carolinians, strongly supported by Evans.

On the 18th of December, General Foster began his movement back to his base at New Bern. Almost without cavalry, the Confederate forces, now under the chief command of Maj.-Gen. G. W. Smith, could not follow him effectively, and he reached New Bern after suffering a total loss of 591, killed, wounded and captured. There is no record of the losses of the South Carolina brigade at Kinston, or at the railroad bridge in front of Goldsboro. General Clingman reported a loss of 20 killed, 107 wounded, and 18 missing; total, 145. Evans lost over 400 taken prisoners at the bridge at Kinston, and must have met heavier losses than Clingman in his battles on the 13th and 14th. His total loss could not have been less than 600 in killed, wounded and captured, out of a total in front of Kinston of 2,014. General Foster's [109] apid retreat from the railroad can only be accounted for upon the supposition that he exaggerated the forces sent from Wilmington, Petersburg and Richmond to reinforce Goldsboro. The aggregate of all arms at Goldsboro on the 18th could not have reached 7,000 effectives, and General Foster's army, after its losses on the 13th, 14th and 17th, was fully 10,500 of all arms.

General Evans in his official report mentioned especially the gallant conduct of Adjt. W. P. Du Bose and Capt. M. G. Zeigler, of the Holcombe legion; Capt. S. A. Durham, Twenty-third South Carolina; his personal staff, and Lieutenant-Colonels Mallett and Pool, and Colonels Radcliffe and Baker of the North Carolina troops.

The expedition of General Foster with so large a force, and the reported presence of a large fleet of transports, carrying an army under General Banks, in the waters of Beaufort, made General Whiting, commanding at Wilmington, apprehensive of an attack on that city. Pending the movement of Foster, General Whiting telegraphed to General Beauregard urgently to send troops to his assistance, as Wilmington was protected only by its forts and a small garrison. General Beauregard promptly sent a division of two brigades under Brig.-Gen. S. R. Gist. The first brigade was made up of troops from the First and Second military districts of South Carolina, under command of Col. C. H. Stevens, Twenty-fourth regiment, and the second from the military district of Georgia, commanded by the senior colonel. Three South Carolina light batteries accompanied the division, W. C. Preston's, Waities' and Culpeper's. The South Carolina infantry included the Sixteenth, Colonel McCullough; the Twenty-fourth, Lieutenant-Colonel Capers; Twenty-fifth, Colonel Simonton, and Nelson's battalion. By December 17th, the day of the attack in front of Goldsboro, General Gist's division had arrived in Wilmington, and went into camp. The Twenty-fourth, with Preston's battery, was stationed at the railroad crossing of [110] the Northeast river, 9 miles east of Wilmington, and fortified the position and the roads approaching it.

The month of December passed, and the expected attack upon Wilmington was not made. The expedition under General Banks did not move inland and the fleet did not appear off Cape Fear. General Whiting wrote General Beauregard that a storm at sea, which had lost the fleet three of its monitors, had saved Wilmington from the threatened attack. About January 1, 1863, the division under Gist was returned to General Beauregard, except Harrison's Georgia regiment, Nelson's battalion, the Twenty-fourth South Carolina, and the three batteries, Preston's, Waities' and Culpeper's. These, with Clingman's brigade, sent from Goldsboro, and three North Carolina light batteries, made up the whole of General Whiting's disposable force for the defense of Wilmington, after Gist's division was returned to Beauregard.

Returning these troops, Whiting wrote to General Beauregard: ‘I send you this note by your able Brigadier-General Gist, of South Carolina . . . I beg you will receive my true and real thanks for the promptness with which you sent your magnificent troops to my assistance at a time when it was thought they were needed.’ He made a special request that he might have General Gist's personal services, and accordingly that general was ordered to return and report to General Whiting for special duty, for which favor Whiting expressed his thanks, referring to Gist as always ‘cool, sensible and brave,’ characteristics which that officer manifested throughout his career.

During January, 1863, the Twenty-fourth South Caro-lina, with Preston's battery, under Col. C. H. Stevens, occupied the vicinity of Island creek, on the Holly Shelter road, as an outpost in advance of the Northeast bridge, fortifying the position and obstructing the roads. The expected attack not being made, the South Carolina troops were returned, to resume their positions on the coast of their own State early in February. [111]

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Goldsboro (North Carolina, United States) (12)
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Savannah (Georgia, United States) (5)
North Carolina (North Carolina, United States) (5)
James Island (South Carolina, United States) (4)
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Pocotaligo (South Carolina, United States) (3)
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Neuse (North Carolina, United States) (2)
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Coosawhatchie, S. C. (South Carolina, United States) (2)
Broad River (South Carolina, United States) (2)
Winyaw Bay (South Carolina, United States) (1)
Wappoo Creek (South Carolina, United States) (1)
Tullifinny River (South Carolina, United States) (1)
Stono River (South Carolina, United States) (1)
Southwest (North Carolina, United States) (1)
Rhode Island (Rhode Island, United States) (1)
Rantowles Creek (South Carolina, United States) (1)
Pocotaligo River (South Carolina, United States) (1)
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania, United States) (1)
Newport Neck (Rhode Island, United States) (1)
New Jersey (New Jersey, United States) (1)
New Bern (North Carolina, United States) (1)
McPhersonville (South Carolina, United States) (1)
Massachusetts (Massachusetts, United States) (1)
Long Island City (New York, United States) (1)
Grahamville (South Carolina, United States) (1)
Fort Ripley (Minnesota, United States) (1)
Fort Lamar (Georgia, United States) (1)
Dill's Creek (North Carolina, United States) (1)
Connecticut (Connecticut, United States) (1)
Cape Fear (North Carolina, United States) (1)
Beaufort, S. C. (South Carolina, United States) (1)
Ashley River (South Carolina, United States) (1)

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W. S. Walker (25)
G. T. Beauregard (16)
Brannan (14)
John G. Foster (13)
S. R. Gist (10)
N. G. Evans (10)
J. C. Pemberton (9)
P. H. Nelson (8)
W. H. C. Whiting (7)
Stephen Elliott (7)
George W. Sullivan (4)
W. C. Preston (4)
J. H. Morgan (4)
Mackay (4)
Clingman (4)
L. J. Walker (3)
Clement Hoffman Stevens (3)
W. H. Sligh (3)
Mamie E. Pool (3)
M. J. Kirk (3)
Edward Johnson (3)
Hutson (3)
J. J. Harrison (3)
Johnson Hagood (3)
R. M. Fuller (3)
J. B. Allston (3)
Joseph Abney (3)
D. L. Walker (2)
Peter F. Stevens (2)
John H. Screven (2)
J. D. Radcliffe (2)
Massie (2)
Mallett (2)
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Thomas Glover (2)
Thomas B. Fripp (2)
Ellison Capers (2)
R. Boyce (2)
H. L. Benbow (2)
Banks (2)
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Benjamin F. Wyman (1)
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Richmond (1)
Alfred Rhett (1)
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L. F. Bleux (1)
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