Autobiography of Gen. Patton Anderson, C. S. A.[Transcribed by Mrs. Anderson and kindly furnished by her for publication, through Rev. H. A. Brown, Saxe, Va.—Ed.]
I was born in Winchester, Franklin county, Tennessee, on the 16th day of February, 1822. My father, William Preston Anderson, was a native of Botetourt county, Virginia, and was born about the year 1775. During the second term of General Washington's administration he received from the President a commission of lieutenant in the United States army. About this time, or soon after, he removed to Tennessee, and at one time was United States district attorney for the——judicial district, and was subsequently surveyor-general of the district of Tennessee. In the year of 1812 he was colonel in the 24th United States infantry and was accidentally with Colonel Crogan in his defense of Fort Harrison. During this war he married my mother (Margaret L. Adair), who was the fifth daughter of Major-General John Adair, of Mercer county, Kentucky. He had previously been married to Miss Nancy Bell, by whom he had three children—Musadora, Rufus King and Caroline. In the second marriage there were born Nancy Bell, Catharine Adair, John Adair, (who died in infancy,) James Patton, John Adair, (who died in 1858,) Thomas Scott and Butler Preston. When I was an infant my father removed from the town of Winchester to his farm, ‘Craggy Hope,’  about six miles distant, where he resided till his death, in April, 1831. When about eight years old I was sent for a short time to a country school near home, where I learned the alphabet and began to spell and read. Soon after my father's death my mother returned with her six children to her father's in Mercer county, Kentucky. My brother John Adair and myself were soon after sent to the house of Charles Buford (who had married my mother's youngest sister) in Scott county, Kentucky, and remained there about a year, attending a country school taught by a Mr. Phillips. This was in 1831-2. In 1833 I returned to my grandfather's and went to school to a young man named Van Dyke who taught in the neighborhood, afterwards to Mr. Tyler, and still later to a Mr. Boutwell, who were successively principal of Cave Run Acadamy in Mercer county. I was then sent to the house of Judge Thomas B. Monroe, in Frankfort. Mrs. Monroe was also a sister of my mother. Here I remained about a year or perhaps more, attending a select school taught by B. B. Sayre. About this time my mother was married to Dr. J. N. Bybee, of Harrodsburg, Kentucky. I was taken to his house and went to school in the village to a Mr. Rice, and afterwards to a Mr. Smith. In October, 1836, I was sent to Jefferson College, at Cannonsburg, Pennsylvania. I remained there a year, when pecuniary misfortunes compelled my stepfather to withdraw me. In the winter of 1838 I kept up my studies with a young man named Terry, then teaching in Harrodsburg. During this winter I boarded at the house of my uncle John Adair, three miles in the country. In the spring of 1838 I was sent up to Three Forks of the Kentucky river, in Estill county, where my stepfather had established a saw-mill and had opened a coal mine. During this year, too, I made a trip with my mother to Winchester, Tenn., on horseback, where she went to close up some of the unsettled business of my father's estate. In the fall of 1838 my stepfather determined to remove to north Mississippi, then being rapidly settled, the Indians having been removed west of the Mississippi river. I accompanied him on horseback from Harrodsburg, Ky., to Hernando, in De Soto county, Miss. I remained here during the winter of 1838-9 assisting in building cabins, clearing land, &c., for the comfort of the family. In April, 1839, I was sent back to Jefferson College. I entered the junior class and graduated in 1840. I returned to De Soto county, Miss., and began the study of law in the office of Buckner & Delafield, and was admitted to the bar by Judge Howry in 1843. Having no money with which to support myself, and the bar being  crowded with the best talent of Tennessee, Alabama and other States which had been attracted to this new country by its great prosperity and promise, I accepted the position of deputy sheriff of De Soto county under my brother-in-law, Col. James H. Murray, who had been elected to that office in the fall of 1843. I held this position, from which a comfortable support was derived, till 1846, when the prospect seemed favorable to commence the practice of law. In the summers of 1844 and 1845 I spent three months of each year at the law school of Judge Thomas B. Monroe at Montrose over at Frankfort, Ky. I have always regarded these months as more profitably spent than any others of my life. In 1847 I formed a partnership with R. B. Mayes, a young lawyer of the State about my own age. (During the time I discharged the functions of deputy sheriff, I also practiced law in partnership with my former preceptor, E. F. Buckner, whenever I could do so consistently with the duties of the office.) In October, 1847, I received an earnest appeal from Governor A. G. Brown, of Mississippi, to organize a company in response to a call from the President of the United States, for service in Mexico. (I had previously made several efforts to enter the military service during the war with Mexico, but all the organizations from De Soto county had failed to be received by the Governor, their distance from the capital making them too late in reporting.) In a few days I organized a company of volunteers from the regiment of militia in the county, of which I was then colonel. I was elected captain of the company without opposition. H. Car Forrest was elected 1st lieutenant, my brother John Adair was elected 2d lieutenant, and my brother Thomas Scott, orderly sergeant. The company repaired hurriedly to Vicksburg, the rendezvous. Two other companies had already reached the encampment. After waiting a fortnight or more for the other two companies of the battalion called for by the President to report, the five companies were sent to New Orleans for equipment and organization. Having received arms, clothing, &c., they embarked about the 2d of January, 1848, for Tampico, Mexico. On the 22d of February, 1848, I was elected at Tampico lieutenant-colonel to command the battalion. I remained at Tampico till the close of the war, when I was mustered out of the service along with the battalion at Vicksburg, Miss., and reached my home at Hernando on the 4th of July, 1848. I resumed the practice of law in partnership with R. B. Mayes. Our prospects were flattering as the business of the firm was gradually  increasing. In the fall of 1849 I was elected one of the members of the Legislature from De Soto county after a very heated and closely contested canvass. In January, 1850, I took my seat in the Legislature. Gen. John A. Quitman was at the same time inaugurated governor of the State. The celebrated compromise measures were then pending in the Congress of the United States, and the country much excited on the topic then being discussed. Jefferson Davis and H. S. Foote were then the United States Senators from Mississippi. I took the same view of the question with Davis and Quitman—voted for a resolution in the House of Representatives of Mississippi requesting Senator Foote to resign his seat, inasmuch as he did not reflect the will of the State in voting for the compromise bill. I sustained cordially and sincerely all the prominent measures of Governor Quitman's administration, and believed great injustice and wrong was done the South in the passage of the compromise bill by the Congress of the United States. In 1851 I was renominated by the Democratic party of De Soto county for a seat in the Legislature. My health at this time was very bad, which precluded me from making a thorough canvass of the county. The contest was an exceedingly warm one and in many portions of the State was even bitter. It has passed into history. Mr. Davis was defeated for governor by General Foote. The whole Democratic party was left in a minority; with the rest I was defeated by over a hundred majority in an aggregate vote of about eighteen hundred; resumed the practice of law; succeeded as well as could be hoped; health still bad from fever and ague. In 1853 Jefferson Davis was tendered the position of Secretary of War in Mr. Pierce's Cabinet. In answer to a letter of mine in February of this year he advised me to proceed to Washington city where he would use his influence to procure me a commission in the new rifle regiments then about to be raised by Congress for frontier defense. My health by this time, became so bad from the effects of sedentary habits and the agues engendered in a miasmatic climate, that friends and physicians advised me to remove from Mississippi to a colder and dryer climate. I accepted Mr. Davis's proposal and repaired to Washington city, where I arrived on the night of the 4th of March, 1853, in time to learn that the bill to raise a rifle regiment had failed for want of time to receive President Fillmore's signature. I remained, however, a fortnight without making any effort or application to receive any other position. The bill to organize the territory of Washington had become a law on the 3d of  March. My uncle, John Adair, who had removed to Astoria in Oregon in 1848, was now in Washington city and was extremely anxious for me to remove to that distant region, where my brothers John and Butler had gone in 1850. Through his instrumentality and the kindness of Mr. Davis (now Secretary of War) I was appointed United States marshal for the Territory of Washington. I accepted it and set about making preparations for the journey. Two difficulties were in the way—1st, the want of money, and 2d, I was engaged to be married to my cousin Henrietta Buford Adair, and I doubted the policy of taking her into such a wild and new country with no other help or dependence for a support than my own exertions. I returned to Memphis where she was, consulted her, and we agreed to try our fortunes on this unknown sea. Her father gave her eight hundred dollars, and by borrowing six hundred from Stephen D Johnston, of De Soto county [this was soon returned by collections from his practice, which his health at the time did not permit him to attend to.—E. A. A.], I raised about the same amount. [My recollection is he raised about one thousand, possibly a little over.—E. A. A.] We were married in Memphis on the 30th of April, 1853, and in an hour afterwards were on our way to the Pacific coast aboard of a Mississippi steamer bound for New Orleans. We embarked at New Orleans on the 7th of May on board a steamer bound for Greytown in Nicaragua. The first day at sea my wife was taken very ill of fever. For several days her life seemed to be suspended by a thread. These were the most anxious days of my life. Happily she was better by the time we reached Greytown. Taking a small river steamer there we commenced the ascent of the San Juan river. After several days of toil we reached Virgin Bay, only to learn that the steamer from San Francisco, on which we had expected to reach that city on her return trip, had sprung a leak and was compelled to go down the coast to Panama for repairs, and that she would probably not return for a month. This was a great disappointment to the eight hundred passengers at Virgin Bay, who were eager to reach the gold fields of California, but to me it was a matter for rejoicing, since a few weeks' rest in Nicaragua would probably restore my wife to health before undertaking another long sea voyage. We remained at Virgin Bay nearly a month. My wife recovered, and we embarked at San Juan del Sud the first week in June. Reached San Francisco in fourteen days, where we had to stay near a fortnight in wait for the steamer which was to take us to the Columbia river. At the expiration of this time we set sail in the  steamer Columbia, bound for Astoria, Oregon. Among the passengers were my Uncle John Adair and his oldest daughter, Capt. George B. McClellan, U. S. A., Major Lamed, U. S. A., and several other officers of the army, besides two companies of the ——infantry. [I thintk the 4th.—E. A. A.] After passing the bar at the mouth of the Columbia a reckoning was taken between my wife and myself of the state of finances. It was ascertained that the sum total on hand was exactly one dollar! [Paper money would not pass on that coast.—E. A. A.] It would not pay for landing our trunks at Astoria, which place was then in sight and was our present destination. I threw the dollar into the raging Columbia and began to whistle to keep my courage up. An officer came on deck whom I had not seen at the table or elsewhere during the voyage. He inquired if Colonel Anderson was in the crowd. I replied and introduced myself to him. He made himself known as Lieut. Rufus Saxon, U. S. A., and said he had left New York on the steamer that came out a fortnight after I had left New Orleans, and that he had an official communication for me from the Secretary of the Interior, at the same time handing me a paper in a large official envelope. Taking it in my hand I began to deposit it in my coat pocket without breaking the seal, when he requested that I would open it and see whether he had brought it and contents safely to hand. On opening it I found it contained instructions for me as United States marshal to proceed at once to take a census of the inhabitants of the new Territory of Washington, and also a Treasury draft for a thousand dollars, to defray my expenses in the work! This was a piece of good fortune in the nick of time, for in two minutes more the steamer dropped her anchor off the city of Astoria, and soon we disembarked. My wife remained at the house of our uncle at Astoria and I started in a few days to Puget Sound to commence the official labors assigned me. I reached Olympia on the 4th of July and on the 5th started through the Territory to take the census. The only mode of travel then known in the country was by canoe with Indians as watermen or on foot. For two months I was constantly engaged in this way, frequently walking as much as twenty five miles per day, and carrying my blanket, provisions, and papers on my back. My health was already robust and the work was a pleasure. On completing the census, my wife accompanied me in a canoe, &c., up the Cowlitz river to Olympia, where the capital of the Territory was likely to be established and where I had determined to settle. At  first we rented a little house and then I bought one, in which we lived very happily and pleasantly during our stay in the Territory. In addition to the discharge of my duties as United States marshal I practiced law in the Territorial courts whenever the two duties did not conflict. In 1855 I was nominated by the Democratic party of the Territory for the position of Delegate in the United States Congress. My competitor was Judge Strong, formerly United States district judge in Oregon. We began a thorough canvass of the whole Territory as soon as appointments for public speaking could be distributed among the people. I was successful at the election, which came off in June. Soon thereafter the report of gold discoveries near Fort Colville on the upper Columbia reached the settlements on Puget Sound, and several persons began preparations for a trip into that region. Not desiring to start for Washington city before October, in order to be in Washington on the first Monday in December, the meeting of the 34th Congress, to which I had been elected, I determined to go to Fort Colville to inform myself about the gold deposits of that and other unexplored regions of the Territory, the better to be able to lay its wants and resources before Congress and the people of the States. I started with seven other citizens of Olympia the latter part of June on horseback with pack animals to carry our provisions. Our route lay over the Cascade Mountains, through what was then called the Na-chess pass, across the Takama river and valley, striking the Columbia river at Priest's rapids, where we crossed it, and taking the Grande Contee to the mouth of the Spokan river, thence up the left bank of the Columbia by Fort Colville to the mouth of Clarke's Fork, where gold was reported to have been found, which we proved by experiment to be true. The trip from Olympia to the mouth of Clark's Fork, as thus described, occupied us about twenty-four days. Other parties followed us soon after. The Indians on the route became alarmed lest their country would be overrun with whites in search of gold and commenced hostilities by killing a man named Mattice, who was on his way to the mines from Olympia. A general Indian war was threatened. I had not been at the mines a week till Angus McDonald, of Fort Colville, sent an express to inform me of the condition of affairs between me and home. We were unarmed, except with two guns and one or two pistols in the party. Our provisions were being exhausted, and the appointed time for my return had arrived; so the miners concluded to return with me. To avoid the most hostile  tribe, led by the chief Owhi, we made a detour to the east in returning, crossed the Spokan about forty miles above its mouth, passed by the old Whitnan mission, crossed Snake river about ten or twenty miles above its mouth, took down the Pelouse to Walla-Walla, thence across the Umatilla near the mission and ‘Billy Mc-Key's,’ crossing the Deo Shuttes at its mouth, then down to the Dalles, the Cascades, Fort Van Couver, and up the Cowlitz back to Olympia, which we reached in safety about the 1st of October. During that month my wife and self took steamer for San Francisco, thence to Panama, Aspinwall and New York. We reached Washington city a few days before the meeting of Congress. This (34th) Congress will be long remembered as the one which gave rise to such a protracted and heated contest for speaker, to which position Mr. N. P. Banks, of Massachusetts, was finally elected. This was the first triumph of importance of that fanatical party (now called Republican) which led to the disruption of the Union four years later. Before this struggle for speaker had been decided, and during the Christmas holidays, my wife and I repaired to Casa Bianca, Fla., by invitation of our aunt, Mrs. E. A. Beatty. While there I entered into an agreement with her for the conduct of her plantation under my supervision, &c. My wife remained at Casa Bianca and I returned to my duties in Washington city, only coming to Florida during the vacation. My term of service in Congress expired the 4th of March, 1857. The same day Mr. Buchanan was inaugurated President for four years. He appointed me Governor and Superintendent of Indian Affairs of Washington Territory [the same positions had been tendered him by Mr. Pierce, which he had declined.—E. A. A.], but I did not accept, wishing to take my wife's advice on the subject. On consultation with her I determined not to return to Washington Territory, believing firmly that the days of the Union were already numbered, and not wishing to be absent from the land of my birth when her hour of trial came. I resigned the position tendered me by Mr. Buchanan and devoted myself exclusively to planting at Casa Bianca. In 1860, when it became certain that Mr. Lincoln was elected President of the United States, the people of Florida, feeling alarmed for the safety of their rights and institutions, began to hold primary meetings preparatory to a general convention of the State. In December, 1860, I was elected a delegate from Jefferson county to a general convention of the State, which assembled at Tallahassee the  1st of January, 1861, and passed the ordinance of secession on the 10th day of the same month, which received my hearty approval. While the convention was yet in session the Governor deemed it prudent to seize such forts, ordnance and ordnance stores as he could, belonging to the United States within the limits of the State. For this purpose a force was sent to Pensacola to seize the navy yard, Forts Barancas, McBee and Pickens, to which all the United States troops then at Pensacola had now retired. At the request of the company, signified to me in Tallahassee while they were awaiting transportation to St. Mark's, I agreed to command them in this expedition. Another company under Captain Amaker from Tallahassee was also going on the same errand. We failed at St. Mark's to get steamboat transportation. Returned to Tallahassee and started overland by Quincy, Chattahoochie, &c. Captain Amaker's commission as captain was older than mine, but at his urgent request and that of Governor Perry I consented to assume the command of the two companies. Having marched to Chattahoochie arsenal we were stopped by a dispatch from Governor Perry directing us to remain there till further orders. In about a week it was decided by the officer in command of Florida troops at Pensacola not to attack Fort Pickens, and he accordingly dispatched Governor Perry to disband my detachment. In the meantime the convention of Florida had determined to send delegates to a convention of such Southern States as had seceded from the Union, which was to meet in February at Montgomery, Ala. These de'egates from Florida were to be appointed by the Governor, by and with the advice and consent of the convention. Governor Perry dispatched me at Chattahoochie arsenal that he had appointed me one of the three delegates to this general convention, and directed me to return to Tallahassee with my two companies where they would be disbanded, which was done. In February I repaired to Montgomery and took part in the proceedings of the convention, which formed a provisional government for the seceded States. All the principal measures of that body, passed or proposed during its first session and while I was a member, met my support. I was on the Committee of Military Affairs and favored the raising of troops, &c. I also proposed to have the cooks, nurses, teamsters and pioneers of our army to consist of slaves. After having adopted a provisional constitution and a provisional president, the convention or Congress adjourned about the first of March.  On the 26th of March, while near my home at Monticello, the Governor wrote me that he wished to send a regiment of infantry to Pensacola for Confederate service. My old company was immediately reorganized and on the 28th of March started for Chattahoochie arsenal, the place appointed for all the companies to rendezvous and elect field officers. On the 5th of April I was elected colonel of the 1st Florida regiment without opposition, and that night started with the regiment to report to General Bragg at Pensacola. We reached Pensacola on the 11th, and 12th of April went into camp and commenced drilling and exercising the troops. On the nights of the 7th-8th of October I commanded one of the detachments which made a descent upon the camp of Billy Wilson's Zouaves, under the guns of Fort Pickens, on Santa Rosa Island. The expedition consisted of about a thousand men divided into three detachments, respectively under Col. J. R. Jackson, 5th Georgia regiment; Col. James R. Chalners, 9th Mississippi regiment, and myself. Chalmers had the right, Jackson the centre, and I the left; the whole under command of Brigadier-General R. H. Anderson, of South Carolina. My command consisted of 1oo men from the 1st Florida, 100 men from the 1st Louisiana, and about 150 from the 1st Alabama, and other commands. My loss in this fight was eleven killed, twenty-four wounded and twelve captured. (I speak from memory.) On the 10th of February, 1862, I was appointed a brigadiergen-eral in the provisional army of Confederate States, and in March was ordered to report to General Bragg, then at Jackson in West Tennessee. Soon after reporting I was assigned to the command of a brigade of infantry in the division of Brigadier-General Ruggles, then at Corinth, Miss. This brigade consisted principally of Louisiana troops, to which the 1st Florida and 9th Texas regiments were soon after added. I was immediately ordered to the front of Corinth in the direction of Monterey and Pittsburg Landing. At the battle of Shiloh my brigade consisted of the 17th, 19th and 20th Louisiana regiments, the 9th Texas, the 1st Florida, and Clack's Louisiana battalion, with the 5th Company of Washington Artillery of New Orleans. Soon after the battle of Shiloh, Hindman was assigned to the command of Ruggle's division, but only exercised it a few days when he was ordered to Arkansas, and the command devolved upon me as senior brigadier. I commanded the division in the retreat from Corinth till we reached Clear Creek, near Baldwin, where I was taken ill with fever, and Major-General Sam Jones was assigned  to the division. I rejoined the division at Tupelo, Miss., where the army was reorganized, and I commanded a brigade in Sam Jones's division till we reached Chattanooga, Tenn., in August of that year, preparatory to the Kentucky campaign. In August, 1862, while encamped near Chattanooga, the division was reorganized, and was composed of Walker's, Adams's, Anderson's, and Richard's brigades. About the middle of August Major-General Sam Jones was assigned to the command of the Department of East Tennessee and the command of the division devolved upon me. On the 1st of September I crossed Walden's ridge with my division, following Buckner's division—the two composing Hardee's Corps, Army of Tennessee. Throughout this campaign I continued in command of the division, having Brigadier-General Preston Smith's brigade of Cheatham's division added to it in the afternoon of the day of the battle of Perryville. We returned from Kentucky through Cumberland Gap, Knoxville, Chattanooga and Bridgeport to Allisonia, in Franklin county, Tenn., where my division was halted for a fortnight. During this time I visited for the first time in many years the grave of my father at Craggy Hope. From Allisonia the army proceeded to Shelbyville, where we halted ten days, and thence to Eagleville, where, in December, my division was broken up and I was assigned to the command of a brigade in Withers's division of Polk's corps. This brigade was the one formerly commanded by Brigadier-General Frank Gardner. I was only in command of it a few days when Rozecrans advanced upon Murfreesboro, where General Bragg determined to give him battle, and for this purpose took his line of battle on the 27th of December about a mile and a half from Murfreesboro on the Nashville and Wilkinson pikes. The morning of the day on which the line was taken up I was transferred to the command temporarily of Walthall's brigade of Mississippians. This was in consequence of Walthall's sickness and because the brigade was composed entirely of troops (Mississippians) who had been under my command, either as brigade or division commander, since March, 1862. This brigade won many laurels in the battle of 31st of December and the 2d of January, 1863; was sent to reinforce Breckenridge on the right, who had been roughly handled that afternoon by superior numbers. We reached the scene of conflict about sundown, and after the heaviest fighting was over, in time, however, to have several officers and men of our skirmish line severely wounded; and, by interposing a fresh line between the victorious  enemy and Breckenridge's shattered columns, gave time for the latter to rally and resume a line they had held in the morning. This affair gave rise to much bitter feeling between General Bragg and Major-General Breckenridge, Bragg in his official report having animadverted very severely upon Breckenridge's conduct and having attributed more—I think—to my brigade than it was entitled to. On the other hand Breckenridge hardly did us justice, or rather his friends, who discussed the matter in the public prints did not give me due credit for our conduct or operations on that occasion. They rather contended that I reached the ground after the fight was over, and although we came with good intentions and doubtless would have rendered efficient services, if it had been necessary, yet there was nothing to be done after our arrival, &c. The facts are, however, as I have stated them here, and as I stated them in my official report on that occasion, a copy of which I sent to General Breckenridge, whereupon he wrote me a very complimentary note, characterizing the report as one that was ‘truthful and manly.’ [This note, with many valuable packages, including most of his Confederate correspondence and official reports in a handsome desk, were burned at St. Marks, Fla., while awaiting shipment. The warehouse was burned and they in it in 1869.—E. A. A.] I think General Bragg founded his report upon exaggerated statements of some partial friend of mine and hence attributed to more than I deserved. I allude to it here because both Bragg's and Breckenridge's statements may become matters of controversy and dispute hereafter.) After the battle of Murfreesboro, during the illness and absence of Major-General Withers, I was in command of the division for over a month. In the meantime Brigadier-General Chalmers, who commanded a brigade of Mississippians in the division, was transferred to the cavalry service in Mississippi, and upon Withers resuming command of the division, I was assigned permanently to the command of Chalmers' brigade, which I exercised without interruption while the army was at Shelbyville, Tenn., and during our retreat from that place to Chattanooga, in June-July, 1863. In July, 1863, I was sent with my brigade to hold the Tennessee river at Bridgeport and vicinity, while the balance of the army was at Chattanooga aad above there on the river. This duty was performed to the entire satistaction of General Bragg. In August Withers was transferred to duty in Alabama and Hindman was assigned to the command of the division. Shortly before evacuating Chattanooga my brigade was withdrawn from Bridgeport by order  of General Bragg and rejoined the division in the neighborhood of Chattanooga. I commanded the division in the McLemore's Cove expedition in September—for which Hindman, who commanded the whole expedition, has received much censure. He certainly missed capturing eight orten thousand of the enemy, which would have left the balance of Rosencranz's army at Bragg's mercy. Soon after this, or rather while in McLemore's Cove, Hindman was taken sick and the command of the division again devolved upon me. On the night of the 19th of September, after the division had crossed the Chickamauga creek and while it was getting in position for next day's fight, Hindman resumed command and continued in command of the division till the close of the battle after dark on the night of the 20th. So I commanded my brigade in the battle of Chickamauga. In the advance on Missionary Ridge, began on the 21st, I was in command of the division. Soon after reaching Missionary Ridge Hindman was placed in arrest by General Bragg and the command of the division devolved upon me. I commanded it at the battle of Missionary Ridge, but on that morning protested against the disposition which had been made of the troops (see my official report), which was the worst I have ever seen. The line was in two ranks, the front rank at the foot of the hill and the rear rank on the top!! And the men were over three feet apart in line! Thus the front rank was not strong enough to hold its position, nor could it retire to the top of the ridge so as to be of any service to the line there. The consequence was that the troops made no fight at all, but broke and ran as soon as the enemy's overwhelming columns advanced. About the last of December Hindman was released from arrest and assumed command of the corps as senior major-general, and I remained in command of the division. In February, 1864, Major-General Breckinridge having been transferred to a command in Southwestern Division, I was on the 9th day of February appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate a major-general in the provisional army and assigned to the command of Breckenridge's division in the Army of Tennessee. Before receiving these orders, however, I received a dispatch from the President ordering me to Florida to assume command of that district. The Army of Tennessee was at this time at Dalton, Ga., under command of General Joseph E. Johnston.  I reached Florida the 1st of March, 1864, ten days after the battle of Olustee, and assumed command of the district, with headquarters in the field in front of Jacksonville. Remained here operating against the enemy at Jacksonville and on the St. John's river all summer, until I was ordered back to the Army of Tennnessee. We were able to confine the enemy closely to his entrenchments around Jacksonville, and by blowing up two of his armed transports above Jacksonville and one below, put a complete stop to his navigation of the river above that city, and caused him to evacuate Palatka and to use the river below Jacksonville with the greatest caution. On the night of the 25th of July, 1864, I received a telegram from General Bragg at Columbus, Ga., directing me to report to General Hood at Atlanta without delay for duty in the field. I started to Atlanta on the morning of the 26th of July and reached Atlanta on the night of the 28th. On the 29th I was assigned to and on the 30th assumed command of my old division composed of Deas', Brantley's, Sharp's and Manigault's brigades. I remained in command of these brigades until the even of the 31st of August, when I was wounded in the battle of Jonesboro, Ga., which compelled me to leave the field and has resulted in my absence from the army up to the present time. There are many incidents connected with my experience which would interest my children if I had time to record them, but I have not. I have hurriedly written some of the prominent facts for their edification hereafter. This is a dark day in the history of the present war, but I believe a brighter will soon dawn upon us. If dissension and and faction does not distract us, we will certainly achieve our independence. The course of some prominent men in Georgia [Toombs and Governor Brown.—E. A. A.] just at this time is much calculated to grieve the spirit of all true Southerners. It is to be hoped that they will desist from their factions, teachings, and practices, and soon unite with the patriots of the land to prosecute with unanimity and vigor the war which our enemies are determined to wage against us.
General Anderson's different commands during the war.
Joined a company then being organized in Jefferson county, Fla., called ‘Jefferson Rifles,’ at Monticello, Fla., December 1o, 1860; was elected captain and entered service of the State of Florida on the 11th of January, 1861. Elected colonel of 1st Florida Regiment (infantry) March 26, 1861, and entered Confederate service same day. Promoted brigadier-general P. A. C. S. February 1o, 1862, and assigned to command of brigade composed of 1st Florida Regiment, 17th Alabama Regiment (Colonel Jos. Wheeler), 5th Mississippi (Colonel Fant), 8th Mississippi (Colonel Flint); ordered to Jackson, Tenn., March 20, 1862; thence to Corinth, Miss., and there assigned to command brigade about the 26th of March, composed of 1st Florida Battalion (6 companies, Lieutenant-Colonel McDonald), battalion ‘Confederate Guards Response’ from Louisiana (Lieutenant-Colonel Clack), 17th Louisiana Regiment (Colonel Heard), 20th Louisiana Regiment (Colonel Richard), 9th Texas Regiment (Colonel Stanley). Commanded this brigade in the battle of Shiloh. Soon thereafter, on reorganization, was assigned to brigade composed of 41st Mississippi Regiment (Colonel W. F. Tucker), 36th Mississippi Regiment (Colonel Drury Brown), 37th Mississippi Regiment (Colonel Samuel Benton), 25th Louisiana Regiment (Colonel Fisk), 30th Mississippi Regiment (Colonel Neill), 5th company Washington Artillery. 1st of September, 1862, assigned to command of Major-General Sam Jones' division in Army of Tennessee at Chattanooga, and exercised same throughout General Bragg's Kentucky campaign. The division consisted of Brigadier-General Daniel Adams' Brigade, Brigadier-General Marsh Walker's Brigade, Brigadier-General John C. Brown's Brigade, and Colonel Thomas M. Jones' Brigade. On 28th of December, 1862, assigned to command of Trapier's Brigade, composed of two South Carolina and two Alabama regiments—same had been commanded for some time by Colonel A. M. Manigault, 10th South Carolina Regiment. On 30th of December assigned to command of Walthall's Brigade (Walthall sick and battle of Murfreesboro impending) composed of 29th Mississippi Regiment (Colonel Brantley), 27th Mississippi Regiment (Colonel Thomas M. Jones), 24th Mississippi Regiment (Colonel——  ——), 30th Mississippi Regiment (Colonel Neill), and Barrett's Battery; 7th, 9th, 10th, 41st, 44th and 9th Battalions Sharpshooters at Shelbyville, Bridgeport, and Chickamauga. From this time on was most of the time, as senior officer present, in command of Withers' and Hindman's divisions successively till February 9, 1864; was promoted to major-general P. A. C. S., and first assigned to command Breckinridge's division, Army of Tennessee, by order of War Department; but was soon thereafter sent to assume command of Confederate forces then operating in East Florida. On the 24th of July, 1864, was ordered back to Army of Tennessee, reaching General Hood's headquarters at Atlanta on the eve of the 28th; was that night re-assigned to command of Hindman's old division, composed of the following brigades: Brigadier-General W. F. Brantley's Mississippi brigade, Brigadier-General Z. C. Deas' Alabama brigade, Brigadier-General A. M. Manigault's South Carolina and Alabama brigades, and Brigadier-General Jacob Sharp's Mississippi brigade. On the reorganization of the Army of Tennessee at Smithville, N. C., on the 8th of April, 1865, was assigned to command of a South Carolina division, composed of Colonel Harrison's brigade, Colonel Rhett's brigade, and Major Rhett's battalion of artillery. My husband returned to the army in North Carolina in March, against the advice of his physicians. He was assigned to a new command from Charleston, and was surrendered with them, without his consent, at Bentonville. He did not believe the time had come to give up. These noble men, though having been under him so short a time, told him they would follow him anywhere, and to submit to no terms he thought dishonorable. Those above him knew his sentiments and signed the terms of surrender before he reached the place, though his rank gave him the right to be present in the caucus.