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[132] in length and 40 feet in width, which, with a porch and stairway on the outside, would afford double the capacity of mill No. 1. A brick building, three stories in height, was also erected for manufacturing machinery. The new mill was started in 1818. ‘The goods made in each mill were from Nos. 14 and 18 yarn. There were three widths, 30, 37 1/2, and 54 inches. The goods were sold at 30 cents, 37 1/2 cents, and 50 cents per yard for the respective widths; and such was the desire of the merchants to obtain them that orders were registered so that each should be filled in its turn.’1

In 1818 John C. Calhoun, who two years before ‘saw clearly the benefit which the cotton planting States would derive from the introduction of the manufacture into the country,’ made a visit to the new establishment, ‘with the apparent satisfaction,’ says Mr. Appleton, ‘of having himself contributed to its success,’ by the action taken by himself and Mr. William Lowndes on the tariff of 1816.

In February, 1819, the company purchased the entire property of the Waltham Cotton and Wool Factory Company, and the General Court allowed them to add $200,000 to their capital. They took down the old wooden spinning mill and laid the foundations for a new factory and a bleachery. The latter was in operation in 1820, and the new mill the next year. It contained about 2,000 spindles, and manufactured finer goods than the upper mills. In order to connect the two establishments the company bought all the land on the north side of the river and laid out River Street, widened Newton Street from one rod to two, and also improved Willow and Pleasant Streets, and planted several thousand shade trees along the two miles of road they had thus improved.

They erected another school-house to accommodate the people at the lower village, and appropriated $500 for a library for the use of their employes. This library was afterwards united with that of the Rumford Institute.

The Waltham loom was operated by a cam motion, the English

1 Dr. E. Hobbs, Agent of Boston Manufacturing Company.

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