The origin of Tennessee
.—Hillsborough's Administration of the Colonies continued.
October, 1770—June, 1771.
The Colonization of the West
was one of the
great objects ever promoted by Franklin
No one had more vividly discerned the capacity of the Mississippi valley
not only to sustain Commonwealths, but to connect them with the world by commerce; and when the Ministers
would have rejected the Fort Stanwix Treaty
which conveyed from the Six Nations an inchoate title to the immense territory southwest of the Ohio
, his influence secured its ratification, by organizing a powerful company to plant a Province in that part of the country which lay back of Virginia
, between the Alleghanies
and a line drawn from the Cumberland Gap
to the mouth of the Scioto
resisted the proposed limitation of her
jurisdiction, as fatal to her interests;3
earnestly entreating an extension of her borders westward to the Tennessee River
It would be tedious to rehearse the earnest pleas of the Colony; the hesitations of Hillsborough
, who wished to pacify her people, and yet to confine her settlements; the entreaties of Botetourt
; the adverse Representations of the Board of Trade; the meetings of Agents with the Beloved Men
of the Cherokees.
On the seventeenth of October, two days after the death of Botetourt
, a treaty conforming to the decision of the British
cabinet, was made at the Congress
confining the Ancient Dominion
on the Northwest
to the mouth of the Kenawha, while on the South
it extended only to within six miles of the Holston River
would willingly have ceded more land; and when in the following year the line was run by Donelson
, their Chief consented that it should cross from the Holston
to the Louisa
or Kentucky River
, and follow it to the Ohio
But the change was disapproved in England
, so that the great body of the West
, unencumbered by valid titles, was happily reserved for the self-directed emigrant.
The people of Virginia
and others were exploring and marking all the richest lands, not only on the Redstone and other waters of the Monongahela
, but along the Ohio
, as low as the little Kenawha
with each year were getting further and further
down the river.
in 1770, having established for the soldiers and officers who had established for the soldiers and officers who had served with him in the French
war, their right to two hundred thousand acres in the western valley, went to select suitable tracts, he was obliged to descend to the Great Kenawha.
As he floated in a canoe down the Ohio
, whose banks he found enlivened by innumerable turkeys and other wild fowl, with many deer browsing on the shore or stepping down to the water's edge to drink, no good land escaped his eye. Where the soil and growth of timber were most inviting, he would walk through the woods, and set his mark on a maple, or elm, a hoop-wood, or ash, as the corner of a soldier's survey;8
for he watched over the interests of his old associates in arms as sacredly as if he had been their trustee, and never ceased his care for them, till by his exertions, and ‘by these alone,’9
he had secured to each one of them, or if they were dead, to their heirs, the full proportion of the bounty that had been promised.
His journey to the wilderness was not without its pleasures; he amused himself with the sports of the forest, or observing new kinds of water-fowl, or taking the girth of the largest trees, one of which at a yard from the ground measured within two inches of five and forty feet. His fame had gone before him; the Red Men
received him in Council with public honors.
Nor did lie turn homewards without inquiring of Nicholson
, an Indian interpreter, and of Conolly
, an intelligent forester, the character of the country further
From these eye-witnesses he received glowing
accounts of the climate, soil, good streams and plentiful game that distinguished the valley of the Cumberland
There he was persuaded a new and most desirable Government might be established.10
At that time Daniel Boon was still exploring the land of promise.11
Of forty adventurers who from the Clinch River
plunged into the West
under the lead of James Knox
, and became renowned as ‘the Long Hunters
some found their way down the Cumberland
to the limestone Bluff, where Nashville
stands, and where the luxuriant, gently undulating fields, covered with groves of beech and walnut, were in the undisputed possession of countless buffaloes, whose bellowings resounded from hill and forest.13
Sometimes trappers and restless emigrants, boldest of their class, took the risk of crossing the country from Carolina
to the Mississippi
; but of those who perished by the way, no tradition preserves the names.
Others, following the natural highways of the West
, descended from Pittsburg
, and from Red Stone Creek
to Fort Natchez.
The pilot, who conducted the party of which Samuel Wells
and John MacIntire
were the Chiefs, was so attracted by the lands round the Fort
, that he promised to remove there in the spring with his wife and family, and believed a hundred families from North Carolina14
The zeal of hunters and emigrants outran the concessions extorted from the Board of Trade.
year James Robertson
, from the home of the Regula-
tors in North Carolina
, a poor and unlettered forester, of humble birth, but of inborn nobleness of soul, cultivated maize on the Watauga
The frame of the heroic planter was robust; his constitution hardy; he trod the soil as if he were its rightful lord.
Intrepid, loving virtue for its own sake, and emulous of honorable fame, he had self-possession, quickness of discernment, and a sound judgment.
Wherever he was thrown, on whatever he was engaged, he knew how to use all the means within his reach, whether small or great, to their proper end; seeing at a glance their latent capacities, and devising the simplest and surest way to bring them forth; and so he became the greatest benefactor of the early settlers of Tennessee
, confirming to them peace, securing their independence, and leaving a name blessed by the esteem and love and praise of a commonwealth.15
He was followed to the West
, by men from the same Province with himself, where the people had no respite from the insolence of mercenary attorneys and officers, and were subjected to every sort of rapine and extortion.16
There the Courts
of law offered no redress.17
At the inferior Courts the Justices
who themselves were implicated in the pilfering of public money, named the juries.
and receivers of taxes were in arrears for near seventy thousand pounds, which they had extorted from the people, and
of which more than two thirds18
had been irretrieva-
In the northern part of the Colony, where the ownership of the soil had been reserved to one of the old proprietaries, there was no land-office19
so that the people who were attracted by the surpassing excellence20
of the land could not obtain freeholds.
Every art was employed to increase the expenses of suits at law; and as some of the people in their wretchedness wreaked their vengeance in acts of folly and madness, they were artfully misrepresented as enemies to the Constitution
; and the oppressor treacherously acquired the protection which was due to the oppressed.
In March, 1770, one of the associate justices reported that they could not enforce the payment of taxes.
At the Court
in September the Regulators appeared in numbers.
‘We are come down,’ they said, ‘with the design to have justice done;’ they would have business proceed, but with no attorney except the King
's; and finding that it had been resolved not to try their causes,21
some of them pursued Fanning
and another lawyer, beat them with cowskin whips, and laid waste Fanning's house.22
The Assembly which convened in December, at Newbern
, was chosen under a state of alarm and vague
had secured Fanning
a seat, by chartering the town of Hillsborough
as a borough, but the county of Orange
, selected Herman Husbands as its Representative, with great unanimity.
rustic patriot possessed a good reputation and a con-
siderable estate, and was charged with no illegal act whatever; yet he was voted a disturber of the public peace; on the twentieth of December was expelled the House
and against the opinion of the Council, and notwithstanding the want of evidence,24
that he had been even an accessory to the riots at Hillsborough
seized him under a warrant concerted with the Chief Justice
and kept him in prison without bail.26
The Presbyterian party was the strongest in the House
to conciliate its power, a law was passed for endowing Queen's College in the town of Charlotte, Mecklenburg County
a deceitful act of tolerance, which was sure to be annulled by the King
But the great object of Tryon
was the riot Act, by which it was declared a felony for more than ten men to remain assembled after being required to disperse.
For a riot committed before or after the publication of the Act, persons might be tried in any Superior Court, no matter how distant from their homes, and if within sixty days they did not make their appearance, whether with or without notice, they were to be proclaimed outlaws, and to forfeit their lives with all their property.29
Such was the sanguinary
method by which the wrath of Fanning
to be appeased.
In the wish to establish order, full license was given to the ruthlessness of revenge.
The Governor also sent letters into the neighboring counties, to ascertain how many would volunteer to serve in a military expedition against ‘the rebels;’ but the Assembly, by withholding grants of money, set itself against civil war.
's smooth exterior and determined purpose had won for him at the Colonial office the reputation of being the ablest Governor in the thirteen Colonies; the death of Botetourt
opened the way for his promotion to the chief magistracy of New-York
, a needy Scottish peer of the House of Murray
, passionate, narrow, and unscrupulous in his rapacity, had hardly taken possession of that Government, when he was transferred to what was esteemed the more desirable one of Virginia
But before he made the exchange, his avarice had involved him in a singular strife.
Fees for grants of land had swollen the emoluments of office during the short administration of Colden
demanded half of them as his perquisite; and to make sure of four or five thousand pounds, prepared as Chancellor to make, in the King
's name, a peremptory award in his own favor.
He came over to amass a fortune, and in his passion for sudden gain, cared as little for the policy of the Ministers
or his instructions from the Crown, as for the rights of property, the respective limits of jurisdiction of the Colonies, or their civil and political privileges.
To get money was the rule of conduct, which included his whole administrative policy.
did not remain in New-York
enough to weary the legislature into a spirited resist-
Its members remained steadfast in their purpose to connect loyalty with their regard for American liberty.
On a charge of contempt of their authority, they kept MacDougall30
in prison during their session; at the same time, adopting the nomination made by Schuyler
a year before,31
they unanimously elected Edmund Burke
, for whom his own country had no employment, their Agent in England
, allowing ‘for his services at the rate of five hundred pounds per annum.’32
This moderation might have persuaded the Ministry to conciliatory measures; it only raised a hope of producing divisions in America
, by setting one Province against another.
‘I can find bones to throw among them, to continue contention and prevent a renewal of their union,’33
, now happy in the assurance of receiving from the tax on tea a salary of fifteen hundred pounds for himself as Governor, while three hundred more were granted to the Lieutenant Governor Oliver
, who had long been repining at the neglect of his sufferings in behalf of the Stamp Act.
Yet Samuel Adams
did not despair.
‘In every struggle,’ said he, ‘this country will approve herself glorious in maintaining and defending her freedom;’34
and he was sure that the unreasonableness of Great Britain
would precipitate the epoch of American Independence.
his letters, still urging union, directing attention to the
necessity, of finding some more efficacious method of redress than a bare resolution to suspend commerce, and encouraging in the ‘young men’ the ambition ‘of making themselves masters of the art military.’35
Zeal for the cause was not wanting in the South
The people had their ‘tribunes’ and most determined leaders in Thomas Lynch
, praised by royalists as ‘a man of sense,’ and inflexible firmness, Christopher Gadsden, the ‘enthusiast in the cause,’ ever suspicious ‘of British moderation,’ and John Mackenzie
, whose English education at Cambridge
furnished him with arguments for the Colonies.36
On the thirteenth of December they met the planters, merchants and mechanics of Charleston
, who had come fifty miles on purpose, exerted all his eloquence; and even shed tears for the expiring liberty of his country.
He was seconded by Gadsden
; but South Carolina
could neither continue non-importation alone; nor by itself devise a new system.
Its association was dissolved, like the rest; the goods of importers which had been stored by the General Committee
were delivered up, and in Charleston
, the fourth largest city in the Colonies, then having five thousand and thirty white inhabitants, with five thousand eight hundred and thirtythree blacks,37
commerce resumed its wonted activity in every thing but tea.38
For a moment rumors of war between Great
Britain and the united Kings
gave hope of ‘happy effects.’39
But this also failed.
, following the impulse given by Lord Egmont during the administration of Grenville
, had taken possession of the Falkland Islands
, as forming the key to the Pacific
, claiming all that part of the world as her own, sent a fleet of five frigates which drove the English
from their wooden block-house, and after detaining them twenty days, left them to return to England
The English Ministry, willing to abandon Port Egmont, demanded of the Spanish Government
a disavowal of the seizure and its temporary restoration.
Spanish pride would have rejected the terms with disdain.
‘They are the only propositions, which the British Ministry
could make;’ said Choiseul
, scoffing at the Spanish
‘For heaven's sake,’ he wrote to the French Minister
, ‘do the impossible; and persuade Prince Masserano to follow my instructions rather than those of his own court, which have not common sense.’
Determined to preserve peace, Choiseul
, who would not have feared war for a great cause like the emancipation of the colonial world, checked the rashness of Spain
and assumed the direction of its diplomacy.40
was haughty and unreasonable.
‘War is inevitable,’ said Harcourt
‘If the English
are bent on war,’ wrote Choiseul
to Frances, ‘all that I can say is unavailing.
But you will be witness, that I did not
Lord North gained honor by allowing Weymouth
to retire, and standing firmly for peace; but it was Choiseul
's moderation which prevented a rupture.
On the twenty-fourth of December the ablest French Minister of the century was dismissed from office and exiled to Chanteloupe, not because he was impassioned for war, as his enemies pretended, but because he was the friend of philosophy, freedom of industry, and colonial independence.
Thoroughly a Frenchman, as Chatham
was thoroughly an Englishman, he longed to renovate France
that she might revenge the wounds inflicted on her glory.
For this end he had sought to improve her finances, restore her marine, reform her army, and surround her by allies.
, the wife of the Dauphin
, was a pledge for the friendship of Austria
was conciliated; while the Family Compact
insured at Naples
and in the Spanish
peninsula the predominance of France
, which had nothing but friends from the Bosphorus to Cadiz
It marks the sway of philosophy that crowds paid their homage to the retiring Statesman; he was dear to the Parliaments he had defended, to men of letters he had encouraged, and to Frenchmen whose hearts beat for the honor of their land in its rivalry with England
His policy was so identified with the passions, the sympathies, and the culture of his country; was so thoroughly national, and so liberal,
that it was sure to return in spite of the royalist
party and the Court
, and even though he himself was never again to be intrusted with the conduct of affairs.
The cause of royalty was, for the time, triumphant in the cabinets; and had America then risen, she would have found no friends to cheer her on.
At the same time the British Ministry
attracted to itself that part of the Opposition which was composed of Grenville
Now that he was no more, Suffolk
became Secretary of State
, instead of Weymouth
; and Thurlow being promoted, Wedderburn
, whose ‘credit for veracity’ Lord North so lately impeached, and who in his turn had denied to that Minister ‘honor and respectability,’—refused to go upon a forlorn hope; and with unblushing effrontery, leased his powers of eloquence to the Government
in return for the office of Solicitor General
By these arrangements Lord North obtained twelve new votes.43
But the moral power of the Ministry gained still more from the vehement clamor with which its opponents condemned the wise settlement of the question respecting the Falkland Islands
. Sir Robert Walpole
had yielded to a similar clamor, and had yet lost his place; Lord North won the praise of good men by resisting it, and securing peace without a compromise of the public dignity.
When the Administration needed for its defence no more than the exposition of the madness of modern wars
in the brilliant and forcible language of the moralist Johnson
the applause of Adam Smith45
was in accordance with the sentiment of the country.
This was the happiest period in the career of Lord North.
His system acquired stability in the confidence of the country; and was sure of majorities in Parliament.
No danger hung over him but from his own love of ease.
‘He was seated on the Treasury bench, between his Attorney and Solicitor General
,’ his equals in ability, but most unlike him in character;46
and it was his fatal error that he indulged in slumber when America
required all his vigilance.
The Regulators of North Carolina
ther in the woods on hearing that their Representative had been expelled and arbitrarily imprisoned, and they themselves menaced with exile or death as outlaws.
They had labored honestly for their own support; not living on the spoils of other men's labors, nor snatching the bread out of other men's hands.
They accepted the maxim, that laws, statutes and customs which are against God's law or nature, are all null; and that civil officers who, contrary to reason, exacted illegal taxes and fees from the poor industrious farmers, were guilty of a worse crime than open robbery.
They asked no more than that extortioners might be brought to fair trials, and ‘the collectors of the public money called to proper settlements
of their accounts.’47
Honor and good faith now
prompted them to join for the rescue of Husbands.
might be attacked and his newly finished palace, source of so much gratification to his vanity, of grievous taxation to the people, might be burned to the ground.
Without some manifest sanction of law he dared no longer detain in custody the sturdy Highlander
, who had come down under the safeguard of his unquestioned election to the Legislature.
Eager to take advantage of the Riot Act
, he had by special commission called the Judges
to meet at Newbern
on the sixth of February.
No sooner were they assembled, than he conspired with the Chief Justice
to get Husbands indicted for a pretended libel.
But the Grand Jury
refused to do the work assigned them; and the prisoner was set free48
Angry with the indocile jury, the Governor
by a new Commission, called another court for the eleventh of March; against which day he took care, by
giving the strictest orders to the Sheriffs, many of whom were defaulters, and by the indefatigable exertions of his own private Secretary
, to obtain jurors and witnesses, suited to his purpose.49
The liberation of Husbands having stopped the march of the Regulators, it occurred to some of them on their return to visit Salisbury
On the sixth of March, about four or five hundred of them encamped in the woods near the Ferry
, on the
western side of the Yadkin River
. ‘The lawyers
are every thing’ they complained.
‘There should be none in the Province.’
‘We shall be forced to kill them all.’
‘There never was such an Act as the Riot Act
in the laws of England
This was true; the Counsel to the Board of Trade, making his official report upon that law, declared its clause of outlawry ‘altogether unfit for any part of the British
‘We come,’ said the Chiefs in the Regulators' camp to an officer from Salisbury
, ‘with no intention to obstruct the Court
, or to injure the person or property of any one; but only to petition for a redress of grievances against officers taking exorbitant fees.’
‘Why then,’ it was asked, ‘are some of you armed?’
‘Our arms,’ said they, ‘are only to defend ourselves.’
They were told, that no Court would be held on account of the disturbances; but the very persons of whom they complained, finding them ‘peaceably disposed beyond expectation,’53
agreed with them, that all differences with the officers of the county of Rowan
should be settled by arbitration on the third Tuesday in May.
The umpires being named, the Regulators marched through Salisbury
, gave three cheers, and quietly returned54
to their farms, which were the best lands in the whole Province.55
were bent on revenge.
On the eleventh of March the Court
opened at Newbern
; with willing witnesses and a unanimous Grand Jury, sixty-one56
indictments were readily found for felonies or riots, against the leading Regulators in Orange County
, who lived two hundred miles off, and many of whom had been at home during the riots of which they were accused.
By law, criminal jurisdiction belonged in the first instance to the district within which offences were charged to have been committed; every one of the indictments was illegal;57
and yet those charged with felony must appear within sixty days, or a vain and merciless Governor will declare them outlaws.
Armed with this authority to proscribe the principal men among the Regulators, Tryon
next received the Grand Jury
at the Palace, and volunteered to them to lead troops into the western counties.58
The obsequious body, passing beyond their proper functions, applauded his purpose; and the Council acquiesced.
To obtain the necessary funds, which the Legislature had refused to provide, Tryon
created a paper currency by drafts on the Treasury.
The Northern Treasurer declined to sanction the
illegal drafts; and in consequence, the Eastern
counties took no part in the scenes that followed; but the Southern Treasurer
a body of militia under the command of Waddel
sent to Salisbury
, while Tryon
himself, having writ-
ten a harsh rebuke of the agreement in Rowan County
for arbitration, marched into Orange County
His progress was marked by the destruction of wheat fields and orchards, the burning of every house which was found empty; the seizure of cattle, poultry and all the produce of the plantations.
The terrified people ran together like sheep chased by a wolf; while Tryon
crossed the Eno, and the Haw
; and the men who had been indicted at Newbern
for felonies, were already advertised as outlaws, when on the evening of the fourteenth, he reached the Great Alamance.
The little army under his command was composed of one thousand and eighteen foot soldiers, and thirty light horse, besides the officers.59
The Regulators, who had been drawn together not as insurgents but from alarm,—many, perhaps most of them without guns,—may have numbered rather more, and were encamped about five miles to the west of the stream.
They gathered round James Hunter
as their ‘general;’ and his superior capacity, and dauntless courage, won from the unorganized host implicit obedience and enthusiastic reverence.60
They were almost in despair, lest the Governor
‘would not lend a kind ear to the just complaints of the people.’
Still on the evening of the fifteenth they entreated, that harmony might yet be restored, that ‘the presaged tragedy of warlike marching to meet each
other might be prevented;’ that the Governor
would give them leave to present ‘their Petition,’ and to treat for peace.
The next day Tryon
crossed Alamance River, and marched out to meet the Regulators.
As he approached, James Hunter
and Benjamin Merrill
a Captain of militia, ‘a man in general esteem for his honesty, integrity, piety and moral good life,’ received from him this answer: ‘I require you to lay down your arms, surrender up the outlawed ringleaders, submit yourselves to the laws, and rest on the lenity of the Government
By accepting these terms in one hour, you will prevent an effusion of blood, as you are at this time in a state of war and rebellion.’62
The demands were utterly unjustifiable.
No one of the Regulators had been legally outlawed; or even legally indicted.
The Governor acted against law as against right; and by every rule deserved to be resisted.
Yet the Regulators reluctantly accepted the appeal to arms; for they had nothing to hope from victory itself.
Their courage was the courage of martyrs.
The action began before noon, by firing a fieldpiece into the midst of the people.
Many of the Regulators, perhaps the larger number, retired; but those who remained, disputed the field for two hours, fighting first in the open ground and then from behind trees, till at last having nearly expended their ammunition,63 Hunter
and his men were compelled to
Nine of the King
's troops were killed, and
Of the Regulators, above twenty fell in battle, besides the wounded.66
Some prisoners were taken in the pursuit.
Before sunset, Tryon
had returned in triumph to his camp.
The next day James Few, one of the prisoners, was by the Governor
's order, hanged on a tree as an outlaw; and his parents ruined by the destruction of their estate.
Then followed one proclamation after another,67
excepting from mercy outlaws and prisoners, and promising it to none others but those who should take an oath of allegiance, pay taxes, submit to the laws, and deliver up their arms.
After this Tryon
proceeded to the Yadkin
to join Waddel
, who had incurred some danger of being cut off. Waddel
then moved through the Southwestern
counties, unmolested, except that in Mecklenburgh his ammunition was blown up,68
turned back, living at free quarters on the Regulators,69
forcing them to contribute all kinds of provisions, and burning the houses and laying waste and destroying the plantations of every outlaw.70
On the ninth of June he arrived at Hillsborough
, where the Court
awaited him. His first work was a proclamation inviting ‘every person’ to shoot Herman Husbands, or James Hunter
, or Redknap
, or William Butler
; and offering a hundred
pounds and a thousand acres of land, as a reward for the delivery of either of them alive or dead.
Then twelve men, taken in battle, were tried and brought in guilty of Treason; and on the nineteenth of June, six of them were hanged under the eye of the Governor
, who himself marked the place for the gallows, gave directions for clearing the field, and sketched in general orders the line of march of the army to the place of execution, with the station of each company round the gallows.
The victims died bravely.
It is yet kept in memory, how Benjamin Merrill
met his fate in the most heroic manner, sustained by the pious affection of his children, and declaring that he died at peace with his Maker, in the cause of his country.71
The next day Tryon
, having gratified himself with the spectacle, and taking care to make the most of the confiscated lands, which were among the best on the continent, left Hillsborough
, and on the thirtieth sailed to take possession of the Government72
, leaving the burden of an illegally contracted debt of more than forty thousand pounds. So general was the disgust, that his successor dared not trust the people with the immediate election of a new Assembly,73
though terror and despair had brought six thousand of the Regulators to submission.74
The Governors of South Carolina
and of Virginia
were requested not to harbor the fugitives.
far wilderness offered shelter beyond the mountains, and the savages seemed comparatively mild protectors.
Without concert, instinctively impelled by discontent and the wearisomeness of life exposed to bondage, men crossed the Alleghanies
and descending into the basin of the Tennessee
, made their homes in the valley of the Watauga
There no lawyer followed them; there no King
's Governor came to be their Lord
; there the flag of England
They rapidly extended their settlements; by degrees they took possession of the more romantic banks of the broader Nollichucky
, whose sparkling waters spring out of the tallest mountains in the range.
The climate was invigorating; the health-giving westerly wind blew at all seasons; in spring the wild crab apple filled the air with the sweetest of perfumes, A fertile soil gave to industry good crops of maize; the clear streams flowed pleasantly without tearing floods; where the closest thickets of spruce and rhododendron flung the cooling shade furthest over the river, trout abounded.
The elk and the red deer were not wanting in the natural parks of oak and hickory, of maple, elm, black ash, and buckeye.
Of quails and turkeys and pigeons there was no end. The golden eagle built its nest on the topmost ledge of the mountain, and might be seen wheeling in wide circles high above the pines, or dropping like a meteor upon its prey.
The black bear, whose flesh was held to be the most delicate of meats, grew so fat upon the abundant acorns and chestnuts, that he could be run down in a race of three hundred yards; and sometimes the hunters gave chase to the coward panther, strong enough to beat off twenty dogs, yet flying from
Political wisdom is not sealed up in rolls and
It welled up in the forest, like the waters from the hill side.
To acquire a peaceful title to their lands, the settlers despatched James Robertson75
as their envoy to the Council of the Cherokees, from whom he obtained sincere promises of confidence and friendship, and a lease of the territory of the infant Colony.
For government, its members came together as brothers in convention, and already in 1772, they founded a republic by a written association,76
appointed their own magistrates, James Robertson
among the first; framed laws for their present occasions; and ‘set to the people of America
the dangerous example of erecting themselves into a separate State, distinct from and independent of the authority’ of the British King
who followed Tryon
to the North
, extolled his patron as the ablest supporter of Government.78
‘I shall leave to your Lordship's reflections the tendency this expedition has had on the frontiers of every Colony in British America,’ was the self-laudatory remark of Tryon
The insolent extortioners and officers whom the Regulators had vainly sued for redress, taunted them with their ill fortune, saying, ‘Alamance is your court of record.’80
Yet the record was not closed.
In the old counties of Orange
, the ‘overhill’
glades of Carolina
, and the little band of moun-
taineers who planted the commonwealth of Tennessee
, a bloodthirsty Governor, in his vengeful zeal for the Crown, had treasured up wrath for the day of wrath.
The successor of Tryon
in August, 1771, and drank in all the accounts of the ‘glorious spirit,’ which had defeated the Regulators near the Alamance
The next year he made a tour into Orange County
The result of his observations is best given in his own words.
extract of A Letter from Josiah Martin
[the brother of Samuel Martin
, who wounded Wilkes
in a duel in 1763,] Governor
of North Carolina
, to the Earl
, Secretary of State
for the Colonies.
Extract of a letter from the Earl
, to the Earl
of Dartmouth, Secretary of State