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إِِذَا ذ denotes a thing's happening suddenly, or unexpectedly; (Mughnee, K;) or one's experiencing the occurrence of a thing when he is in a particular state; (S;) like إِِذٌ: (S voce إِِذٌ:) it pertains only to nominal phrases; does not require to be followed by a reply, or the complement of a condition; does not occur at the commencement of a sentence; and signifies the present time, (Mughnee, K,) not the future; (Mughnee;) as in خَرَجْتُ فَإِِذَا الأَسَدُ بالبَابِ [I went forth, and lo, or behold, or there, or then, at that present time, (accord. to different authorities, as will be seen below,) the lion was at the door]; and (in the saying in the Kur [xx. 21], TA,) فَإِِذَا هِىَ حَيَّةٌ تَسْعَى [And lo, or behold, &c., it was a serpent running]; (Mughnee, K;) and in the saying, خَرَجْتُ فَإِِذَا زَيْدٌ قَائِمٌ, which means I went forth, and Zeyd presented himself to me suddenly, or unexpectedly, at the time, by standing. (S, TA.) Accord. to Akh, it is a particle, (Mughnee, K,) and his opinion is rendered preferable by their saying, خَرَجْتُ فَإِِذَا إِِنَّ زِيْداً بِالبَابِ [I went forth, and lo, or behold, verily Zeyd was at the door]; for [اذا cannot here be a noun governed in the accus. case, as] what follows إِِنَّ, which is with kesr, does not govern what precedes it: (Mughnee:) accord. to Mbr, it is an adverbial noun of place: accord. to Zj, an adverbial noun of time. (Mughnee, K.) Ibn-Málik adopts the first of these opinions; Ibn-'Osfoor, the second; (Mughnee;) and so El-Fenjedeehee; (TA;) and Z, the third; and he asserts that its governing word is a verb understood, derived from المُفَاجَأَةُ; [agreeably with the explanation cited above from the S;] but others hold that the word which governs it in the accus. case is the enunciative, which is either expressed, as in خَرَجْتُ فَإِِذَا زَيْدٌ جَالِسٌ [I went forth, and there, in that place, or then, at that time, Zeyd was sitting], or meant to be understood, as in فَإِِذَا الأَسَدُ, i. e. حَاضِرٌ [And there, or then, the lion was present]; or if it be supposed to be [itself] the enunciative, its governing word is مُسْتَقِرُّ or اِسْتَقَرَّ [understood]: and in the last of the phrases here mentioned, it may be an enunciative accord. to the opinion of Mbr, the meaning being فَبِا@لْحَاضِرَةِ الأَسَدُ [And among the things present was the lion]; but not accord. to the opinion of Zj, because a noun signifying time cannot be the enunciative of one signifying a corporeal thing; nor accord to the opinion of Akh, because a particle cannot be used to denote the enunciative of such a thing; or, as signifying time, it may be the enunciative of such a thing if we suppose a prefixed noun to be suppressed, the meaning of فَإِِذَا الأَسَدُ being فَإِِذاَ حُضُورُ الأَسَدِ [And then was the presence of the lion]. (Mughnee.) You may say either خَرَجْتُ فَإِِذَا زَيْدٌ جَالِسٌ or جَالِساً [I went forth, and lo, or behold, &c., Zeyd was sitting or Zeyd was there sitting], with the nom. as an enunciative and with the accus. as a denotative of state. (Mughnee.) The Arabs said, قَدْ كُنْتُ أَظُنُّ أَنَّ العَقْرَبَ أَشَدُّ لَسْعَةً مِنَ الزُّنْبُورِ فَإِِذاَ هُوَ هِى [I used to think that the scorpion was more vehement in stinging than the hornet, and lo, he is (as vehement as) she], and also, فَإِِذاَ هُوَ إِِيَّاهَا, which Sb disallowed, in contending with Ks, who allowed it, and appealed for confirmation thereof to certain Arabs, whose judgment was pronounced in his favour; but it is said that they were bribed to give this judgment, or that they knew the place which Ks held in the estimation of Er-Rasheed; and if the latter expression be of established authority, it is irregular and unchaste. (Mughnee.) ― -b2- It also denotes the complement of a condition, like فَ, (S, Msb,) with which it is in this case syn., (Msb,) as in the words of the Kur [xxx. 35], وَإِِنْ تُصِبْهُمْ سَيِّئَةٌ بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ إِِذَا هُمُ يَقْنَطُون [And if an evil befall them for that which their hands have sent before, (i. e. for sins which they have committed,) then they despair]. (S, Msb.) ― -b3- It is also an adverbial noun denoting future time, (S, Msb, Mughnee, K, *) and implying the meaning of a condition, (Msb, Mughnee,) and this is generally the case when it is not used in the manner first explained above. (Mughnee.) In this case it is not used otherwise than as prefixed to a proposition, (S, Mughnee,) which is always verbal, as in the words of the Kur [xxx. 24], ثُمَّ إِِذَا دَعَاكُمَ دَعْوَةً مِنَ الأَرْضِ إِذَا أَنْتُمْ تَخْرُجُونَ [Then, when He shall call you, or when He calleth you, (for, as in Arabic, so in English, a verb which is properly present is often tropically future,) with a single call from out the earth, lo, or behold, or then, ye shall come forth], in which occur both the usages of اذا here mentioned; (Mughnee;) and in the phrase, إِِذَا جِئْتَ أَكْرَمْتُكَ [When thou shalt come, I will treat thee with honour]; (Msb;) and in the phrase, أَجِيْؤُكَ إِِذَا ا@حْمَرَّالبُسْرُ [I will come to thee when the fullgrown unripe dates shall become red], and إِِذَا قَدِمَ فُلَانٌ [when such a one shall arrive], which shows it to be a noun because this is equivalent to يَوْمَ يَقْدَمُ فُلَانٌ [on the day when such a one shall arrive]: (S:) or in the phrase قُمْ إِِذَا ا@حْمَرَّ البُسْرُ [and in many other cases] it denotes time divested of any accessory idea, the meaning being [Arise thou] at the time of the full-grown unripe dates' becoming red: and so in the saying of EshSháfi'ee, If a man were to say, أَنْتِ طَالِقٌ إِِذَا لَمْ أُطَلِّقْكِ, or مَتَى لم اطلّقك, [Thou art divorced when I do not divorce thee,] and then be silent for a time sufficient for the divorce to be pronounced therein, she would be divorced; but should he make it dependent upon a thing in the future, the divorce would be delayed to that time, as if he said, اذا احمرّ البسر [using it in the sense first assigned to this phrase above]. (Msb.) The verb after it is in most cases a pret.: in other cases, an aor.: both occur in the saying of Aboo-Dhu-eyb, “ وَ النَّفْسُ رَاغِبَةٌ إِِذَا رَغَّبْتَهَا
وَإِِذَا تُرَدُّ إِِلَى قَلِيلٍ تَقْنَعُ
” [And the soul is desirous when thou makest it desirous; and when thou reducest it, or restrictest it, to little, it is content]. (Mughnee.) When it is immediately followed by a noun, as in [the phrase in the Kur lxxxiv. 1,] إِذَا ا@لسَّمَآءُ ا@نْشَقَّتْ, the noun is an agent with a verb suppressed, explained by what follows it; contr. to the opinion of Akh; (Mughnee;) the complete phrase being إِِذَا ا@نْشَقَّتِ السَّمَآءُ ا@نْشَقَّتْ [When the heaven shall be cleft, (when) it shall be cleft]; and in like manner, إِِنْ, as in the saying, in the Kur [ix. 6], وَ إِِنْ أَحَدٌ مِنَ المُشْرِكِينَ ا@سْتَجَارَكَ. (I 'Akp. 123.) And in the saying of the poet, “ إِِذَا بَاهِلِىٌّ تَحْتَهُ حَنْظَلِيَّةٌ
لَهُ وَلَدٌ مِنْهَا فَذَاكَ المُدَرَّعُ
” كَانَ is meant to be understood after اذا [so that the meaning is, When a Báhilee (a man of the tribe of Báhileh) has, or shall have, as his wife a Handhaleeyeh (a woman of the tribe of Handhaleh, who were renowned for generosity), he having offspring from her, that (offspring) is, or will be, the mail-clad]. (Mughnee.) ― -b4- Sometimes it denotes past time, (Mughnee, K,) like as إِِذْ sometimes denotes future time, (Mughnee,) as in [the saying in the Kur lxii. 11,] وَ إِِذَا رَأَوْا تِجَارَةً أَوْ لَهْواً ا@نْفَضُّوا إِِلَيْهَا [And when they saw merchandise or sport, they dispersed themselves to it]. (Mughnee, K.) [Thus] it occurs in the place of إِِذْ, like as إِِذْ occurs in the place of إِِذَا. (TA.) ― -b5- And sometimes it denotes the present time; and this is after an oath, as in [the phrase in the Kur xcii. 1,] وَاللَّيْلِ إِِذَا يَغْشَى [By the night when it covereth with its darkness]. (Mughnee, K.) ― -b6- It also occurs in the sense of the conditional إِِنْ, as in the saying, أُكْرِمُكَ إِِذَا أَكْرَمْتَنِى, meaning إِِنْ أَكْرَمْتَنِى [I will treat thee with honour if thou treat me with honour]: (T:) [for] what is possible is made dependent upon it as well as what is known to be certain, as in the phrases, إِِذَا جَآءَ زَيْدٌ [If Zeyd come] and إِِذَا جَآءَ رَأْسُ الشَّهْرِ [When the beginning of the month shall come]; or, accord. to Th, there is a difference between إِِذَا and إِِنْ; (Msb;) the latter being held by him to denote what is possible, and the former to denote what is ascertained; so that one says, إِِنْ جَآءَ زَيْدٌ and إِذَا جَآءَ رَأْسُ الشَّهرِ. (Msb in art. ان.) ― -b7- When a verb in the first person sing. of the pret. is explained by another verb after it immediately preceded by إِِذَا, [تَقُولُ is understood before the former verb, and therefore] the latter verb must be in the second pers. sing., as in لُجْتُهُ إِِذَا أَدَرْتَهُ فِى فيِكَ [meaning Thou sayest (of a thing) لُجْتُهُ when, or if, thou hast turned it about in thy mouth]. (MF in art. لوج. See also أَىْ; last sentence but one.) ― -b8- It is sometimes redundant, like as إِِذْ is sometimes [accord. to some], as in the saying of 'Abd-Menáf Ibn-Riba El-Hudhalee, “ حَتَّى إِِذَا أَسْلَكُوهُم فِى قُتَائِدَةٍ
شَلَّا كَمَا تَطْرُدُ الجَمَّالَةُ الشُّرُدَا
” [Until they made them to pass along Kutáīdeh, (here meaning a certain mountain-road so named, S in art. قتد,) urging on, like as the owners, or attendants, of camels drive those that take fright and run away]; for it is the end of the poem: or he may have abstained from mentioning the enunciative because of its being known to the hearer. (S.) When إِِذَا is preceded by حَتَّى, [as in this instance,] it is generally held that اذا is not governed by حتّى in the gen. case, but is still an adverbial noun, حتّى being an inceptive particle without government. (Mughnee.) ― -b9- As to what it is that governs إِِذَا in the accus. case, there are two opinions; that it is its conditional proposition; or a verb, or the like, in the complement thereof: (Mughnee, K:) the former is the opinion of the critical judges; so that it is in the predicament of مَتَى and حَيْثُمَا and أَيَّانَ. (Mughnee.) ― -b10- Sometimes it is used so as not to denote a condition, as in the words of the Kur [xlii. 35], وَإِِذَا مَا غَضِبُوا هُم يَغفِرُونَ [And when, or whenever, they are angry, they forgive], in which it is an adverbial noun relating to the enunciative of the inchoative after it; for if it denoted a condition, and the nominal proposition were a complement, it would be connected by فَ: and the same is the case when it is used after an oath, as in an ex. given above. (Mughnee.) ― -b11- See also what follows.
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