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Letter from California and Oregon.

--The Pony Express, from San Francisco on the 31st ult., has arrived at St. Josephs, Mo. The following is a summary of the news:

The news of the result of the elections in Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indiana paralyzed both wings of the California Democracy.

Messrs. Gwen and Weller were coldly received on their electioneering tour. The success of the Republicans was generally conceded.

Oregon dates to the 24th had reached San Francisco. The Legislature adjourned on the 19th.

Senator Baker, of Oregon, addressed an immense audience at San Francisco on the evening before the mail left. He announced his intention to abide by the doctrine of non-intervention with slavery in the Territories — not as a principle, but as a policy.

Two men were dreadfully lacerated at Ernes Valley on the 25th by the premature discharge of a cannon while firing a salute in honor of the Republican victories in Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indiana. One of them will probably lose both eyes.

The great New Almaden Quicksilver Mine case is still pending in the United States Circuit Court. The argument was opened for the claimants by T. C. Peachy, whose speech occupied a week's time. He was followed by Edmund Randolph for the Government, who spoke during the entire session of another week. Hon. J. P. Benjamin, for the claimants, had been speaking continuously for the past three days previous to the leaving of the Express and had just closed, and Mr. Randolph was commencing his reply. Hon. Reverend Johnson would speak the following week for the claimants, after which Mr. Randolph would make the closing argument for the government. As an intellectual struggle, this case seldom had an equal.

The directors of the San Francisco and San Jose Railroad had let out the contract for completing the work within three years for two millions dollars. The distance is about forty- five miles.

The 29th of November has been appointed by the Governor of California as a day of general thanksgiving.

Recent intelligence from Oregon says that the account of the late massacre of emigrants by the Snake Indians was much exaggerated. Col. Wright had received positive information hat all but eleven of the train had arrived at the settlements in safety, and strong hopes were entertained of the escape of the eleven that had become separated from the main body.

The first considerable rain of the season occurred in Oregon on Wednesday, October 17th.

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