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Census matters.

--The population of Kansas, according to the enumeration of the U. S. Marshal, is 109,401. This does not include the census of any portion of the territory west of the sixth principal meridian, but only of the counties included within the limits of the State of Kansas, as prescribed in the Wyandotte Constitution. The population of the Pike's Peak region amounts to about 75,000 in addition.

The N. O. Picayune says: ‘The returns of the census exhibit some results that were unexpected. Though the final footings are not presented, so as to enable a contrast in all the elements of human industry to be carefully made, enough is known to lead us to suspect that the deductions to be drawn from the facts collected will overthrow many theories in regard to population and progress which have had most currency. In the New England States, little advance is noted. Losses and hard times have diminished the value of property, and the census shows but little increase of population over that returned in 1850.’

In 1840, New England is reported as producing 2,000,000 bushels of wheat. In 1850 they yielded but 1,000,000--a decline of 50 per cent. It is believed that the census of 1860 will show a still more marked decline than was noted in the previous decade.

In New York the number of sheep has decreased more than 300,000 in thirty years, and within four years the decrease is said to be near fifty per cent., while the decline in the number of other species of stock will probably not be less than fifteen per cent. New York produced, in 1845, 13,391,770 bushels of wheat, but last year her product of this staple fell off as low as 6,000,000 bushels.

It is plain that there is a point reached in population and value of real estate when States annually send forth swarms of emigrants to the new and cheap lands of the wilderness, thus building up new States with such magic speed. It begins to be demonstrated by the statistics of population, that the question of price of lands governs the direction of emigrants more than the character of the institutions of a new State.

The employment of slave labor involves the necessity of large plantations, instead of small farms, and the occupancy of large tracts prevents that dense population of whites found in the free States. But this does not diminish the prosperity of the State, or reduce its productive capacity. It is really a question of doubt whether a country sparsely populated by whites, yet cultivated by slave labor, does not soon attain a higher fixed value, and make a more valuable annual return than one possessing equal advantages wholly cultivated by white freemen. The census now about to be completed will furnish some interesting facts bearing on this subject.

It will be seen by the table below that the West is rapidly becoming a great power. Under the new census the ratio of representation will be one to about 125,000.

As the population of Michigan has reached 750,000, she will be entitled to six members of Congress instead of four; Missouri will gain two members, Iowa three, Indiana one, Wisconsin three, and Illinois four. Ohio loses one member, and Minnesota also suffers the loss of one.

The representation for the next decade, as compared with the last, will be as follows:


Showing a gain of thirteen representatives.

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