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[for the Dispatch.]As a good deal of attention seems to be drawn to the opening of the war in Kentucky, and much misunderstanding exists regarding the situation of the important points of the State, I propose to enlighten the readers of the Dispatch as to the location of those upon the line of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. The first point of any military importance, going north from Nashville, is Bowling Green, thirty miles north of the Tennessee State line and at the crossing of Barren river, a narrow, but very deep stream, with very high banks, and navigable for steamboats, by means of improvements. Bowling Green is a town of 3,000 inhabitants, and is the depot for the pork trade of Southern Kentucky, besides being the location of the large machine shops of the L. & N. R. R., which crosses Barren river here over a large iron bridge.--Thirty miles north of this is Cave city, where the turnpike to the Mammoth Cave, seven miles West, leaves the railroad; twelve miles North, and 74 miles from Louisville, is Green river, a stream of the same character as Barren river, but with a wider valley; it is crossed by the railroad upon the largest iron bridge in America, excepting the Victoria bridge, over the St. Lawrence. The town of Munfordsville is at this crossing, and is a small place. Seven miles North is the summit of the railroad in Kentucky, being on a range of hills running East and West, some fifty miles, and affording a very good line of defence, if our forces should be driven back to the Green river country. Twenty-three miles North of this ridge is Elizabethtown, the seat of Hardin county, and of which it is reported that our forces under Gen. Buckner have taken possession, with a view to further operations at Muldraugh's hill, the tunnel through which is only four miles distant.--Muldraugh's hill is the great backbone of the State; it forms the water- shed for all the Green river drainage, the streams north of it running direct into the Ohio. It starts in a high bluff upon the latter river, twenty miles west of Louisville, and increasing in height as it goes, can be traced 300 miles East to its junction with the Cumberland mountains. Two-thirds of the State is South of this range. The country North is an alternation of large tracts of hilly lands, with still larger tracts of the most fertile plains. The celebrated "Blue Grass" region, around Lexington, is just North of the ridge. The hill itself, at the railroad crossing, is some ten miles wide, and has but one side, the tableland South running off upon a level with its summit; while the country towards Louisville is some 600 feet lower, with deep and narrow valleys running up into the hill. It forms a magnificent line of defence, as, although not very high, it can be crossed at but few points. The Lebanon Branch railroad starts from the main line, 30 miles from Louisville, and two North of "Rolling Fork," and running through several very hot Union towns, reaches Lebanon, 37 miles off. This place is as large as Bowling Green, but not of so much importance, and is pretty well Unionized. From Lebanon Junction, ten miles towards Louisville, is Shepardsville, at the crossing of Salt River, a very wide, but shallow stream, with low banks and a wide valley. Shepardsville is principally remarkable for its submissionism and lightning whiskey. After passing through a country studded with isolated and conical hills, we come to a very remarkable swamp called Ash Pond, six miles wide, and twelve miles from Louisville. From here to Louisville the country is a slightly undulating plain, with small creaks running through it, and studded with ponds. The public can see by this attempted reconnaissance, that if Gen. Buckner gets possession of the western passes of Muldraugh's hill, that there are none but artificial obstacles — such as Ronesser — to prevent him from occupying Louisville, which had by its last census 76,210 inhabitants. From there, co-operation with Gen. Zollicoffer towards Frankfort and Lexington is comparatively easy. Kentuckian.
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