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From Washington.

City full of hospitals.--the rejection of Shields — frauds in Contracts — Extrastition treaty with Mexico.

The following items from the Federals are under date of the 23d:

A late, though better than never, effort is being made to improve the sanitary condition of the city, which is very bad in consequence of neglected streets, suburbs and open spaces. Already there are indications that the city will be less healthy than usual this season on account of this condition of things. It is suggested that the Government should take the matter in hand, if the municipal authorities do not, on account of the number of sick and wounded soldiers here, for whom the atmosphere is very bad.

Several of the Churches lately taken possession of by the Government to be used as hospitals, are now ready foe the reception of the sick and wounded.--They are very well adapted for this purpose, and are so protected that little damage will be done to the editices. Two additional Episcopal Churches, Grace Church (Island) and Christ Church, (Navy Yard,) have recently been taken as hospitals. This leaves but one Episcopal Church in this city not occupied for Government purposes.

The tariff and tax bills have already caused a material advance in the price of tobacco and segars among the wholesale dealers here. Tobacco, which was last week selling at forty cents per pound, now commands sixty cents, and some brands of segars have advanced from three dollars to five dollars per thousand.

The Navy Department has received dispatches stating that, on the night of the 7th instant, the schooner Rowena, formerly the Garibaldi, seventy tons barthen, built opposite New Orleans, ran into the Stono river, and anchored near the entrance, not knowing it to be in our possession. She was therefore a prisoner, we having seven gunboats in that vicinity. She was last from Nassau, and had a cargo of lead and a few shoes. She was taken by the Pawnee, and sent to Philadelphia.

The refusal of the Senate to confirm the nomination of Brigadier-General Shields, as a Major- General, has created considerable stir among his friends here. An effort will be made to have the vote on his rejection reconsidered, but it is extremely doubtful whether it will be successful. The present Senate has already confirmed General Shields as a Brigadier, and his rejection as a Major-General will not deprive him, as many suppose, of his original commission. His position as Brigadier has never been made vacant.

The Senate committee has before it a number of facts in regard to alleged frauds committed upon the Government by contractors. Nearly all these facts, it is understood, came from the Holt commission, and relative to ambulances, clothing, and shoes. They are renerally New England and New York contractors. The whole matter will be made public in a short time.

The paying off of the army continues as rapidly as the rolls are made out. Major H. L. King, with his assistant, H. R. King, Jr., left this afternoon for General McCletion's army. Major King took with him $125,000 to pay off General Gorman's brigade. Major Hoopes has also left to pay off another brigade.

It is reported that the President has signed the Tax bill. It goes into effect on the 1st of August. There is a Commissioner to be appointed under the provisions of the bill, at a salary of $4,000. There is no lack of applicants for the office.

Several committees of manufacturers and others have arrived here, for the purpose of endeavoring to effect some material changes in the Tariff bill.--The iron interest appears to be well represented.--Some of the smaller items will, no doubt, be changed, but it is very doubtful whether any of the important features of the bill will be disturbed. It is thought that the duties on sugar and molasses will be slightly reduced, and the duties on salt increased from six cents to eight cents per sack. The duties on segars will probably be increased.

The treaty between the United States and Mexico for the extradition of criminals is officially proclaimed. The offences are confined to the principals, accessories or accomplices to murder, assassination, piracy, forgery, counterfeiting larceny &c., and kidnapping — the last being detined as the taking and carrying away a free person by force and deception. The provisions of the treaty are not applied in any manner to any crime or offence of a purely political character, nor do they embrace the return of fugitive slaves.

The Secretary of War to-day ordered that all applications for passes and permits for persons or property within the lines of the United States forces, shall hereafter be made to Brigadier- General Wadsworth, Military Governor of the District of Columbia, and be subject to such terms and conditions as he may prescribe.

The following order has just been issued from the War Department:

‘ "The Secretary of War is of the opinion that the act to prevent and punish frand on the part of officers en ted with the making of contracts on the part of the Government, approved June 2d, 1862, applied only to such contracts as, under the laws and regulations in force at the time of its passage, were required to be in writing. The execution of the act in any other sense is utterly impracticable, and an attempt otherwise to enforce it would everywhere instantly arrest the operation of all our forces. it is, therefore,

‘"Ordered — That all contracts which, by the present regulations, are prescribed to be made in writing, shall hereafter be made in quintuplicate, of which four shall be disposed of according to such regulation, and one shall be sent by the officer making and signing the same to the office of the Department of the Interior within thirty days after the contract is made, together with all the proposals and a copy of any advertisement published by him touchiog the same, attaches and verified in the manner required by the act above specified."’

’ The foreign news received to-day is looked upon as destroying the hope of the rebels for a recognition of their Confederacy.

The United States steamer Satellite has gone to Phitadeiphia, for machinery and operators to raise the wrecks of the Congress and Camberland, sunk by the Merrimac near Norfolk.

According to an order of the War Department, in every case of prisoners taken in arms against

the United States, who may be tried and sentenced to death, the record of the tribunal before which the trial was had shall be forwarded for the action of the President of the United States, without writen orders no such sentence in such cases will be legal.

Among the arrivals, yesterday, at Willard's, were Major-General Pope and Staff, U. S. A.; Mrs. General McDowell, and daughter.

Hon. Edward Everett has arrived in this city from Chicago, and is stopping with his son-in-law, Lieutenant Wise.

Bishop McIlvaine, of Ohio, is in town.

The members of Congress from Pennsylvania will not support the new tariff bill, unless a change is made that will do justice to the iron interest of our State. This is fully resolved upon by the entire delegation. Railroad iron is taxed $1.56, while no protection is given it by the new tariff.

The sympathizers with secession here are again made jubilant by the comments of English journals on the defeat of Banks, received per steamer An officer in the navy, who is a secessionist, though still holding his position, told me this morning that he had no doubt the British Government would now intervene in our affairs, if it did not immediately recognize the Southern Confederacy. There are too many of his way of thinking in this city, some of whom hold Government positions.

It is feared that some difficulty may arise under the District emancipation act, in consequence of the large number of claimants under, the act, the high rate at which the slaves are valued, as the total amount allowed for compensation is limited. The Commissioner is making every effort to do justice to the claimants and to the Government.

Western Virginia is to form a new State, and will be admitted into the Union before Congress adjourns. So says a member of the House.

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Shields (3)
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