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Progress of the War.

The Federal at Beaufort, N. C.

The Raleigh Journal publishes a statement of the condition of things at Beaufort, N. C., from a citizen who left there a few days since. This seems to be the most reliable information we have received from inside the enemy's Hoes for some time past. It may be proper, in explanation of the term "buffaloes" used, that it is applied by North Carolinians to a set of traitors on the coast who are of the lowest grads of society.

Quite an excitement came off in that town one day last week, caused by the Abolitionists attempting to press three seamen, place) into the Federal the coast of service, as pilots for South Carolina and Georgia, and especially for Charleston bar. The pilots peremptorily refused to serve under any considerations whatever, telling the Yankees that they much preferred death to aiding in leading the enemy's fleet against their land and kindred. After a considerable rumpus on the part of the loyal portion of the inhabitants of the town, both male and female, the pilots were released by the enemy.

The entire fleet has left the port of Beaufort and gone South, with the exception of twelve gunboats and transports that remain as sentinels in the harbor, lost the Confederates should pounce down upon them unawares.

Not more than five hundred Federal soldiers are in and around Beaufort at this time, including about two hundred buffaloes and a few negroes that are under arms.

Governor Stanley, as he is called, was burned in effigy by the buffaloes and negress one day last week, for opposing the enlistment of negro soldiers into the service.

Lincoln has refused to accept Stanley's resignation and has ordered him back to Newbern, but I learn that he refuses to comply with his master's orders for the present.

A lady who came out from Newbern a few days ago reports about fifteen regiments at that post.

Affairs in Memphis — the contrabands.

The Grenada (Miss) Appeal publishes some information from a gentleman just out from Memphis, about the condition of affairs there. The situation of the city is most deplorable.

The city was filled with negroes, in the most deplorable condition. All the cotton shads, stables, and cut-houses are filled with the contrabands, who continue to be subject to the ravages or the small pox, and it is estimated that over one thousand have died within the last thirty days. To add to the horrors they are experiencing, the weather has been unusually severe, and their clothing has been sent.

Desertions continue as numerous as ever. To prevent it the pickets were doubled about a week ago; but even this precaution falls to prevent their leaving. The number of sick in the various hospitals is estimated at eight thousand, and preparations are being made for a much larger number.

During last week Confederate notes were sold at sixty cents on the dollar for greenbacks. Tennessee money was above par, and other Southern bank money used at par in all commercial circles. Greenbacks were depreciating, and not held with any feeling of security.

The election proved so great a farce that no certificate was issued. The lucky aspirant has had, therefore, to forego the honors so eagerly sought for.

Gen. Hamilton, with his body guard, has his headquarters in the residence of Major Hunt, on Beal street; Gen. Logan's forces were encamped near the State Hospital; Gen Quinby's on New Orleans street, with headquarters at Mrs Jesse Tate's residence; and the Illinois and Iowa cavalry near the Fair Grounds. The fortifications were guarded by three regiments from Iowa and Illinois troops. The gunboat Gen. Bragg was the only war craft in the river.

The fall of Arkansas Post — authentic particulars — who surrendered it.

Dr. C. H. Smith, chief surgeon of the division at Arkansas Post, has furnished an authentic statement of the fall of that place, which will be found interesting as the first account proceeding from a source within the fort and having an official aspect. He says:

‘ The place was fortified by an earth work called "Fort Hindman," which fort mounted three large size guns, two casemated and one on barbaric, together with some five or six small field places, two of which were rifled Parrott guns. One mile below the fort was a trench extending from the river to a swamp and one mile or three quarters of a mile further down the river was yet another trench, intended for the defence of the place from a land attack, unaided by gunboats. The troops garrisoning the place consisted of three brigades, mostly Texans and commanded respectively by Colonels Garland, Desblor, and Dunnington, the whole forming a division under the command of Brigadier-General T. J. Churchill, and numbering on the day of the fight not more than thirty-three hundred effective men.

’ On the 9th day of January a scout from below brought intelligence to Gen. Churchill of a Yankee gunboat having made its appearance in the Arkansas river, at the White river cut-off, some thirty miles below the Post; towards noon of the same day another scout brought news of other gunboats, followed by transports, making their way up the river. Upon the receipt of this intelligence Gen. Churchill ordered everything in readiness for an attack, and ere night closed in all the troops were distributed along the first named line of entrenchments, where they remained all night in a pelting storm of rain. The enemy, in the meantime, had landed a force about two miles below us, and we anticipated an attack by daylight the following morning, but in this we were disappointed; they made demonstration until about 9 or 10 o'clock in the day, when they commenced shelling us from their advance gunboats that were cautiously and slowly feeling their way up the river.

Our troops held the position first taken by them until about four o'clock P. M., when the General, fearing a flank movement on our left, ordered the men to fall back to a line of entrenchments near the yet unfinished fort, which line was speedily completed and all the troops properly distributed before night set in. Just as darkness was drawing near, four gunboats approached the fort and commenced their bombardment our guns from the fort answering gallantly, and after two hours terrific shelling the gunboats retired, one of them, the Eastport, badly disabled, and our loss consisting of three killed and some three or four wounded.

On the morning of the 10th ult., at 10 o'clock, or thereabouts, the enemy renewed the attack with gunboats and land forces combined; they had also erected a battery on the opposite side of the river, by means of which they kept up a terrible crossfire that swept the whole area of ground occupied by us. The firing now continued until about 4 o'clock P. M, when it seemed to cease, and shortly after the cessation there was a yell from the lines which attracted the attention of the General commanding, whose headquarters had been established some four hundred yards from the trenches. On riding forward to ascertain the state of affairs, the General was much surprised to find the Federal flag floating in every direction along our lines. Upon inquiry, it was ascertained that some one in the 24th Texas regiment had raised the white flag and passed the word down the line that Gen. Churchill had ordered a surrender, whereupon all the troops, except Col. Deshier's brigade, immediately surrendered. He refused to surrender his brigade until ordered by Gen. Churchill.

When the General rode into the fort and surrendered, he was met by Gen Sherman, who wished to know where his (Gen. Churchill's) men were. When Gen C. told him they were all there in sight, he seemed surprised and could scarcely credit the fact that so small a body of troops had succeeded in baffling for so long a time, and killing so many of his men.

The Federal acknowledge the loss of 1,600 killed and wounded, and I think 2,000 would not be a large figure, while we lost only about 100 in killed and wounded.

Gen. Churchill told Gen. Sherman that he had not ordered a surrender, but, on the contrary, that he had ordered the men to fight until all were dean in the trenches rather than surrender. He had telegraphed for reinforcements, and hoped they would roach him that evening, but I believe none were ever sent, save about 200 from St. Charles, on White river, who arrived just in time to be taken prisoners.

The number of prisoners taken at this post was, probably, about 3,500--certainly not more than that number.

Old Abe and his wife — Pen Portraits.

Russell, of the London Times, has furnished the following concerning the present occupants of the White House at Washington:

Leaving the hubbub and phiz-drinks and constant spitting of Willard's, the reader is permitted to follow Mr. Russell to the aristocratic reclusion of the White House. The servant who took the guest's hat was slow to believe that the gentleman was invited. "He was," says the diary, "particularly inquisitive as to my name and condition in life; and he heard I was not a minister he seemed inclined to question my right to be there at all, "for," said he, "there are none but members of the Cabinet and their wives and daughters dining here to-day." Eventually he relaxed, instructed me how to place my hat, so that it would be exposed to no indignity, and informed me that I was about to participate in a prandial enjoyment of no ordinary character. Mr. Jeams having been thus conciliated, the reporter was led to the reception room.

Mrs Lincoln was already seated to receive her guests. She is of the middle age and height, of a plumpness degenerating to the embonpoint natural to her years; her features are , her nose and mouth of an ordinary type, and her manners and appearance homely, stiffened, however, by the consciousness that her position requires her to be something more than plain Mrs Lincoln, the wife of the Illinois lawyer; she is profuse in the use of the word 'sir,' in every instance, which is now almost Americanism confined to certain classes, although it was once as common in England. Her dress I shall not attempt to describe, though it was very gorgeous and highly colored. She handled a fan with much energy, displaying a round, well-proportioned arm and was adorned with some simple jewelry. Mrs. Lincoln struck me as being desirous of making herself agreeable. And I own I was agreeably disappointed, as the Secessionist ladies at Washington had been amusing themselves by anecdotes which could scarcely have been founded on fact.

The portrait of the host is thus given in another chapter:

‘ "Soon afterwards there entered, with bling, irregular, almost man, over six feet in height, stooping shoulders, long, pendulous arms, terminating in hands of extraordinary dimensions, which, however, were far exceeded in proportion by his feet. He was dressed in an ill-fitting, wrinkled suit of black, which put one in mind of an undertaker's uniform at a funeral; round his neck a rope of black silk was knotted in a large bulb, with flying ends projecting beyond the collar of his coat; his turned-down shirt-collar disclosed a sinewy, muscular, yellow neck, and above that, nestling in a great mass of black hair, bristling and compact, like a ruff of mourning plus, rose the strange, quaint face and head, covered with its thatch of wild republican hair, of Lincoln. The impression produced by the size of the extremities, and by his flapping and wide-projecting ears, may be removed by the appearance of kindliness, sagacity, and the awkward bonhomie of his face; the mouth is absolutely prodigious; the lips straggling and extending almost from one line of black beard to the other, are only kept in order by two deep furrows from the nostril to the chin; the nose itself — a prominent organ — stands out from the face, with an inquiring, anxious air, as though it were sniffling some good thing in the wind; the eyes, dark and deeply set, are penetrating, but full of expression, which almost amounts to tenderness; and above them projects the shaggy brow running into the small, hard frontal space, the development of which can scarcely be estimated accurately, owing to the irregular flocks of thick hair carelessly brushed across it."

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