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Confederate iron-clads at Liverpool--one of them gone to sea--Confederate vessels building in France--English opinion of a Yankee invasion of Mexico, &c.

The steamship City of New York, from Queenstown on the 27th ult., arrived at New York on Sunday. A Queenstown letter states that a powerful rebel ram, lately built in Liverpool, had put to sea, notwithstanding the fact that a memorial had been forwarded to the Government in London, asking for her detention under the foreign enlistment act.

The Florida again appeared off the coast of Ireland on the 24th ult., but stood out to sea at night. The Cork correspondent of the Dublin Journal says:

‘ Between 2 and 3 o'clock P. M. yesterday a long, rakish, black hulled steamer, was seen some miles off our harbor. She was steaming very fast down channel towards the Old Head of Kinsale, evidently on the track of some Yankee vessels. From her general appearance and great swiftness the mysterious craft is supposed to have been the famous Florida, of the Confederate Navy.

’ The Confederate loan on the 25th instant experienced a further advance of 3 per cent., closing at 24a22 discount.

The Confederate iron-clads--one gone to sea — a Confederate frigate Repairing in France.

A dispatch from London of the 27th of August says:

‘ The Confederate frigate Atlanta, which put into Brest for repairs, having no bill of health on board, has been forced to go into quarantine.

[Paris (Aug. 24) Correspondence of London Herald.]

The Pays makes the following announcement, which, under present circumstances, is calculated to attract much attention: The American frigate Atlanta, belonging to the Southern States, has arrived at Brest to repair damages sustained at sea.

There is no reason why a Confederate man-of-war should not enjoy the same privileges in central ports as the Federal navy, but that should have the rare privilege of making good her damages in an imperial dock yard is a hopeful sign. It is a fitting answer to the bombastic threats of Yankee organs; but whether it be a harbinger of the speedy recognition of the Southern Confederacy is more than I am able to say. At all events, it should be borne in mind that step was long since decided on by the French Government, and deferred only out of a wish not to run counter to Lord Russell's centrality hobby; but, if anything, it is likely to be hastened by the sinister predictions of Federal croakers on both sides of the channel.

Whether the presence of the Atlanta at Brest is to be considered a political symptom or not is matter for conjecture, but we all know how it will be viewed at Washington. Political men of all parties here consider that the establishment of the new state of things in Mexico renders the formation of an alliance with the Confederate States an indispensable necessity, and there is nothing surprising in the report that negotiations should be going on with a view to bring about that great result.

There is also a report that well-known shipbuilding firms at Havre and Bordeaux are building cruisers for the Confederate States, but it is probably a canard due to the alarmed imagination of the Federals and their friends. "The thief doth fear each bush an officer," and every Yankee skipper in a European port sees a future Alabama in every vessel with a clean run that he may see on the stocks. For the sake of the South, however, I hope the rumor may turn out true. The Emperor of the French will, in such a case, reap all the advantages his good will and material support have entitled him to expect from the Southerners; whilst England, though far more unanimous in her sympathies, will have contrived to lose the opportunity of securing a valuable ally without disarming the bitter hostility which prevails against her in the North.

[from the London news, August 28.]

It will be seen from the memorial to Earl Russell, which appears in another column, that there is reason to believe that the builders of the Alabama, undeterred by the declaration of the legal representatives of the crown that the building of that vessel was an offence against the laws of the country, are about to launch two powerful iron plated rams to prey upon the commerce of the United States. It will be a disgrace to the country and to the administration of our laws if these vessels are allowed to leave the Mersey. It appears, however, that there is no time to be lost, as one of them is said to be on the point of sailing to-morrow. The duty of the Government in such a case is as plain as it is urgent. If there is, as the memorialists affirm, good ground to suspect the character and destination of these vessels, their departure ought to be arrested, if need be, by telegraph, and without a moment's unnecessary delay, until the charges against them have been fully investigated. There was an acknowledged failure of justice in the case of the Alabama, through want of proper vigilance and promptitude; but, after the strong declarations of the Government as to the law of the case, and their decided action with regard to the Alexandra, we are entitled to assume, that no such remissness in the administration of our own laws, as well as in the discharge of our duty towards a friendly power, will be allowed to occur again.

[from the Liverpool Post, Aug. 26.]

One or two items of maritime news, which wear a rather doubtful aspect, will be found in this morning's telegrams. A Confederate frigate is being repaired in the Imperial dock at Brest, and several vessels on the stocks in French yards, built on the Alabama model, are said to be for the Southern States.

Mexico — the United States Cannot make War on France.

The London Times, of the 27th August, in its city article says there is no belief in the threats of the Washington Government against France in regard to Mexico. The general belief is that the American protest will now be feeble, and unattended by any threat, for the first really offensive threat against Napoleon would be the signal for the deliverance of the Confederates.

A European loan to start the Empire.

The London News says it is stated that not the least doubt can be entertained that Maximilian has accepted the throne, and that a European loan has been proposed to start the new Government and pay the over due liabilities.

The latest news.

London, Aug. 27, 1863.
--It is reported that the United States Minister, Mr. Dayton, has received instructions from his Government to protest against the French proceedings in Mexico.

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