The first Artaxerxes,1 preeminent among the kings of Persia for gentleness and magnanimity, was surnamed Longimanus, because his right hand was longer than his left, and was the son of Xerxes; the second Artaxerxes,2 the subject of this Life, was surnamed Memor, or Mindful, and was the grandson of the first by his daughter Parysatis. For Dareius3 and Parysatis had four sons—an eldest, Artaxerxes, and next to him Cyrus, and after these Ostanes and Oxathres.

1 Artaxerxes I. 465-425 B.C. The parallel form Artaxerxes has become fixed in English.

2 Artaxerxes II. 404-362 B.C.

3 Dareius II. 424-404 B.C.

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