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“If, then, anyone ask, ‘What has this to do with Apollo ?’, we shall say that it concerns not only him, but also Dionysus, whose share in Delphi is no less than that of Apollo.1 Now we hear the theologians affirming and reciting, sometimes in verse and sometimes in prose, that the god is deathless and eternal in his nature,2 but, owing forsooth to some predestined design and reason, he undergoes transformations of his person, and at one time enkindles his nature into fire and makes it altogether like all else, and at another time he undergoes all sorts of changes in his form, his emotions and his powers, even as the [p. 223] universe does to-day ; but he is called by the best known of his names.3 The more enlightened, however, concealing from the masses the transformation into fire, call him Apollo because of his solitary state,4 and Phoebus because of his purity and stainlessness.5 And as for his turning into winds and water, earth and stars, and into the generations of plants and animals, and his adoption of such guises, they speak in a deceptive way of what he undergoes in his transformation as a tearing apart, as it were, and a dismemberment. They give him the names of Dionysus, Zagreus, Nyctelius, and Isodaetes ; they construct destructions and disappearances, followed by returns to life and regenerations — riddles and fabulous tales quite in keeping with the aforesaid transformations. To this god they also sing the dithyrambic strains laden with emotion and with a transformation that includes a certain wandering and dispersion. Aeschylus,6 in fact, says
Fitting it is that the dithyramb
With its fitful notes should attend
Dionysus in revel rout.
But to Apollo they sing the paean, music regulated and chaste.

“Apollo the artists represent in paintings and sculpture as ever ageless and young, but Dionysus they depict in many guises and forms ; and they attribute to Apollo in general a uniformity, orderliness, and unadulterated seriousness, but to Dionysus a certain [p. 225] variability combined with playfulness, wantonness, seriousness, and frenzy. They call upon him7:

Euoe Bacchus who incites
Womankind, Dionysus who delights
'Mid his honours fraught with frenzy,
not inappositely apprehending the peculiar character of each transformation. “But since the time of the cycles in these transformations is not equal, but that of the one which they call ‘Satiety,’8 is longer, and that of ‘Dearth’ shorter, they observe the ratio, and use the paean at their sacrifices for a large part of the year ; but at the beginning of winter they awake the dithyramb and, laying to rest the paean, they use the dithyramb instead of it in their invocations of the god ; for they believe that, as three is to one, so is the relation of the creation to the conflagration.

1 Cf. 365 a, supra, and Lucan, v. 73-74; and for the proverb cf. Moralia, 280 d and the note.

2 Cf. Clement of Alexandria, Stromateis, v. 14 (p. 711 Potter).

3 Cf. Stobaeus, Eclogae Phys. et Ethic. i. 21. 5 (i. p. 184. 11 ed. Wachsmuth).

4 Cf. 354 b, 381 f, supra, and 393 b, infra.

5 Cf. 393 c, infra.

6 Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Aeschylus, no. 355.

7 Cf. Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Graec. iii. p. 730, Adespota, no. 131; quoted by Plutarch in Moralia, 607 c and 671 c also.

8 Cf. von Arnim, Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta, ii. 616 (p. 186); Philo, De Spec. Leg. i. 208.

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