previous next


Adjoining to this district is the second region of Italy, which embraces the Hirpini, Calabria, Apulia, and the Salentini, extending a distance of 250 miles along the Gulf of Tarentum, which receives its name from a town of the Laconians so called, situate at the bottom of the Gulf; to which was annexed the maritime colony which had previously settled there. Tarentum1 is distant from the promontory of Lacinium 136 miles, and throws out the territory of Calabria opposite to it in the form of a peninsula. The Greeks called this territory Messapia, from their leader2; before which it was called Peucetia, from Peucetius3, the brother of Œnotrius, and was comprised in the territory of Salentinum. Between the two promontories4 there is a distance of 100 miles. The breadth across the peninsula from Tarentum5 to Brundusium by land is 35 miles, considerably less if measured from the port of Sasina6. The towns inland from Tarentum are Varia7 surnamed Apulia, Messapia, and Aletium8; on the coast, Senum, and Callipolis9, now known as Anxa, 75 miles from Tarentum. Thence, at a distance of 32 miles, is the Pro- montory of Acra Iapygia10, at which point Italy projects the greatest distance into the sea. At a distance of 19 miles from this point is the town of Basta11, and then Hydruntum12, the spot at which the Ionian is separated from the Adriatic sea, and from which the distance across to Greece is the shortest. The town of the Apolloniates13 lies opposite to it, and the breadth of the arm of the sea which runs between is not more than fifty miles. Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, was the first who entertained the notion of uniting these two points and making a passage on foot, by throwing a bridge across, and after him M. Varro14, when commanding the fleet of Pompey in the war against the Pirates. Other cares however prevented either of them from accomplishing this design. Passing Hydruntum, we come to the deserted site of Soletum15, then Fratuertium, the Portus Tarentinus, the haven of Miltopa, Lupia16, Balesium17, Cælia18, and then Brundusium19, fifty miles from Hydruntum. This last place is one of the most famous .ports of Italy, and, although more distant, affords by far the safest passage across to Greece, the place of disembarkation being Dyrrachium, a city of Illyria; the distance across is 225 miles.

Adjoining Brundusium is the territory of the Pediculi20; nine youths and as many maidens, natives of Illyria, became the parents of sixteen nations. The towns of the Pediculi are Rudiæ21, Egnatia22, and Barium23; their rivers are the Iapyx (so called from the son of Dædalus, who was king there, and who gave it the name of Iapygia), the Pactius24, and the Aufidus, which rises in the Hirpinian mountains and flows past Canusium25.

At this point begins Apulia, surnamed the Daunian, from the Daunii, who take their name from a former chief, the father-in-law of Diomedes. In this territory are the towns of Salapia26, famous for Hannibal's amour with a courtezan, Sipontum27, Uria, the river Cerbalus28, forming the boundary of the Daunii, the port of Agasus29, and the Promontory of Mount Garganus30, distant from the Promontory of Salentinum or Iapygia 234 miles. Making the circuit of Garganus, we come to the port of Garna31, the Lake Pantanus32, the river Frento, the mouth of which forms a harbour, Teanum of the Apuli33, and Larinum, Cliternia34, and the river Tifernus, at which the district of the Frentani35 begins. Thus there were three different nations of the Apulians, [the Daunii,] the Teani, so called from their leader, and who sprang from the Greeks, and the Lucani, who were subdued by Calchas36, and whose country is now possessed by the Atinates. Besides those already mentioned, there are, of the Daunii, the colonies of Luceria37 and Venusia38, the towns of Canusium39 and Arpi, formerly called Argos Hippium40 and founded by Diomedes, afterwards called Argyrippa. Here too Diomedes destroyed the nations of the Monadi and the Dardi, and the two cities of Apina and Trica41, whose names have passed into a by-word and a proverb.

Besides the above, there is in the interior of the second region one colony of the Hirpini, Beneventum42, so called by an exchange of a more auspicious name for its old one of Maleventum; also the Æculani43, the Aquilonii44, the Abellinates surnamed Protropi, the Compsani, the Caudini, the Ligures, both those called the Corneliani and Bebiani, the Vescellani, the Æclani, the Aletrini, the Abellinates45 surnamed Marsi, the Atrani, the Æcani46, the Alfellani47, the Atinates48, the Arpani, the Borcani, the Collatni, the Cori- nenses, the Cannenses49, rendered famous by the defeat of the Romans, the Dirini, the Forentani50, the Genusini51, the Herdo- nienses, the Hyrini52, the Larinates surnamed Frentani53, the Merinates54 of Garganus, the Mateolani, the Netini55, the Ru- bustini56, the Silvini57, the Strapellini58, the Turmentini, the Vibinates59, the Venusini, and the Ulurtini. In the interior of Calabria there are the Ægetini, the Apamestini60, the Argentini, the Butuntinenses61, the Deciani, the Grumbestini, the Norbanenses, the Palionenses, the Sturnini62, and the Tutini: there are also the following Salentine nations; the Aletini63, the Basterbini64, the Neretini, the Uxentini, and the Veretini65.

1 This word is understood in the text, and Ansart would have it to mean that the "Gulf of Tarentum is distant," &c., but, as he says, such an assertion would be very indefinite, it not being stated what part of the Gulf is meant. He therefore suggests that the most distant point from Lacinium is meant; which however, according to him, would make but 117 miles straight across, and 160 by land. The city of Tarentum would be the most distant point.

2 Messapus, a Beotian, mentioned by Strabo, B. ix.

3 A son of Lycaon.

4 Of Lacinium and Acra Iapygia. About seventy miles seems to be the real distance; certainly not, as Pliny says, 100.

5 The modern Taranto to Brindisi.

6 Probably situate at the further extremity of the bay on which Tarentum stood.

7 According to D'Anville and Mannert, the modern Oria. Messapia is the modern Mesagna.

8 The modern Santa Maria dell' Alizza, according to D'Anville.

9 The modern Gallipoli, in the Terra di Otranto. The real distance from Tarentum is between fifty and sixty miles.

10 The "Iapygian Point," the present Capo di Santa Maria di Leuca.

11 Its site is occupied by the little village of Vaste near Poggiordo, ten miles S.W. of Otranto. In the sixteenth century considerable remains of Basta were still to be seen.

12 The modern Otranto stands on its site. In the fourth century it became the usual place of passage from Italy to Greece, Apollonia, and Dyrrhachium. Few vestiges of the ancient city are now to be seen.

13 Anciently Apollonia, in Illyria, now called Pallina or Pollona.

14 This was M. Terentius Varro, called "the most learned of the Romans." His design, here mentioned, seems however to have evinced neither learning nor discretion.

15 Now called Soleto. The ruins of the ancient city, described by Galateo as existing at Muro, are not improbably those of Fratuertium, or, perhaps more rightly, Fratuentum.

16 The modern Lecce is supposed to occupy its site.

17 Called Valetium by Mela. Its ruins are still to be seen near San Pietro Vernotico, on the road from Brindisi to Lecce. The site is still called Baleso or Valesio.

18 Ansart takes this to be the modern village of Cavallo, on the promontory of that name; but it is more probably the modern Ceglie, situate on a hill about twelve miles from the Adriatic, and twenty-seven miles west of Brindisi. Extensive ruins still exist there. There was another town of the same name in the south of Apulia.

19 Now Brindisi. Virgil died here. The modern city, which is an impoverished place, presents but few vestiges of antiquity. The distance to Dyrrhachium is in reality only about 100 miles.

20 They occupied probably a portion of the modern Terra di Bari.

21 Said by Hardouin to be the modern Carouigna or Carovigni; but Mannert asserts it to be the same as the modern Ruvo.

22 Or Gnatia, called by Strabo and Ptolemy a city of Apulia. It was probably the last town of the Peucetians towards the frontiers of Calabria. Horace, in the account of his journey to Brundusium (I. Sat. i. 97–100), makes it his last halting-place, and ridicules a pretended miracle shown by the inhabitants, who asserted that incense placed on a certain altar was consumed without fire being applied. The same story is referred to by Pliny, B. ii. c. 111, where he incorrectly makes Egnatia a town of the Salentini. Its ruins are visible on the sea-coast, about six miles S.E. of Monopali, and an old town still bears the name of Torre d'Agnazzo.

23 Now Bari, a considerable city. In the time of Horace it was only a fishing town. It probably had a considerable intercourse with Greece, if we may judge from the remains of art found here.

24 It is difficult to identify these rivers, from the number of small torrents between Brindisi and the Ofanto or Aufidus. According to Mannert, the Pactius is the present Canale di Terzo.

25 An important city of Apulia, said to have been founded by Diomedes. Horace alludes to its deficiency of water. The modern Canosa is built on probably the site of the citadel of the ancient city, the ruins of which are very extensive.

26 The ruins of this place are still to be seen at some little distance from the coast, near the village of Salpi. The story about Hannibal was very probably of Roman invention, for Justin .and Frontinus speak in praise of his continence and temperance. Appian however gives some further particulars of this alleged amour.

27 The present Manfredonia has arisen from the decay of this town, in consequence of the unhealthiness of the locality. Ancient Uria is supposed to have occupied the site of Manfredonia, and the village of Santa Maria di Siponto stands where Siponti stood.

28 Probably the Cervaro. Hardouin says the Candelaro.

29 The present Porto Greco occupies its site.

30 Still known as Gargano.

31 Probably the present Varano.

32 Now Lago di Lesina. The Frento is now called the Fortore.

33 To distinguish it from Teanum of the Sidicini, previously mentioned.

34 Between the Tifernus and the Frento. Its remains are said to be still visible at Licchiano, five miles from San Martino. The Tifernus is now called the Biferno.

35 A people of Central Italy, occupying the tract on the east coast of the peninsula, from the Apennines to the Adriatic, and from the frontiers of Apulia to those of the Marrucini.

36 Strabo (B. vi.) refers to this tradition, where he mentions the oracle of Calchas, the soothsayer, in Daunia in Southern Italy. Here answers were given in dreams, for those who consulted the oracle had to sacrifice a black ram, and slept a night in the temple, lying on the skin of the victim.

37 The modern Lucera in the Capitanata.

38 The birth-place of Horace; now Verosa in the Basilicata.

39 The modern Canosa stands on the site of the citadel of ancient Canusium, an Apulian city of great importance. The remains of the ancient city are very considerable.

40 So called, it was said, in remembrance of Argos, the native city of Diomedes. It was an Apulian city of considerable importance. Some slight traces of it are still to be seen at a spot which retains the name of Arpa, five miles from the city of Foggia.

41 The names of these two defunct cities were used by the Romans to signify anything frivolous and unsubstantial; just as we speak of "castles in the air," which the French call "chatêaux en Espagne."

42 Livy and Ptolemy assign this place to Samnium Proper, as distinguished from the Hirpini. It was a very ancient city of the Sanmites, but in the year B.C. 268, a Roman colony was settled there, on which occasion, prompted by superstitious feelings, the Romans changed its name Maleventum, which in their language would mean "badly come," to Beneventun or "well come." The modern city of Benevento still retains numerous traces of its ancient grandeur, among others a triumphal arch, erected A.D. 114 in honour of the emperor Trajan.

43 The remains of Æculanum are to be seen at Le Grotte, one mile from Mirabella. The ruins are very extensive.

44 There were probably two places called Aquilonia in Italy; the remains of the present one are those probably to be seen at La Cedogna. That mentioned by Livy, B. x. c. 38–43, was probably a different place.

45 These are supposed by some to be the people of Abellinum mentioned in the first region of Italy. Nothing however is known of these or of the Abellinates Marsi, mentioned below.

46 AEcæ is supposed to have been situate about nineteen miles from Herdonia, and to have been on the site of the modern city of Troja, an episcopal see. The Compsani were the people of Compsa, the modern Conza; and the Caudini were the inhabitants of Caudium, near which were the Fauces Caudinæ or "Caudine Forks," where the Roman army was captured by the Samnites. The site of this city was probably between the modern Arpaja and Monte Sarchio; and the defeat is thought to have taken place in the narrow valley between Santa Agata and Moirano, on the road from the former place to Benevento, and traversed by the little river Iselero. The enumeration here beginning with the Æclani is thought by Hardouin to be of nations belonging to Apulia, and not to the Hirpini. The Æclani, here mentioned, were probably the people of the place now called Ascoli di Satriano, not far from the river Carapella. Of the Aletrini and Atrani nothing appears to be known.

47 Probably the people of Afiilæ, still called Affile, and seven miles from Subiaco. Inscriptions and fragments of columns are still found there.

48 The people of Atinum, a town of Lucania, situate in the upper valley of the Tanager, now the Valle di Diano. Its site is ascertained by the ruins near the village of Atena, five miles north of La Sala. Collatia was situate on the Anio, now called the Teverone.

49 The ruins of the town of Canuæ are still visible at a place called Canne, about eight miles from Canosa. The Romans were defeated by Hannibal, on the banks of the Aufidus in its vicinity, but there is considerable question as to the exact locality. The ruins of the town are still considerable.

50 Forentum was the site of the present Forenza in the Basilicate. It is called by Horace and Diodorus Siculus, Ferentum. The ancient town probably stood on a plain below the modern one. Some remains of it are still to be seen.

51 On the site of Genusium stands the modern Ginosa. The ruins of the ancient city of Herdonea are still to be seen in the vicinity of the modern Ordona, on the high road from Naples to Otranto. This place witnessed the defeat by Hannibal of the Romans twice in two years.

52 The mention of the Hyrini, or people of Hyrium or Hyria, is probably an error, as he has already mentioned Uria, the same place, among the Daunian Apulians, and as on the sea-shore. See p. 228. It is not improbably a corrupted form of some other name.

53 From the Frento, on the banks of which they dwelt.

54 Viesta, on the promontory of Gargano, is said to occupy the site of the ancient Merinum.

55 According to Mannert, the modern town of Noja stands on the site of ancient Netium.

56 They inhabited Ruvo, in the territory of Bari, according to Hardouin.

57 Their town was Silvium; probably on the site of the modern Savigliano.

58 According to D'Anville their town was Strabellum, now called Rapolla.

59 Their town is supposed to have been on the site of the modern Bovino, in the Capitanata.

60 The people of Apamestæ; probably on the site of the modern San Vito, two miles west of Polignano.

61 The people of Butuntum, now Bitonto, an inland city of Apulia, twelve miles from Barium, and five from the sea. No particulars of it are known. All particulars too of most of the following tribes have perished.

62 D'Anville places their city, Sturni, at the present Ostuni, not far from the Adriatic, and fourteen leagues from Otranto.

63 The people of Aletium already mentioned.

64 Their town possibly stood on the site of the present village of Veste, to the west of Castro. The Neretini were probably the people of the present Nardo.

65 Probably the people of the town which stood on the site of the present San Verato.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system.

load focus Latin (Karl Friedrich Theodor Mayhoff, 1906)
hide Places (automatically extracted)

View a map of the most frequently mentioned places in this document.

hide Dates (automatically extracted)
Sort dates alphabetically, as they appear on the page, by frequency
Click on a date to search for it in this document.
114 AD (1)
268 BC (1)
hide References (40 total)
  • Cross-references to this page (31):
    • Harper's, Duria
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), A´DDUA
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), A´DRIA
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), ALPES
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), APANESTAE
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), ATHESIS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), DU´RIA
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), ERI´DANUS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), FORUM VIBII
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), GA´LLIA CISALPI´NA
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), INDU´STRIA
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), ITA´LIA
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), MEDOACUS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), MI´NCIUS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), O´LLIUS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), PADUS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), RAVENNA
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), RHENUS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), SCULTENNA
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), SESSITES
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), SPINA
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), STURA
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), TANARUS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), TANE´TUM
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), TA´RTARUS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), TARUS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), TOGISONUS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), TRE´BIA
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), VAGIENNI
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), VATRENUS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), VESULUS MONS
  • Cross-references in general dictionaries to this page (9):
hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: