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1 Or Mediterranean.
2 From the chief city Narbo Martius, and later Narbona, now Narbonne, situate on the river Atax, now Aude. It was made a Roman colony by the Consul Q. Martius B.C. 118, and from him received its surname. It was the residence of the Roman governor of the province and a place of great commercial importance. There are scarcely any remains of the ancient city, but some vestiges of the canal, by which it was connected with the sea at twelve miles' distance.
3 From the linen breeches which the inhabitants wore, a fashion which was not adopted by the Romans till the time of the Emperors. Severus wore them, but the use of them was restricted by Honorius.
4 Still called the 'Var.' It divides France from Nice, a province of Sardinia.
5 Now the Cevennes. They lie as much to the west as the north of Gallia Narbonensis.
6 The range of the Jura, north of the Lake of Geneva.
7 Inhabiting the former Comte de Roussillon, or Département des Pyrénées Orientales. They were said to have been originally a Bebrycian or Thracian colony.
8 Probably the inhabitants of the present Conserans, on the west of the Département de l' Arriége.
9 Probably the Tech, and the Verdouble, which falls into the Gly.
10 Probably the present Elne, on the Tech.
11 The present Castel Roussillon.
12 The Aude of the present day.
13 The bodies of water now called Etangs de Bages et de Sigean.
14 Now the Herault.
15 Now called the Lez, near the city of Montpellier.
16 Now called Etangs de Leucate, de Sigean, de Gruissan, de Vendres, de Thau, de Maguelonne, de Perols, de Mauguio, du Repausset; Marais d'Escamandre, de Lermitane et de la Souteyrane, and numerous others.
17 Now the town of Agde. Strabo also informs us that this place was founded by the Massilians.
18 This people seems to have inhabited the eastern parts of the departments of l'Arriége and the Haute Garonne, that of Aude, the south of that of Tarn, and of that of Herault, except the arrondissement of Montpellier.
19 Dalechamp takes this to be Foz les Martigues; but the locality is doubtful. Most probably this is the same place that is mentioned by Strabo as Rhoë, in conjunction with the town of Agathe or Agde, and the Rodanusia of Stephen of Byzantium, who places it in the district of Massilia or Marseilles.
20 Now the Rhone.
21 Now the Lake of Geneva.
22 The modern Saone.
23 Now the rivers Isère and Durance.
24 Most probably from Libici, a town in the south of Gaul, of which there are coins in existence, but nothing else seems to be known. At the present day there are four mouths of the Rhone, the most westerly of which is called the "Dead" Rhone; the next the "Lesser" Rhone; the third the "Old" Rhone; and the fourth simply the Rhone. D'Anville considers the "Lesser" Rhone to have been the "Spanish" mouth of the ancients. In consequence of the overflowings of this river there is great confusion upon this subject.
25 This mouth of the Rhone was much used by the Massilians for the purposes of commerce with the interior of Gaul, and the carriage of the supplies of tin which they obtained thence.
26 The manner in which Pliny here expresses himself shows that he doubts the fact of such a place having even existed; it is mentioned by none of the preceding geographers, and of those who followed him Stephen of Byzantium is the only one who notices it. An inscription was found however in the reign of Charles V. of France, in which it was stated that Ataulphus, king of the Visigoths, selected Heraclea as his place of residence. On the faith of this inscription, Spon and Ducange have placed Heraclea at the modern Saint-Gilles, and other writers at Saint-Remy, where the inscription was found. Unfortunately, however, Messrs. Devic and Vaissette, in their "History of Languedoc," have proved that this inscription is of spurious origin.
27 The "Fossæ Marianæ" are also mentioned by Ptolemy and Solinus; though they differ in the situation which they have respectively assigned them. They were formed by Marius when advancing to dispute the passage of the Rhone with the Cimbri, who had quitted Spain for the purpose of passing the Pyrenees and invading Italy, in the year B.C. 102. There is considerable difficulty in determining their position, but they are supposed to have commenced at the place now called the Camp of Marius, and to have terminated at the eastern mouth of the Rhone near the present Arles.
28 Pliny is the first who mentions the name of this lake, though previous writers had indicated its existence. Strabo informs us that above the mouth of the Rhone there is a large lake that communicates with the sea, and abounds in fish and oysters. Brotier and D'Anville identify it with the present lake of Martigues or of Berre.
29 D'Anville takes this place to be the present town of Martigues; Brotier thinks that it was situate on the spot now called Le Cap d'Œil, near the town of Saint-Chamas; and Bouche, the historian of the Province, places it at Marignane, on the east side of the lake already mentioned.
30 "Campi Lapidei," called by the natives at the present day "LaCrau;" probably from the same Celtic root as our word "Crags;" though Bochart derives it from the Hebrew. Æschylus and Hyginus speak of this combat of Hercules, and Mela relates that being engaged in a mortal struggle with Albion and Geryon, the sons of Neptune, he invoked the aid of Jupiter, on which a shower of stones fell from the heavens and destroyed his antagonists. Those on this plain are said to be the remains of the stony shower. It is supposed by the scientific that many of these stones are aërolites, and that tradition has ingeniously adapted this story to their real origin. The vicinity of Tunbridge Wells presents a somewhat similar appearance.
31 The people probably of the site of the present isle of Camargue.
32 They probably inhabited the district south of the Durance, between it and the Rhone.
33 They inhabited the country in which the present Avignon, Orange, Cavaillon, and perhaps Carpentras are situate.
34 They are thought by Hardouin to have dwelt in the vicinity of the present town of Talard in the department of the Hautes Alpes.
35 They inhabited the eastern part of the departments of the Drôme and the Vaucluse.
36 Their territory comprehended the southern part of the department of the Ain, the department of the Isère, the canton of Geneva, and part of Savoy.
37 It was said to have been colonized from Phocæa, a town of Ionia in Asia Minor. Lucan in his Third Book more than once falls into the error of supposing that it was colonized from Phocis in Greece.
38 We learn from Justin, B. xliii., that this privilege, as well as others, and a seat at the public shows, were granted to the Massilians by the Roman Senate, in return for their sympathy and assistance after the city had been taken and plundered by the Gauls.
39 According to D'Anville the present Cap de l'Aigre, though Mannert takes it to be the Cap de la Croisette.
40 D'Anville takes this to be the same as the present Port de la Ciotat.
41 Probably occupying the south-east of the department of the Var. It is supposed by Hardouin that the village of Ramatuelle, near the coast, south of the Gulf of Grimaud, represents the ancient name; and D'Anville and other writers are of the same opinion.
42 Probably the country around the modern Brignole and Draguignan was inhabited by them.
43 They inhabited Verignon and Barjols in the southern part of the department of the Var.
44 D'Anville takes this to be the place called Agaï, between Frejus and La Napoule: but in so doing he disregards the order in which they are given by Pliny.
45 "The Forum of Julius." Now Frejus. As its name implies, it was a colony of the Eighth Legion. It was probably called 'Pacensis,' on some occasion when peace had happily been made with the original inhabitants, and 'Classica' from the fleet being stationed there by Augustus.
46 Still known as the Argens, from the silvery appearance of the water. It has choked up the harbour with sand, in which probably the ships of Augustus rode at anchor.
47 They inhabited the coast, in the vicinity of the modern Cannes.
48 They are supposed to have inhabited the country of Grasse, in the south-east of the department of the Var.
49 According to Ptolemy they had for their capital the town of Salinæ; which some take to be the modern Saluces, others Castellane, and others again Seillans, according to Holstein and D'Anville.
50 D'Anville thinks that they lived in the valley of Queyras, in the department of the Hautes Alpes, having a town of the same name.
51 The Adunicates are supposed by Hardouin to have inhabited the department of the Basses Alpes, between the towns of Senez and Digne.
52 The modem Antibes. Mount Cema is the present Monte-Cemelione.
53 "Arelate of the Sixth Legion," a military colony; now the city of Arles. It is first mentioned by Cæsar, who had some ships built there for the siege of Massilia or Marseilles. It was made a military colony in the time of Augustus.
54 "Beterræ of the Seventh Legion." The modern town of Beziers.
55 "Arausio of the Second Legion," now Orange, a town in the department of Vaucluse.
56 Now Valence, in the department of the Drôme.
57 Now Vienne, in the department of the Isère.
58 Aix, in the department of the Bouches du Rhône.
59 Avignon, in the Vaucluse.
60 Apt, in the department of Vaucluse.
61 Riez, in the department of the Basses Alpes.
62 The modern Alps, near Viviers, is probably built on the site of this town. The text shows that it was different from Augusta, probably the Alba Augusta mentioned by Ptolemy, though D'Anville supposes them to have been the same place.
63 Some writers take this place to be the present Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux, in the department of the Drôme.
64 Probably so called from its lofty position, and supposed by D'Anville to have been situate on the modern Mont Ventoux, or "Windy Mountain." Other writers place it at La Croix Haute, near the city of Avignon.
65 There is a village in the department of the Var, six leagues from Toulon, called Bormes, not improbably from these people.
66 The modern Cavaillon, in the department of the Vaucluse.
67 Now Carcassone, in the department of the Aude.
68 Probably Saint Tibéry, on the river Hérault.
69 Now Carpentras. Ptolemy also makes mention of the Memini.
70 Probably situate on the river Cœnus of Ptolemy, between the eastern mouth of the Rhone and Massilia. Probably the name in Pliny should be "Cœnienses."
71 Walckenaer places this people in the vicinity of Cambo, in the arrondissement of Bayonne, in the department of the Basses Pyrenees.
72 In names similar to this, as Festus remarks, "Forum" has the meaning of "Market;" much as that word is used as a compound in our names, such as Market Drayton, &c. Bouche thinks that by this place is meant the modern Le Canet: but D'Anville takes it to be Gonfaron, a corruption, he thinks, of Voconfaron from the Latin name.
73 The site of Glanum was about a mile to the south of the village of Saint Remi, between Cavaillon and Aries. On the spot there are the remains of a Roman mausoleum and a triumphal arch.
74 The people of Luteva, now Lodève, in the department of the Hérault.
75 "The people of Forum Neronis," which place has been supposed by some to have been the same with Carpentoracte: D'Anville supposes Forcalquier to have been Forum Neronis, while Walckenaer takes Momas to have been that place. From the text it would appear to have been identical with Luteva.
76 The modern Nismes, which in its ruins contains abundant marks of its ancient splendour. The family of the Antonines came from this place. The remains of its aqueduct still survive, containing three rows of arches, one above the other, and 180 feet in height.
77 The people of the present Pézenas, in the department of the Hérault.
78 Their chief town is supposed to have been Albiga, now Albi, in the department of Tarn.
79 The inhabitants of the present Senez in the Basses Alpes. De la Saussaye says that their coins read 'Samnagenses,' and not' Sanagenses,' and that they inhabited Senas, a town in the vicinity of Aix.
80 Their chief town was Tolosa, now Toulouse, in the department of the Haute-Garonne.
81 They probably lived in the vicinity of the present Montauban, in the department of the Tarn et Garonne.
82 Probably the inhabitants of the site of the modern town of Tarascon. There is, however, considerable doubt as to these two names.
83 Poinsinet thinks that they occupied Vabres, a place situate in the south of the department of Aveyron.
84 Now Vaison, in the department of Vaucluse.
85 "The Grove of Augustus." This town appears to have been overflowed by the river Druma, which formed a lake on its site. Its remains were still to be seen in the lake in modern times, and from it the town on the margin of the lake takes its name of Le Luc.
86 Under the name "formula" Pliny perhaps alludes to the official list of the Roman government, which he had consulted for the purposes of accuracy.
87 Bouche places the site of this people at the village of Avançon, between Chorges and Gap, in the department of the Hautes Alpes.
88 The present town of Digne, in the department of the Basses Alpes.
89 It is not known from what points these measurements of our author are taken.
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