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FOLLOWING the proper order of things, we have now arrived at the culminating point of the wonders manifested to us by the operations of Nature. And even at the very outset, we find spontaneously presented to us an incomparable illustration of her mysterious powers: so much so, in fact, that beyond it we feel ourselves bound to forbear extending our enquiries, there being nothing to be found either equal or analogous to an element in which Nature quite triumphs over herself, and that, too, in such numberless ways. For what is there more unruly than the sea, with its winds, its tornadoes, and its tempests? And yet in what department of her works has Nature been more seconded by the ingenuity of man, than in this, by his inventions of sails and of oars? In addition to this, we are struck with the ineffable might displayed by the Ocean's tides, as they constantly ebb and flow, and so regulate the currents of the sea as though they were the waters of one vast river.

And yet all these forces, though acting in unison, and impelling in the same direction, a single fish, and that of a very diminutive size—the fish known as the "echeneïs"2—possesses the power of counteracting. Winds may blow and storms may rage, and yet the echeneïs controls their fury, restrains their mighty force, and bids ships stand still in their career; a result which no cables, no anchors, from their ponderousness quite incapable of being weighed, could ever have produced! A fish bridles the impetuous violence of the deep, and subdues the frantic rage of the universe—and all this by no effort of its own, no act of resistance on its part, no act at all, in fact, but that of adhering to the bark! Trifling as this object would appear, it suffices to counteract all these forces combined, and to forbid the ship to pass onward in its way! Fleets, armed for war, pile up towers and bulwarks on their decks, in order that, upon the deep even, men may fight from behind ramparts as it were. But alas for human vanity!— when their prows, beaked as they are with brass and with iron,3 and armed for the onset, can thus be arrested and rivetted to the spot by a little fish, no more than some half foot in length!

At the battle of Actium, it is said, a fish of this kind stopped the prætorian ship4 of Antonius in its course, at the moment that he was hastening from ship to ship to encourage and exhort his men, and so compelled him to leave it and go on board another. Hence it was, that the fleet of Cæsar gained the advantage5 in the onset, and charged with a redoubled impetuosity. In our own time, too, one of these fish arrested the ship of the Emperor6 Caius in its course, when he was returning from Astura to Antium:7 and thus, as the result proved, did an insignificant fish give presage of great events; for no sooner had the emperor returned to Rome than he was pierced by the weapons of his own soldiers. Nor did this sudden stoppage of the ship long remain a mystery, the cause being perceived upon finding that, out of the whole fleet, the emperor's five-banked galley was the only one that was making no way. The moment this was discovered, some of the sailors plunged into the sea, and, on making search about the ship's sides, they found an echeneïs adhering to the rudder. Upon its being shown to the emperor, he strongly expressed his indignation that such an obstacle as this should have impeded his progress, and have rendered powerless the hearty endeavours of some four hundred men. One thing, too, it is well known, more particularly surprised8 him, how it was possible that the fish, while adhering to the ship, should arrest its progress, and yet should have no such power when brought on board.

According to the persons who examined it on that occasion, and who have seen it since, the echeneïs bears a strong resemblance to a large slug.9 The various opinions entertained respecting it we have already10 noticed, when speaking of it in the Natural History of Fishes. There is no doubt, too, that all fish of this kind are possessed of a similar power; witness, for example, the well-known instance of the shells11 which are still preserved and consecrated in the Temple of Venus at Cnidos, and which, we are bound to believe, once gave such striking evidence of the possession of similar properties. Some of our own authors have given this fish the Latin name of "mora."12 It is a singular thing, but among the Greeks we find writers who state that, worn as an amulet, the echeneïs has the property,13 as already mentioned, of preventing miscarriage, and of reducing procidence of the uterus, and so permitting the fœtus to reach maturity: while others, again, assert that, if it is preserved in salt and worn as an amulet, it will facilitate parturition; a fact to which it is indebted for another name which it bears, "odinolytes."14 Be all this as it may, considering this most remarkable fact of a ship being thus stopped in its course, who can entertain a doubt as to the possibility of any manifestation of her power by Nature, or as to the effectual operation of the remedies which she has centred in her spontaneous productions?


And then, besides, even if we had not this illustration by the agency of the echeneïs, would it not have been quite sufficient only to cite the instance of the torpedo,15 another inhabitant also of the sea, as a manifestation of the mighty powers of Nature? From a considerable distance even, and if only touched with the end of a spear or staff, this fish has the property of benumbing even the most vigorous arm, and of rivetting the feet of the runner, however swift he may be in the race. If, upon considering this fresh illustration, we find ourselves compelled to admit that there is in existence a certain power which, by the very exhalations16 and, as it were, emanations therefrom, is enabled to affect the members of the human body,17 what are we not to hope for from the remedial influences which Nature has centred in all animated beings?


No less wonderful, too, are the particulars which we find stated relative to the sea-hare.18 Taken with the food or drink, it is a poison to some persons; while to others, again, the very sight of it is venomous.19 Indeed, if a woman in a state of pregnancy so much as looks upon one of these fishes, she is immediately seized with nausea and vomiting—a proof that the injury has reached the stomach—and abortion is the ultimate result. The proper preservative against these baneful effects is the male fish, which is kept dried for the purpose in salt, and worn in a bracelet upon the arm. And yet this same fish, while in the sea, is not injurious, by its contact even. The only animal that eats it without fatal consequences, is the mullet;20 the sole perceptible result being that its flesh is rendered more tender thereby, but deteriorated in flavour, and consequently not so highly esteemed.

Persons when poisoned21 by the sea-hare smell strongly of the fish—the first sign, indeed, by which the fact of their having been so poisoned is detected. Death also ensues at the end of as many days as the fish has lived: hence it is that, as Licinius Macer informs us, this is one of those poisons which have no definite time for their operation. In India,22 we are assured, the sea-hare is never taken alive; and, we are told that, in those parts of the world, man, in his turn, acts as a poison upon the fish, which dies instantly in the sea, if it is only touched with the human finger. There, like the rest of the animals, it attains a much larger size than it does with us.


Juba, in those books descriptive of Arabia, which he has dedicated to Caius Cæsar, the son of Augustus, informs us that there are mussels23 on those coasts, the shells of which are capable of holding three semisextarii; and that, on one occasion, a whale,24 six hundred feet in length and three hundred and sixty feet broad,25 made its way up a river of Arabia, the blubber of which was bought up by the merchants there. He tells us, too, that in those parts they anoint their camels with the grease of all kinds of fish, for the purpose of keeping off the gad-flies26 by the smell.


The statements which Ovid has made as to the instincts of fish, in the work27 of his known as the "Halieuticon,"28 appear to me truly marvellous. The scarus,29 for instance, when enclosed in the wicker kype, makes no effort to escape with its head, nor does it attempt to thrust its muzzle between the oziers; but turning its tail towards them, it enlarges the orifices with repeated blows therefrom, and so makes its escape backwards. Should,30 too, another scarus, from without, chance to see it thus struggling within the kype, it will take the tail of the other in its mouth, and so aid it in its efforts to escape. The lupus,31 again, when surrounded with the net, furrows32 the sand with its tail, and so conceals itself, until the net has passed over it. The muræna,33 trusting in the slippery smoothness34 of its rounded back, boldly faces the meshes of the net, and by repeatedly wriggling its body, makes its escape. The polyp35 makes for the hooks, and, without swallowing the bait, clasps it with its feelers; nor does it quit its hold until it has eaten off the bait, or perceives itself being drawn out of the water by the rod.

The mullet,36 too, is aware37 that within the bait there is a hook concealed, and is on its guard against the ambush; still however, so great is its voracity, that it beats the hook with its tail, and strikes away from it the bait. The lupus,38 again, shows less foresight and address, but repentance at its imprudence arms it with mighty strength; for, when caught by the hook, it flounders from side to side, and so widens the wound, till at last the insidious hook falls from its mouth. The muræna39 not only swallows the hook, but catches at the line with its teeth, and so gnaws it asunder. The anthias,40 Ovid says, the moment it finds itself caught by the hook, turns its body with its back downwards, upon which there is a sharp knife-like fin, and so cuts the line asunder.

According to Licinius Macer, the muræna is of the female sex only, and is impregnated by serpents, as already41 mentioned; and hence it is that the fishermen, to entice it from its retreat, and catch it, make a hissing noise in imitation of the hissing of a serpent. He states, also, that by frequently beating the water it is made to grow fat, that a blow with a stout stick will not kill it, but that a touch with a stalk of fennel- giant42 is instantly fatal. That in the case of this animal, the life is centred in the tail, there can be no doubt, as also that it dies immediately on that part of the body being struck; while, on the other hand, there is considerable difficulty in killing it with a blow upon the head. Persons who have come in contact with the razor-fish43 smell of iron.44 The hardest of all fishes, beyond a doubt, is that known as the "orbis:"45 it is spherical, destitute46 of scales, and all head.47


Trebius Niger informs us that whenever the loligo48 is seen darting above the surface of the water, it portends a change of weather: that the xiphias,49 or, in other words, the swordfish, has a sharp-pointed muzzle, with which it is able to pierce the sides of a ship and send it to the bottom: instances of which have been known near a place in Mauritania, known as Cotte, not far from the river Lixus.50 He says, too, that the loligo sometimes darts above the surface, in such vast numbers, as to sink the ships upon which they fall.


At many of the country-seats belonging to the Emperor the fish eat51 from the hand: but the stories of this nature, told with such admiration by the ancients, bear reference to lakes formed by Nature, and not to fish-preserves; that at Elorus, a fortified place in Sicily, for instance, not far from Syracuse. In the fountain, too, of Jupiter, at Labranda,52 there are eels which eat from the hand, and wear ear-rings,53 it is said. The same, too, at Chios, near the Old Men's Temple54 there; and at the Fountain of Chabura in Mesopotamia, already mentioned.55


At Myra, too, in Lycia, the fish in the Fountain of Apollo, known as Surium, appear and give oracular presages, when thrice summoned by the sound of a flute. If they seize the flesh thrown to them with avidity, it is a good omen for the person who consults them; but if, on the other hand, they flap at it with their tails, it is considered an evil presage. At Hierapolis56 in Syria, the fish in the Lake of Venus there obey the voice of the officers of the temple: bedecked with ornaments of gold, they come at their call, fawn upon them while they are scratched, and open their mouths so wide as to admit of the insertion of the hands.

Off the Rock of Hercules, in the territory of Stabiæ57 in Campania, the melanuri58 seize with avidity bread that is thrown to them in the sea, but they will never approach any bait in which there is a hook concealed.


Nor is it by any means the least surprising fact, that off the island of Pele,59 the town of Clazomenæ,60 the rock61 [of Scylla] in Sicily, and in the vicinity of Leptis in Africa,62 Eubœa, and Dyrrhachium,63 the fish are bitter. In the neighbourhood of Cephallenia, Ampelos, Paros, and the rocks of Delos, the fish are so salt by nature that they might easily be taken to have been pickled in brine. In the harbour, again, of the last-mentioned island, the fish are sweet: differences, all of them, resulting, no doubt, from the diversity64 of their food.

Apion says that the largest among the fishes is the seapig,65 known to the Lacedæmonians as the "orthagoriscos;" he states also that it grunts66 like a hog when taken. These accidental varieties in the natural flavour of fish—a thing that is still more surprising—may, in some cases, be owing to the nature of the locality; an apposite illustration of which is, the well-known fact that, at Beneventum67 in Italy, salted provisions of all kinds require68 to be salted over again.


Cassius Hemina informs us that sea-fish have been in use at Rome from the time of its foundation. I will give his own words, however, upon the subject:—"Numa ordained that fish without69 scales should not be served up at the Festivals of the Gods; a piece of frugality, the intention of which was, that the banquets, both public and private, as well as the repasts laid before the couches70 of the gods, might be provided at a smaller expense than formerly: it being also his wish to preclude the risk that the caterers for the sacred banquets would spare no expense in buying provisions, and so forestall the market."


In the same degree that people in our part of the world set a value upon the pearls of India—a subject on which we have already spoken71 on the appropriate occasion at sufficient length—do the people of India prize coral: it being the prevailing taste in each nation respectively that constitutes the value of things. Coral is produced in the Red Sea also, but of a more swarthy hue than ours. It is to be found also in the Persian Gulf, where it is known by the name of "iace." But the most highly-esteemed of all, is that produced in the vicinity of the islands called Stœchades,72 in the Gallic Gulf, and near the Æolian Islands and the town of Drepana in the Sea of Sicily. Coral is to be found growing, too, at Graviscæ, and off the coast of Neapolis in Campania: as also at Erythræ, where it is intensely red, but soft, and consequently little valued.

Its form is that of a shrub,73 and its colour green: its berries are white and soft while under water, but the moment they are removed from it, they become hard and red, resembling the berries of cultivated cornel in size and appearance. They say that, while alive, if it is only touched by a person, it will immediately become as hard as stone; and hence it is that the greatest pains are taken to prevent this, by tearing it up from the bottom with nets, or else cutting it short with a sharp-edged instrument of iron: from which last circumstance it is generally supposed to have received its name of "curalium."74 The reddest coral and the most branchy is held in the highest esteem; but, at the same time, it must not be rough or hard like stone; nor yet, on the other hand, should it be full of holes or hollow.

The berries of coral are no less esteemed by the men in India than are the pearls of that country by the females among us: their soothsayers, too, and diviners look upon coral as an amulet endowed with sacred properties,75 and a sure preservative against all dangers: hence it is that they equally value it as an ornament and as an object of devotion. Before it was known in what estimation coral was held by the people of India, the Gauls were in the habit of adorning their swords, shields, and helmets with it; but at the present day, owing to the value set upon it as an article of exportation, it has become so extremely rare, that it is seldom to be seen even in the regions that produce it. Branches of coral, hung at the neck of infants,76 are thought to act as a preservative against danger. Calcined, pulverized, and taken in water, coral gives relief to patients suffering from griping pains in the bowels, affections of the bladder, and urinary calculi. Similarly taken in wine, or, if there are symptoms of fever, in water, it acts as a soporific. It resists the action of fire a considerable time before it is calcined.

There is also a statement made that if this medicament is frequently taken internally, the spleen will be gradually consumed. Powdered coral, too, is an excellent remedy for patients who bring up or spit blood. Calcined coral is used as an ingredient in compositions for the eyes, being productive of certain astringent and cooling effects: it makes flesh, also, in the cavities left by ulcers, and effaces scars upon the skin.


In reference to that repugnance which exists between certain things, known to the Greeks as "antipathia," there is nothing more venomous77 than the pastinaca, a sea-fish which kills trees even with its sting, as already78 stated. And yet, poisonous as it is, the galeos79 pursues it; a fish which, though it attacks other marine animals as well, manifests an enmity to the pastinaca in particular, just as on dry land the weasel does to serpents; with such avidity does it go in pursuit of what is poisonous even! Persons stung by the pastinaca find a remedy in the flesh of the galeos, as also in that of the sur-mullet and the vegetable production known as laser.80


The might of Nature, too, is equally conspicuous in the animals which live upon dry land as well;81 the beaver, for instance, more generally known as "castor," and the testes82 of which are called in medicine "castorea." Sextius, a most careful enquirer into the nature and history of medicinal substances, assures us that it is not the truth that this animal, when on the point of being taken, bites off its testes: he informs us, also, that these substances are small, tightly knit, and attached to the back-bone, and that it is impossible to remove them without taking the animal's life. We learn from him that there is a mode of adulterating them by substituting the kidneys of the beaver, which are of considerable size, whereas the genuine testes are found to be extremely diminutive: in addition to which, he says that they must not be taken to be bladders, as they are two in number, a provision not to be found in any animal. Within these pouches,83 he says, there is a liquid found, which is preserved by being put in salt; the genuine castoreum being easily known from the false, by the fact of its being contained in two pouches, attached by a single ligament. The genuine article, he says, is sometimes fraudulently sophisticated by the admixture of gum and blood, or else hammoniacum:84 as the pouches, in fact, ought to be of the same colour as this last, covered with thin coats full of a liquid of the consistency of honey mixed with wax, possessed of a fetid smell, of a bitter, acrid taste, and friable to the touch.

The most efficacious castoreum is that which comes from Pontus and Galatia, the next best being the produce of Africa. When inhaled, it acts as a sternutatory. Mixed with oil of roses and peucedanum,85 and applied to the head, it is productive of narcotic effects—a result which is equally produced by taking it in water; for which reason it is employed in the treatment of phrenitis. Used as a fumigation, it acts as an excitant upon patients suffering from lethargy: and similarly employed, or used in the form of a suppository, it dispels hysterical86 suffocations. It acts also as an emmenagogue and as an expellent of the afterbirth, being taken by the patient, in doses of two drachmæ, with pennyroyal,87 in water. It is employed also for the cure of vertigo, opisthotony, fits of trembling, spasms, affections of the sinews, sciatica, stomachic complaints, and paralysis, the patient either being rubbed with it all over, or else taking it as an electuary, bruised and incorporated with seed of vitex,88 vinegar, and oil of roses, to the consistency of honey. In the last form, too, it is taken for the cure of epilepsy, and in a potion, for the purpose of dispelling flatulency and gripings in the bowels, and for counteracting the effects of poison.

When taken as a potion, the only difference is in the mode of mixing it, according to the poison that it is intended to neutralize; thus, for example, when it is taken for the sting of the scorpion, wine is used as the medium; and when for injuries inflicted by spiders or by the phalangium,89 honied wine where it is intended to be brought up again, and rue where it is desirable that it should remain upon the stomach. For injuries inflicted by the chalcis,90 it is taken with myrtle wine; for the sting of the cerastes91 or prester92 with panax93 or rue in wine; and for those of other serpents, with wine only. In all these cases two drachmæ of castoreum is the proper dose, to one of the other ingredients respectively. It is particularly useful, also, in combination with vinegar, in cases where viscus94 has been taken internally, and, with milk or water, as a neutralizer of aconite: as an antidote to white hellebore it is taken with hydromel and nitre.95 It is curative, also, of tooth-ache, for which purpose it is beaten up with oil and injected into the ear, on the side affected. For the cure of ear-ache, the best plan is to mix it with meconium.96 Applied with Attic honey in the form of an ointment, it improves the eyesight, and taken with vinegar it arrests hiccup.

The urine, too, of the beaver, is a neutralizer of poisons, and for this reason is used as an ingredient in antidotes. The best way of keeping it, some think, is in the bladder of the animal.


The tortoise,97 too, is an animal that is equally amphibious with the beaver, and possessed of medicinal properties as strongly developed; in addition to which, it claims an equal degree of notice for the high price which luxury sets upon its shell,98 and the singularity of its conformation. Of tortoises, there are various kinds, land tortoises,99 sea tortoises,100 tortoises101 which live in muddy waters, and tortoises102 which live in fresh; these last being known to some Greek authors by the name of "emydes." The flesh of the land-tortoise is employed for fumigations more particularly, and we find it asserted that it is highly salutary for repelling the malpractices of magic, and for neutralizing poisons. These tortoises are found in the greatest numbers in Africa; where the head and feet being first cut off, it is said, they are given to persons by way of antidote. Eaten, too, in a broth made from them, they are thought to disperse scrofula, diminish the volume of the spleen, and effect the cure of epilepsy. The blood of the land-tortoise improves the eyesight, and removes cataract: it is kept also, made up with meal into pills, which are given with wine when necessary, to neutralize the poison of all kinds of serpents, frogs, spiders, and similar venomous animals. It is found a useful plan, too, in cases of glaucoma, to anoint the eyes with gall of tortoises, mixed with Attic honey, and, for the cure of injuries inflicted by scorpions, to drop the gall into the wound.

Ashes of tortoiseshell, kneaded up with wine and oil, are used for the cure of chaps upon the feet, and of ulcerations. The shavings of the surface of the shell, administered in drink, act as an antaphrodisiac: a thing that is the more surprising, from the fact that a powder prepared from the whole of the shell has the reputation of being a strong aphrodisiac. As to the urine of the land-tortoise, I do not think that it can be obtained otherwise than by opening it and taking out the bladder; this being one of those substances to which the adepts in magic attribute such marvellous properties. For the sting of the asp, they say, it is wonderfully effectual; and even more so, if bugs are mixed with it. The eggs of the tortoise, hardened by keeping, are applied to scrofulous sores and ulcers arising from burns or cold: they are taken also for pains in the stomach.

The flesh of the sea-tortoise,103 mixed with that of frogs, is an excellent remedy for injuries caused by the salamander;104 indeed there is nothing that is a better neutralizer of the secretions of the salamander than the sea-tortoise. The blood of this animal reproduces the hair when lost through alopecy, and is curative of porrigo and all kinds of ulcerations of the head; the proper method of using it being to let it dry, and then gently wash it off. For the cure of ear-ache, this blood is injected with woman's milk, and for epilepsy it is eaten with fine wheaten flour, three heminæ of the blood being mixed with one hemina of vinegar. It is prescribed also for the cure of asthma; but in this case in combination with one hemina of wine. Sometimes, too, it is taken by asthmatic patients, with barley-meal and vinegar, in pieces about the size of a bean; one of these pieces being taken each morning and evening at first, but after some days, two in the evening. In cases of epilepsy, the mouth of the patient is opened and this blood introduced. For spasmodic affections, when not of a violent nature, it is injected, in combination with castoreum, as a clyster. If a person rinses his teeth three times a year with blood of tortoises, he will be always exempt from tooth-ache. This blood is also a cure for asthmatic affections, and for the malady called "orthopnœa," being administered for these purposes in polenta.

The gall of the tortoise improves the eye-sight, effaces scars, and cures affections of the tonsillary glands, quinsy, and all kinds of diseases of the mouth, cancers of that part more particularly, as well as cancer of the testes. Applied to the nostrils it dispels epilepsy, and sets the patient on his feet: incorporated in vinegar with the slough of a snake, it is a sovereign remedy for purulent discharges from the ears. Some persons add ox-gall and the broth of boiled tortoise-flesh, with an equal proportion of snake's slough; but in such case, care must be taken to boil the tortoise in wine. Applied with honey, this gall is curative of all diseases of the eyes; and for the cure of cataract, gall of the sea-tortoise is used, in combination with blood of the river-tortoise and milk. The hair, too, of females, is dyed105 with this gall. For the cure of injuries inflicted by the salamander, it will be quite sufficient to drink the broth of boiled tortoise-flesh.

There is, again, a third106 kind of tortoise, which inhabits mud and swampy localities: the shell on its back is flat and broad, like that upon the breast, and the callipash is not arched and rounded, the creature being altogether of a repulsive appearance. However, there are some remedial medicaments to be derived even from this animal. Thus, for instance, three of them are thrown into a fire made with wood cuttings, and the moment their shells begin to separate they are taken off: the flesh is then removed, and boiled with a little salt, in one congius of water. When the water has boiled down to one third, the broth is used, being taken by persons apprehensive of paralysis or of diseases of the joints. The gall, too, is found very useful for carrying off pituitous humours and corrupt blood: taken in cold water, it has an astringent effect upon the bowels.

There is a fourth kind of tortoise, which frequents rivers. When used for its remedial properties, the shell of the animal is removed, and the fat separated from the flesh and beaten up with the plant aizoüm,107 in combination with unguent and lily seed: a preparation highly effectual, it is said, for the cure of quartan fevers, the patient being rubbed with it all over, the head excepted, just before the paroxysms come on, and then well wrapped up and made to drink hot water. It is stated also, that to obtain as much fat as possible, the tortoise should be taken on the fifteenth day of the moon, the patient being anointed on the sixteenth. The blood of this tortoise, dropt, by way of embrocation, upon the region of the brain, allays head-ache; it is curative also of scrofulous sores. Some persons recommend that the tortoise should be laid108 upon its back and its head cut off with a copper knife, the blood being received in a new earthen vessel; and they assure us that the blood of any kind of tortoise, when thus obtained, will be an excellent liniment for the cure of erysipelas, running ulcers upon the head, and warts. Upon the same authority, too, we are assured that the dung of any kind of tortoise is good for the removal of inflammatory tumours. Incredible also as the statement is, we find it asserted by some, that ships109 make way more slowly when they have the right foot of a tortoise on board.


We will now proceed to classify the various remedies derived from the aquatic animals, according to the several diseases; not that we are by any means unaware that an exposition of all the properties of each animal at once, would be more to the reader's taste, and more likely to excite his admi- ration; but because we consider it more conducive to the practical benefit of mankind to have the various recipes thus grouped and classified; seeing that this thing may <*> good for one patient, that for another, and that some of these remedies may be more easily met with in one place and some in another.


We have already110 stated in what country the honey is venomous: the fish known as the dorade111 is an antidote to its effects. Honey, even in a pure state, is sometimes productive of surfeit, and of fits of indigestion, remarkable for their severity; the best remedy in such case, according to Pelops, is to cut off the feet, head, and tail, of a tortoise, and boil and eat the body; in place, however, of the tortoise, Apelles mentions the scincus, an animal which has been described elsewhere112 We have already mentioned too, on several occasions,113 how highly venomous is the menstruous fluid: the surmullet, as already114 stated, entirely neutralizes its effects. This last fish, too, either applied topically or taken as food, acts as an antidote to the venom115 of the pastinaca, the land and sea scorpion, the dragon,116 and the phalangium.117 The head of this fish, taken fresh and reduced to ashes, is an active neutralizer of all poisons, that of fungi more particularly.

It is asserted also, that if the fish called the sea-star118 is smeared with a fox's blood, and then nailed to the upper lintel of the door, or to the door itself, with a copper nail, no noxions spells will be able to obtain admittance, or, at all events, to be productive of any ill effects.


Stings inflicted by the sea-dragon119 or by the sea-scorpion, are cured by an application120 of the flesh of those animals to the wound; the bites, too, of spiders are healed by the same means. In fine, as an antidote to every kind of poison, whether taken internally or acting through the agency of a sting or bite, there is considered to be nothing in existence more effectual than a decoction of the sea-dragon and sea-scorpion.

There are also certain remedies of this nature derived from preserved fish. Persons, for instance, who have received injuries from serpents, or have been bitten by other venomous animals, are recommended to eat salt fish, and to drink undiluted wine every now and then, so as, through its agency, to bring up the whole of the food again by vomit: this method being particularly good in cases where injuries have been received from the lizard called "chalcis,"121 the cerastes,122 the reptile known as the "seps,"123 the elops,124 or the dipsas.125 For the sting of the scorpion, salted fish should be taken in larger quantities, but not brought up again, the patient submitting to any amount of thirst it may create: salt fish, too, should be applied, by way of plaster, to the wound. For the bite of the crocodile there is no more efficient remedy known. For the sting of the serpent called "prester," the sarda126 is particularly good. Salt fish is employed also as a topical application for the bite of the mad dog; and even in cases where the wound has not been cauterized with hot iron, this is found to be sufficiently effectual as a remedy. For injuries, also, inflicted by the sea-dragon,127 an application is made of salt fish steeped in vinegar. Cybium,128 too, is productive of similar effects. As a cure for the venomous sting inflicted with its stickle by the sea-dragon, the fish itself is applied topically to the wound, or else its brain, extracted whole.


The broth prepared from sea-frogs,129 boiled in wine and vinegar, is taken internally as a neutralizer of poisons and of the venom of the bramble-frog,130 as also for injuries inflicted by the salamander.131 For the cure of injuries caused by the seahare and the various serpents above mentioned, it is a good plan to eat the flesh of river-frogs, or to drink the liquor in which they have been boiled: as a neutralizer, too, of the venom of the scorpion, river-frogs are taken in wine. Democritus assures us that if the tongue is extracted from a live frog, with no other part of the body adhering to it, and is then applied—the frog being first replaced in the water—to a woman while asleep, just at the spot where the heart is felt to palpitate, she will be sure to give a truthful answer to any question that may be put to her.

To this the Magi132 add some other particulars, which, if there is any truth in them, would lead us to believe that frogs ought to be considered much more useful to society than laws.133 They say, for instance, that if a man takes a frog and transfixes it with a reed, entering the body at the sexual parts and coming out at the mouth, and then dips the reed in the menstrual discharge of his wife, she will be sure to conceive an aversion for all paramours. That the flesh of frogs, attached to the kype or hook, as the case may be, makes a most excellent bait, for purples more particularly, is a well-known fact. Frogs, they say, have a double134 liver; and of this liver, when exposed to the attacks of ants, the part that is most eaten away is thought to be an effectual antidote to every kind of poison.

There are some frogs, again, which live only among brakes and thickets, for which reason they have received the name of "rubetæ,"135 or "bramble-frogs," as already136 stated. The Greeks call them "phryni:" they are the largest in size of all the frogs, have two protuberances137 like horns, and are full138 of poison. Authors quite vie with one another in relating marvellous stories about them; such, for instance, as that if they are brought into the midst of a concourse of people, silence will instantly prevail; as also that by throwing into boiling water a small bone that is found in their right side, the vessel will immediately cool, and the water refuse to boil again until it has been removed. This bone, they say, may be found by exposing a dead bramble-frog to ants, and letting them eat away the flesh: after which the bones must be put into the vessel,139 one by one.

On the other hand, again, in the left side of this reptile there is another bone, they say, which, thrown into water, has all the appearance of making it boil, and the name given to which is "apocynon."140 This bone, it is said, has the property of assuaging the fury of dogs, and, if put into the drink, of conciliating love and ending discord and strife. Worn, too, as an amulet, it acts as an aphrodisiac, we are told. The bone, on the contrary, which is taken from the right side, acts powerfully as a refrigerative upon boiling liquids, it is said: attached to the patient in a piece of fresh lamb's-skin, it has the repute of assuaging quartan and other fevers, and of checking amorous propensities. The spleen of these frogs is used as an antidote to the various poisons that are prepared from them; and for all these purposes the liver is considered still more efficacious.


There is also a snake141 which lives in the water, the fat and gall of which, carried about them by persons when in pursuit of the crocodile, are said to be marvellously efficacious, the beast not venturing, in such case, to make an attack upon them. As such preservative, they are still more effectual if mixed with the herbaceous plant known as potamogiton.142 River-crabs,143 taken fresh and beaten up and drunk in water, or the ashes of them, kept for the purpose, are useful in all cases of poisoning, as a counter-poison: taken with asses' milk they are particularly serviceable as a neutralizer of the venom of the scorpion; goats' milk or any other kind of milk being substituted where asses' milk cannot be procured. Wine, too, should also be used in all such cases. River-crabs, beaten up with ocimum,144 and applied to scorpions, are fatal to them. They are possessed of similar virtues, also, for the bites of all other kinds of venomous animals, the scytale145 in particular, adders, the sea-hare, and the bramble-frog. The ashes of them, preserved, are good for persons who give symptoms of hydrophobia after being bitten by a mad dog, some adding gentian as well, and administering the mixture in wine. In cases, too, where hydrophobia has already appeared, it is recommended that these ashes should be kneaded up into boluses with wine, and swallowed. If ten of these crabs are tied together with a handful of ocimum,146 all the scorpions in the neighbourhood, the magicians say, will be attracted to the spot. They recommend, also, that to wounds inflicted by the scorpion, these crabs, or the ashes of them, should be applied, with ocimum. For all these purposes, however, sea-crabs, it should be remembered, are not so useful. Thrasyllus informs us that there is nothing so antagonistic to serpents as crabs; that swine, when stung by a serpent, cure themselves by eating them; and that, while the sun is in the sign of Cancer,147 serpents suffer the greatest tortures.

The flesh, too, of river-snails, eaten either raw or boiled, is an excellent antidote to the venom of the scorpion, some persons keeping them salted for the purpose. These snails are applied, also, topically to the wound.

The coracinus148 is a fish peculiar to the river Nilus, it is true, but the particulars we are here relating are for the benefit of all parts of the world: the flesh of it is most excellent as an application for the cure of wounds inflicted by scorpions. In the number of the poisonous fishes we ought to reckon the sea-pig,149 a fish which causes great suffering to those who have been pierced with the pointed fin upon its back: the proper remedy in such case is the slime taken from the other parts of the body of the fish.


In cases of hydrophobia resulting from the bite of the mad dog, the practice is to rub the patient's face with the fat of the sea-calf; an application rendered still more efficacious by the admixture of hyæna's marrow, oil of mastich, and wax. Bites inflicted by the muræna are cured by an application of the head of that fish, reduced to ashes. The pastinaca,150 also, is remedial for its own bite, the ashes of the same fish, or of another of the same genus, being applied to the wound with vinegar. When this fish is intended for food, every portion of the back that is of a saffron colour should be removed, as well as the whole of the head: care, too, should be taken not to wash it over much; an observation equally applicable to all kinds of shell-fish, when intended for food, the flavour being deteriorated151 thereby.

The hippocampus,152 taken in drink, neutralizes the poison of the sea-hare. As a counter-poison to dorycnium,153 sea-urchins are remarkably useful; as also in cases where persons have taken juice of carpathum154 internally; more particularly if the urchins are used with the liquor in which they are boiled. Boiled sea-crabs, too, are looked upon as highly efficacious in cases of poisoning by dorycnium; and as a neutralizer of the venom of the sea-hare they are particularly good.


Oysters, too, neutralize the venom of the sea-hare—and now that we are speaking of oysters, it may possibly be thought that I have not treated of this subject at sufficient length in the former part155 of my work, seeing that for this long time past the palm has been awarded to them at our tables as a most exquisite dish. Oysters love fresh water and spots156 where numerous rivers discharge themselves into the sea; hence it is that the pelagia157 are of such small size and so few in number. Still, however, we do find them breeding among rocks and in places far remote from the contact of fresh water, as in the neighbourhood of Grynium158 and of Myrina,159 for example. Generally speaking, they increase in size with the increase of the moon, as already stated by us when160 treating of the aquatic animals: but it is at the beginning of summer, more par- ticularly, and when the rays of the sun penetrate the shallow waters, that they are swollen with an abundance of milk.161 This, too, would appear to be the reason why they are so small when found out at sea; the opacity of the water tending to arrest their growth, and the moping consequent thereon producing a comparative indisposition for food.

Oysters are of various colours; in Spain they are red, in Illyricum of a tawny hue, and at Circeii162 black, both in meat and shell. But in every country, those oysters are the most highly esteemed that are compact without being slimy from their secretions, and are remarkable more for their thickness than their breadth. They should never be taken in either muddy or sandy spots, but from a firm, hard bottom; the meat163 should be compressed, and not of a fleshy consistence; and the oyster should be free from fringed edges, and lying wholly in the cavity of the shell. Persons of experience in these matters add another characteristic; a fine purple thread, they say, should run round the margins of the beard, this being looked upon as a sign of superior quality, and obtaining for them their name of "calliblephara."164

Oysters are all the better for travelling and being removed to new waters; thus, for example, the oysters of Brundisium, it is thought, when fed in the waters of Avernus, both retain their own native juices and acquire the flavour of those of Lake Lucrinus.165 Thus much with reference to the meat of the oyster; we will now turn to the various countries which produce it, so that no coast may be deprived of the honours which properly belong to it. But in giving this description we will speak in the language of another, using the words of a writer who has evinced more careful discernment in treating of this subject than any of the other authors of our day. These then are the words of Mucianus, in reference to the oyster:—"The oysters of Cyzicus166 are larger than those of Lake Lucrinus,167 fresher168 than those of the British coasts,169 sweeter170 than those of Medulæ,171 more tasty172 than those of Ephesus, more plump than those of Lucus,173 less slimy than those of Coryphas,174 more delicate than those of Istria,175 and whiter than those of Circeii."176 For all this, however, it is a fact well ascertained that there are no oysters fresher or more delicate than those of Circeii, last mentioned.

According to the historians of the expedition of Alexander, there were oysters found in the Indian Sea a foot177 in diameter: among ourselves, too, the nomenclature of some spendthrift and gourmand has found for certain oysters the name of "tridacna,"178 wishing it to be understood thereby, that they are so large as to require three bites in eating them. We will take the present opportunity of stating all the medicinal properties that are attributed to oysters. They are singularly refreshing179 to the stomach, and tend to restore the appetite. Luxury, too, has imparted to them an additional coolness by burying them in snow, thus making a medley of the produce of the tops of mountains and the bottom of the sea. Oysters are slightly laxative to the bowels; and boiled in honied wine, they relieve tenesmus, in cases where it is unattended with ulceration. They act detergently also upon ulcerations of the bladder.180 Boiled in their shells, unopened just as they come to hand, oysters are marvellously efficacious for rheumatic defluxions. Calcined oyster-shells, mixed with honey, allay affections of the uvula and of the tonsillary glands: they are similarly used for imposthumes of the parotid glands, inflamed tumours, and indurations of the mamillæ. Applied with water, these ashes are good for ulcerations of the head, and impart a plumpness to the skin in females. They are sprinkled, too, upon burns, and are highly esteemed as a dentifrice. Applied with vinegar, they are good for the removal of prurigo and of pituitous eruptions. Beaten up in a raw state, they are curative of scrofula and of chilblains upon the feet.

Purples, too, are useful181 as a counterpoison.


According to Nicander, sea-weed is also a theriac.182 There are numerous varieties of it, as already183 stated; one, for instance, with an elongated leaf, another red, another again with a broader leaf, and another crisped. The most esteemed kind of all is that which grows off the shores of Crete, upon the rocks there, close to the ground: it being used also for dyeing wool, as it has the property184 of so fixing the colours as never to allow of their being washed out. Nicander recommends it to be taken with wine.


Ashes of the hippocampus,185 mixed with nitre186 and hog's lard, or else used solely with vinegar, are curative of alopecy; the skin being first prepared for the reception of the necessary medicaments by an application of powdered bone of sæpia.187 Alopecy is cured also with ashes of the sea-mouse,188 mixed with oil; ashes of the sea-urchin, burnt, flesh and all together; the gall of the sea-scorpion;189 or else ashes of three frogs burnt alive in an earthen pot, applied with honey, or what is still better, in combination with tar. Leeches left to putrefy for forty days in red wine stain the hair black. Others, again, recommend one sextarius of leeches to be left to putrefy the same number of days in a leaden vessel, with two sextarii of vinegar, the hair to be well rubbed with the mixture in the sun. According to Sornatius, this preparation is naturally so penetrating, that if females, when they apply it, do not take the precaution of keeping some oil in the mouth, the teeth even will become blackened thereby. Ashes of burnt shells of the murex or purple are used as a liniment, with honey, for ulcerations of the head; the shells, too, of other shell-fish,190 powdered merely, and not calcined, are very useful for the same purpose, applied with water. For the cure of head-ache, castoreum is employed, in combination with peucedanum191 and oil of roses.


The fat of all kinds of fish, both fresh-water as well as sea fish, melted in the sun and incorporated with honey, is an excellent improver of the eye-sight;192 the same, too, with castoreum,193 in combination with honey. The gall of the callionymus194 heals marks upon the eyes and cauterizes fleshy excrescences about those organs: indeed, there is no fish with a larger quantity of gall than this, an opinion expressed too by Menander in his Comedies.195 This fish is known also as the "uranoscopos,"196 from the eyes being situate in the upper part of the head.197 The gall, too, of the coracinus198 has the effect of sharpening the eyesight.

The gall of the red sea-scorpion,199 used with stale oil or Attic honey, disperses incipient cataract; for which purpose, the application should be made three times, on alternate days. A similar method is also employed for removing indurations200 of the membrane of the eyes. The surmullet, used as a diet, weakens the eyesight, it is said. The sea-hare is poisonous itself, but the ashes of it are useful as an application for preventing superfluous hairs on the eyelids from growing again, when they have been once pulled out by the roots. For this purpose, however, the smaller the fish is, the better. Small scallops, too, are salted and beaten up with cedar resin for a similar purpose, or else the frogs known as "diopetes"201 and "calamitæ," are used; the blood of them being applied with vine gum to the eyelids, after the hairs have been removed.

Powdered shell202 of sæpia, applied with woman's milk, allays swellings and inflammations of the eyes; employed by itself it removes eruptions of the eyelids. When this remedy is used, it is the practice to turn up the eyelids, and to leave the medicament there a few moments only; after which, the part is anointed with oil of roses, and the inflammation modified by the application of a bread-poultice. Powdered bone of sæpia is used also for the treatment of nyctalopy, being applied to the eyes with vinegar. Reduced to ashes, this substance removes scales upon the eyes: applied with honey, it effaces marks upon those organs: and used with salt and cadmia,203 one drachma of each, it disperses webs which impede the eyesight, as also albugo in the eyes of cattle. They say, too, that if the eyelids are rubbed with the small bone204 taken from this fish, a perfect cure will be experienced.

Sea-urchins, applied with vinegar, cause epinyctis to disappear. According to what the magicians say, they should be burnt with vipers' skins and frogs, and the ashes sprinkled in the drink; a great improvement of the eyesight being guaranteed as the sure result.

"Ichthyocolla"205 is the name given to a fish with a glutinous skin; the glue made from which is also known by the same name, and is highly useful for the removal of epinyctis. Some persons, however, assert that it is from the belly of the fish, and not the skin—as in the case of bull glue—that the ichthyocolla is prepared. That of Pontus206 is highly esteemed: it is white, free from veins or scales, and dissolves with the greatest rapidity. The proper way of using it, is to cut it into small pieces, and then to leave it to soak in water or vinegar a night and a day, after which it should be pounded with sea-shore pebbles, to make it melt the more easily. It is generally asserted that this substance is good for pains in the head and for tetanus.

The right eye of a frog, suspended from the neck in a piece of cloth made from wool of the natural colour,207 is a cure for ophthalmia in the right eye; and the left eye of a frog, similarly suspended, for ophthalmia in the left. If the eyes, too, of a frog are taken out at the time of the moon's conjunction, and similarly worn by the patient, enclosed in an eggshell, they will effectually remove indurations of the membrane of the eyes. The rest of the flesh applied topically, removes all marks resulting from blows. The eyes, too, of a crab, worn attached to the neck, by way of amulet, are a cure for ophthalmia, it is said. There is a small frog208 which lives in reed-beds and among grass more particularly, never croaks, being quite destitute of voice, is of a green colour, and is apt to cause tympanitis in cattle, if they should happen to swallow it. The slimy moisture on this reptile's body, scraped off with a spatula and applied to the eyes, greatly improves the sight, they say: the flesh, too, is employed as a topical application for the removal of pains in the eyes.

Some persons take fifteen frogs, and after spitting them upon as many bulrushes, put them into a new earthen vessel: they then mix the juices which flow from them, with gum of the white vine,209 and use it as an application for the eye-lids; first pulling out such eye-lashes as are in the way, and then dropping the preparation with the point of a needle into the places from which the hairs have been removed. Meges210 used to prepare a depilatory for the eyelids, by killing frogs in vinegar, and leaving them to putrefy; for which purpose he employed the spotted frogs which make their appearance in vast numbers211 during the rains of autumn. Ashes of burnt leeches, it is thought, applied in vinegar, are productive of a similar effect; care must be taken, however, to burn them in a new earthen vessel. Dried liver, too, of the tunny,212 made up into an ointment, in the proportion of four denarii, with oil of cedar, and applied as a depilatory for nine months together, is considered to be highly effectual for this purpose.


For diseases of the ears, fresh gall of the fish called "batia"213 is remarkably good; the same, too, when it has been kept in wine. The gall, also, of the bacchus,214 by some known as the "myxon," is equally good; as also that of the callionymus,215 injected into the ears with oil of roses, or else castoreum,216 used with poppy-juice. There are certain animals too, known as "sea-lice,"217 which are recommended as an injection for the ears, beaten up with vinegar. Wool, too, that has been dyed with the juice of the murex, employed by itself, is highly useful for this purpose; some persons, however moisten it with vinegar and nitre.218

Others, again, more particularly recommend for all affections of the ears one cyathus of the best garum,219 with one cyathus and a half of honey, and one cyathus of vinegar, the whole gently boiled in a new pot over a slow fire, and skimmed with a feather every now and then: when it has become wholly free from scum, it is injected lukewarm into the ears. In cases where the ears are swollen, the same authorities recommend that the swellings should be first reduced with juice of coriander. The fat of frogs, injected into the ears, instantly removes all pains in these organs. The juice of river-crabs, kneaded up with barley-meal, is a most effectual remedy for wounds in the ears. Shells of the murex, reduced to ashes, and applied with honey, or the burnt shells of other shellfish,220 used with honied wine, are curative of imposthumes of the parotid glands.


Tooth-ache is alleviated by scarifying the gums with bones of the sea-dragon, or by rubbing the teeth once a year with the brains of a dog-fish221 boiled in oil, and kept for the purpose. It is a very good plan too, for the cure of tooth-ache, to lance the gums with the sting of the pastinaca222 in some cases. This sting, too, is pounded, and applied to the teeth with white hellebore, having the effect of extracting them without the slightest difficulty. Another of these remedies is, ashes of salted fish calcined in an earthen vessel, mixed with powdered marble. Stale cybium,223 rinsed in a new earthen vessel, and then pounded, is very useful for the cure of tooth-ache. Equally good, it is said, are the back-bones of all kinds of salt fish, pounded and applied in a liniment. A decoction is made of a single frog boiled in one hemina of vinegar, and the teeth are rinsed with it, the decoction being retained in the mouth. In cases where a repugnance existed to making use of this remedy, Sallustius Dionysius224 used to suspend frogs over boiling vinegar by the hind legs, so as to make them discharge their humours into the vinegar by the mouth, using considerable numbers of frogs for the purpose: to those, however, who had a stronger stomach, he prescribed the frogs themselves, eaten with their broth. It is generally thought, too, that this recipe applies more particularly to the double teeth, and that the vinegar prepared as above-mentioned, is remarkably useful for strengthening them when loose.

For this last purpose, some persons cut off the legs of two frogs, and then macerate the bodies in two heminæ of wine, recommending this preparation as a collutory for strengthening loose teeth. Others attach the frogs, whole, to the exterior of the jaws :225 and with some it is the practice to boil ten frogs, in three sextarii of vinegar, down to one-third, and to use the decoction as a strengthener of loose teeth. By certain authorities, too, it has been recommended to boil the hearts of six-and-thirty frogs beneath a copper vessel, in one sextarius of old oil, and then to inject the decoction into the ear on the same side of the jaw as the part affected: while others again have used, as an application for the teeth, a frog's liver, boiled, and beaten up with honey. All the preparations above described will be found still more efficacious if made from the seafrog226 In cases where the teeth are carious and emit an offensive smell, it is recommended to dry some whale's227 flesh in an oven for a night, and then to add an equal quantity of salt, and use the mixture as a dentifrice. "Enhydris"228 is the name given by the Greeks to a snake that lives in the water. With the four upper teeth of this reptile, it is the practice, for the cure of aching in the upper teeth, to lance the upper gums, and with the four lower teeth, for aching in the lower. Some persons, however, content themselves with using an eyetooth only. Ashes, too, of burnt crabs are used for this purpose; and the murex, reduced to ashes, makes an excellent dentifrice.


Lichens and leprous spots are removed by applying the fat of the sea-calf,229 ashes of the mæna230 in combination with three oboli of honey, liver of the pastinaca231 boiled in oil, or ashes of the dolphin or hippocampus232 mixed with water. After the parts have been duly excoriated, a cicatrizing treatment ought to be pursued. Some persons bake dolphin's liver in an earthen vessel, till a grease flows therefrom like oil233 in ap- pearance: this they use by way of ointment for these diseases.

Burnt shells of the murex or purple, applied with honey, have a detergent effect upon spots on the face in females: used as an application for seven consecutive days, a fomentation made of white of eggs being substituted on the eighth, they efface wrinkles, and plump out the skin. To the genus " murex" belong the shell-fish known by the Greeks as "coluthia" or "coryphia," equally turbinated, but considerably smaller: for all the above purposes they are still more efficacious, and the use of them tends to preserve the sweetness of the breath. Fish-glue234 effaces wrinkles and plumps out the skin; being boiled for the purpose in water some four hours, and then pounded and kneaded up till it attains a thin consistency, like that of honey. After being thus prepared, it is put by in a new vessel for keeping; and, when wanted for use, is mixed, in the proportion of four drachmæ, with two drachmæ of sulphur, two of alkanet, and eight of litharge; the whole being sprinkled with water and beaten up together. The preparation is then applied to the face, and is washed off at the end of four hours. For the cure of freckles and other affections of the face, calcined bones of cuttle-fish are also used; an application which is equally good for the removal of fleshy excrescences and the dispersion of running sores.

(8.) For the cure of itch-scab, a frog is boiled in five semisextarii of sea-water, the decoction being reduced to the consistency of honey. There is a sea production called "halcyoneum," composed, as some think, of the nests235 of the birds known as the "halcyon"236 and "ceyx," or, according to others, of the concretion of sea-foam, or of some slime of the sea, or a certain lanuginous inflorescence thrown up by it. Of this halcyoneum there are four different kinds; the first, of an ashy colour, of a compact substance, and possessed of a pungent odour; the second, soft, of a milder nature, and with a smell almost iden- tical with that of sea-weed; the third, whiter, and with a variegated surface; the fourth, more like pumice in appearance, and closely resembling rotten sponge. The best of all is that which nearly borders upon a purple hue, and is known as the "Milesian" kind: the whiter it is, the less highly it is esteemed.

The properties of halcyoneum are ulcerative and detergent: when required for use, it is parched and applied without oil. It is quite marvellous how efficiently it removes leprous sores, lichens, and freckles, used in combination with lupines and two oboli of sulphur. It is employed, also, for the removal of marks upon the eyes.237 Andreas238 has recommended for the cure of leprosy ashes of burnt crabs, with oil; and Attalus,239 fresh fat of tunny.


Ulcerations of the mouth are cured by an application of brine in which mænæ240 have been pickled, in combination with calcined heads of the fish, and honey. For the cure of scrofula, it is a good plan to prick the sores with the small bone that is found in the tail of the fish known as the sea-frog;241 care being taken to avoid making a wound, and to repeat the operation daily, until a perfect cure is effected. The same property, too, belongs to the sting of the pastinaca, and to the sea-hare, applied topically to the sores: but in both cases due care must be taken to remove them in an instant. Shells of sea-urchins are bruised, also, and applied with vinegar; shells also of sea-scolopendræ,242 applied with honey; and river-crabs pounded or calcined, and applied with honey. Bones, too, of the sæpia, triturated and applied with stale axle-grease, are marvellously useful for this purpose.

This last preparation is used, also, for the cure of imposthumes of the parotid glands; a purpose for which the liver of the sea-fish known as the "saurus"243 is employed. Nay, even more than this, fragments of earthen vessels in which salt fish have been kept are pounded with stale axle-grease, and applied to scrofulous sores and imposthumes of the parotid glands; as also calcined murex, incorporated with oil. Stiffness in the neck is allayed by taking what are known as sea-lice,244 in doses of one drachma in drink, taking castoreum245 mixed with pepper in honied wine, or making a decoction of frogs in oil and salt, and taking the liquor.

Opisthotony, too, and tetanus are treated in a similar manner; and spasms, with the addition of pepper. Ashes of burnt heads of salted mænæ are applied externally, with honey, for the cure of quinsy; as also a decoction of frogs, boiled in vinegar, a preparation which is equally good for affections of the tonsillary glands. River-crabs, pounded, one to each hemina of water, are used as a gargle for the cure of quinsy; or else they are taken with wine and hot water. Garum,246 put beneath the uvula with a spoon, effectually cures diseases of that part. The silurus,247 used as food, either fresh or salted, improves the voice.


Surmullets act as an emetic, dried and pounded, and taken in drink. Castoreum, taken fasting, with a small quantity of hammoniacum248 in oxymel, is extremely good for asthma: spasms, too, in the stomach are assuaged by taking a similar potion with warm oxymel. Frogs stewed in their own liquor in the saucepan, the same way in fact that fish are dressed, are good for a cough, it is said. In some cases, also, frogs are suspended by the legs, and after their juices249 have been received in a platter, it is recommended to gut them, and the entrails being first carefully removed, to preserve them for the above purpose. There is a small frog,250 also, which ascends trees, and croaks aloud there: if a person suffering from cough spits into its mouth and then lets it go, he will experience a cure, it is said. For cough attended with spitting of blood, it is recommended to beat up the raw flesh of a snail, and to drink it in hot water.


For pains in the liver, a sea-scorpion is killed in wine, and the liquid is taken. The meat, too, of the elongated conch251 is taken with honied wine and water, in equal quantities, or, if there are symptoms of fever, with hydromel. Pains in the side are assuaged by taking the flesh of the hippocampus,252 grilled, or else the tethea,253 very similar to the oyster, with the ordinary food. For sciatica, the pickle of the silurus is injected, by way of clyster. The flesh of conchs, too, is prescribed, for fifteen days, in doses of three oboli soaked in two sextarii of wine.


The silurus,254 taken in its broth, or the torpedo,255 used as food, acts as a laxative upon the bowels. There is a sea-wort,256 also, similar in appearance to the cultivated cabbage: it is injurious to the stomach, but acts most efficiently as a purgative, requiring to be cooked with fat meat for the purpose, in consequence of its extreme acridity. The broth, too, of all boiled fish is good for this purpose; it acting, also, as a strong diuretic, taken with wine more particularly. The best kind of all is that prepared from the sea-scorpion, the iulis,257 and rock-fish in general, as they are destitute of all rankness and are free from fat. The proper way of cooking them is with dill, parsley, coriander, and leeks, with the addition of oil and salt. Stale cybium,258 too, acts as a purgative, and is particularly useful for carrying off crudities, pituitous humours, and bile.

The myax259 is of a purgative nature, a shell-fish of which we shall take this opportunity of giving the natural history at length. These fish collect together in masses, like the murex,260 and are found in spots covered with sea-weed. They are the finest eating in autumn, and are found in the greatest perfection in places where fresh-water streams discharge themselves into the sea; for which reason it is that those of Egypt are held in such high esteem. As the winter advances, they contract a bitter flavour, and assume a reddish hue. The liquor of these fish, it is said, acts as a purgative upon the bowels and bladder, has a detergent effect upon the intestines, acts aperiently upon all the passages, purges the kidneys, and diminishes the blood and adipose secretions. Hence it is that these shell-fish are found of the greatest use for the treatment of dropsy, for the regulation of the catamenia, and for the removal of jaundice, all diseases of the joints, and flatulency. They are very good, also, for the reduction of obesity, for diseases of the bile and of the pituitous secretions, for affections of the lungs, liver, and spleen, and for rheumatic defluxions. The only inconvenience resulting from them is, that they irritate the throat and impede the articulation. They have, also, a healing effect upon ulcers of a serpiginous nature, or which stand in need of detergents, as also upon carcinomatous sores. Calcined, the same way as the murex, and employed with honey, they are curative of bites inflicted either by dogs or human beings, and of leprous spots or freckles. The ashes of them, rinsed, are good for the removal of films upon the eyes, granulations of those organs and indurations of the membrane, as also for diseases of the gums and teeth, and for pituitous eruptions. They serve, also, as an antidote to dorycnium261 and to opocarpathon.262

There are two species of this shell-fish, of a degenerate kind: the mitulus,263 which has a strong flavour, and a saltish taste; and the myisca,264 which differs from the former in the roundness of its shell, is somewhat smaller, and is covered with filaments, the shell being thinner, and the meat of a sweeter flavour. The ashes, also, of the mitulus, like those of the murex, are possessed of certain caustic properties, and are very useful for the removal of leprous spots, freckles, and blemishes of the skin. They are rinsed, too, in the same manner as lead,265 for the removal of swellings of the eyelids, of indurations of the membranes, and of films upon the eyes, as also of sordid ulcers upon other parts of the body, and of pustules upon the head. The meat of them, also, is employed as an application for bites inflicted by dogs.

As to pelorides,266 they act as a gentle laxative upon the bowels, an effect equally produced by castoreum, taken in doses of two drachmæ, in hydromel: where, however, a more drastic purgative is required, one drachma of dried garden-cucumber root is added, and two drachmæ of aphronitrum.267 The tethea268 is good for griping pains in the bowels and for attacks of flatulency: they are generally found adhering to the leaves of marine plants, sucking their nutriment therefrom, and may be rather looked upon as a sort of fungus than as a fish. They are useful, also, for the removal of tenesmus and of diseases of the kidneys.

There grows also in the sea a kind of absinthium, known by some persons as "seriphum,"269 and found in the vicinity of Taposiris,270 in Egypt, more particularly. It is of a more slender form than the land absinthium, acts as a purgative upon the bowels, and effectually removes intestinal worms. The sæpia, too, is a laxative; for which purpose these fish are administered271 with the food, boiled with a mixture of oil, salt, and meal. Salted mænæ,272 applied with bull's gall to the navel, acts as a purgative upon the bowels.

The liquor of fish, boiled in the saucepan with lettuces, dispels tenesmus. River-crabs,273 beaten up and taken with water, act astringently upon the bowels, and they have a diuretie effect, if taken with white wine. Deprived of the legs, and taken in doses of three oboli with myrrh and iris, one drachma of each, they disperse urinary calculi. For the cure of the iliac passion and of attacks of flatulency, castoreum274 should be taken, with seed of daucus275 and of parsley, a pinch in three fingers of each, the whole being mixed with four cyathi of warm honied wine. Griping pains in the bowels should be treated with castoreum and a mixture of dill and wine. The fish called "erythinus,"276 used as food, acts astringently upon the bowels. Dysentery is cured by taking frogs boiled with squills, and prepared in the form of boluses, or else hearts of frogs beaten up with honey, as Niceratus277 recommends. For the cure of jaundice, salt fish should be taken with pepper, the patient abstaining from all other kinds of meat.


For the cure of spleen diseases, the fish known as the sole278 is applied to that part; the torpedo,279 also, or else a live turbot;280 it being then set at liberty in the sea. The seascorpion,281 killed in wine, is a cure for diseases of the bladder and for urinary calculi; the stone, also, that is found in the tail282 of this last fish, taken in drink, in doses of one obolus; the liver of the enhydris;283 and the ashes of the fish called "blendius;284 taken with rue. In the head, too, of the fish called "bacchus,"285 there are found certain small stones, as it were: these, taken in water, six in number, are an excellent cure for urinary calculi. They say, too, that the sea-nettle,286 taken in wine, is very useful for this purpose, as also the pulmo marinus,287 boiled in water, The eggs of the sæpia have a diuretic effect, and carry off pituitous humours from the kidneys. Ruptures and convulsions are very effectually treated by taking river-crabs,288 bruised in asses' milk more particularly; and urinary calculi by drinking sea-urchins pounded, spines and all, in wine; the due proportion being one semisextarius of wine for each urchin, and the treatment being continued till its good effects are visible. The flesh, too, of the sea-urchin, taken as food, is very useful as a remedy for the same malady.

Scallops289 also, taken as food, act detergently upon the bladder: the male fish is by some persons called "donax," and by others "aulos," the female being known as "onyx."290 The male scallop has a diuretic effect: the flesh of the female is sweeter than that of the male, and of an uniform colour. The eggs, too, of the sæpia promote the urinary secretions, and act detergently upon the kidneys.


For the cure of intestinal hernia the sea-hare is applied, bruised with honey. The liver of the water-snake,291 and that of the hydrus,292 bruised and taken in drink, are remedial for urinary calculi. Sciatica is cured by using the pickle of the silurus293 as a clyster, the bowels being first thoroughly purged. For chafing of the fundament, an application is made of heads of mullets and surmullets, reduced to ashes; for which purpose they are calcined in an earthen vessel, and must be applied in combination with honey. Calcined heads, too, of the fish known as mænæ294 are useful for the cure of chaps and condylomata; as also heads of salted pelamides,295 reduced to ashes, or calcined cybium,296 applied with honey.

The torpedo,297 applied topically, reduces procidence of the rectum. River-crabs,298 reduced to ashes, and applied with oil and wax, are curative of chaps of the fundament: sea-crabs, too, are equally useful for the purpose.


The pickle of the coracinus299 disperses inflammatory tumours; an effect which is equally produced by using the cal- cined intestines and scales of the sciæna.300 The sea-scorpion,301 too, is used for the same purpose, boiled in wine, and applied as a fomentation to the part affected. Shells of sea-urchins, bruised and applied with water, act as a check upon incipient inflammatory tumours. Ashes of the murex, or of the purple, are employed in either case, whether it is wanted to disperse inflammatory tumours in an incipient state, or to bring them to a head and break them. Some authorities prescribe the following preparation: of wax and frankincense twenty drachmæ, of litharge forty drachmæ, of calcined murex ten drachmæ, and of old oil, one semisextarius. Salt fish, boiled and applied by itself, is highly useful for the above purposes.

River crabs, bruised and applied, disperse pustules on the generative organs: the same, too, with calcined heads of mænæ,302 or the flesh of that fish, boiled and applied. Heads of salted perch,303 reduced to ashes, and applied with honey, are equally useful for the purpose; or else calcined heads of pelamides,304 or skin of the squatina reduced to ashes.305 It is the skin of this fish that is used, as already306 stated, for giving a polish to wood; for the sea even, we find, furnishes its aid to our artificers. For a similar purpose the fishes called "smarides"307 are applied topically; as also ashes of the shell of the murex or of the purple, applied with honey; which last are still more efficacious when the flesh has been burnt with the shell.

Salt fish, boiled with honey, is particularly good for the cure of carbuncles upon the generative organs. For relaxation of the testes, the slime308 of snails is recommended, applied in the form of a liniment.

The flesh of hippocampi,309 grilled and taken frequently as food, is a cure for incontinence of urine; the ophidion,310 too, a little fish similar to the conger in appearance, eaten with a lily root; or the small fry found in the bellies of larger fish that have swallowed them, reduced to ashes and taken in water. It is recommended, too, to burn311 African snails, both shells and flesh, and to administer the ashes with wine312 of Signia.


For the cure of gout and of diseases of the joints, oil is useful in which the intestines of frogs have been boiled. Ashes, too, of burnt bramble-frogs313 are similarly employed, with stale grease; in addition to which, some persons use calcined barley, the three ingredients being mixed in equal proportions. It is recommended too, in cases of gout, to rub the parts affected with a sea-hare,314 fresh caught, and to wear shoes made of beaver's skin, Pontic beaver more particularly, or else of sea-calf's315 skin, an animal the fat of which is very useful for the purpose: the same being the case also with bryon, a plant of which we have already spoken,316 similar to the lettuce in appearance, but with more wrinkled leaves, and destitute of stem. This plant is of a styptic nature, and, applied topically, it tends to modify the paroxysms of gout. The same, too, with sea-weed, of which we have also spoken already;317 due precaution being taken not to apply it dry.

Chilblains are cured by applying the pulmo marinus;318 ashes of sea-crabs with oil; river crabs,319 bruised and burnt to ashes and kneaded up with oil; or else fat of the silurus.320 In diseases of the joints, the paroxysms are modified by applying fresh frogs every now and then: some authorities recommend that they should be split asunder before being applied. The liquor from mussels321 and other shell-fish has a tendency to make flesh.


Epileptic patients, as already322 stated, are recommended to drink the rennet of the sea-calf,323 mixed with mares' milk or asses' milk, or else with pomegranate juice, or, in some cases, with oxymel: some persons, too, swallow the rennet by itself, in the form of pills. Castoreum324 is sometimes administered, in three cyathi of oxymel, to the patient fasting; but where the attacks are frequent, it is employed in the form of a clyster, with marvellous effect. The proper proportions, in this last case, are two drachmæ of castoreum, one sextarius of oil and honey, and the same quantity of water. At the moment that the patient is seized with a fit, it is a good plan to give him castoreum, with vinegar, to smell. The liver, too, of the sea- weasel325 is given to epileptic patients, or else that of sea-mice,326 or the blood of tortoises.


Recurrent fevers are effectually checked by making the patient taste the liver of a dolphin, just before the paroxysm comes on. Hippocampi327 are stifled in oil of roses, and the patients are rubbed therewith in cold agues, the fish, also, being worn as an amulet by the patient. In the same way, too, the small stones that are found at full moon in the head of the fish called "asellus"328 are worn, attached in a piece of linen cloth to the patient's body. A similar virtue is attributed to the longest tooth of the river-fish called phagrus,329 attached to the patient with a hair, provided he does not see the person who attaches it to him for five days. Frogs are boiled in oil in a spot where three roads meet, and, the flesh being first thrown away, the patients are rubbed with the decoction, by way of cure for quartan fever. Some persons, again, suffocate frogs in oil, and, after attaching them to the patient without his knowing it, anoint him with the oil. The heart of a frog, worn as an amulet, modifies the cold chills in fevers; the same, too, with oil in which the intestines of frogs have been boiled. But the best remedy for quartan fevers, is to wear attached to the body either frogs from which the claws have been330 removed, or else the liver or heart of a bramble-frog,331 attached in a piece of russet-coloured cloth.

River-crabs,332 bruised in oil and water, are highly beneficial in fevers, the patient being anointed with the preparation just before the paroxysms come on: some authorities recommend the addition of pepper to the mixture. Others prescribe for quartan fevers a decoction of river-crabs in wine, boiled down to one fourth, the patient taking it at the moment of leaving the bath: by some, too, it is recommended to swallow the left eye of a river-crab. The magicians engage to cure a tertian fever, by attaching as an amulet to the patient, before sunrise, the eyes of river-crabs, the crabs when thus blinded being set at liberty in the water. They say, too, that these eyes, attached to the body in a piece of deer's hide, with the flesh of a nightingale,333 will dispel sleep and promote watchfulness. In cases where there are symptoms of lethargy, the rennet of the balæna334 or of the sea-calf335 is given to the patient to smell; some persons, too, use the blood of tortoises as a liniment for lethargic patients.

Tertian fevers, it is said, may be cured by wearing one of the vertebræ336 of a perch attached to the body, and quartan fevers by using fresh river snails, as an aliment. Some persons preserve these snails in salt for this purpose, and give them, pounded, in drink.


Strombi,337 left to putrefy in vinegar, act as an excitant upon lethargic patients by their smell; they are very useful, too, for the cure of cardiac diseases. For cachectic patients, where the body is wasting with consumption, tetheæ338 are considered beneficial, mixed with rue and honey. For the cure of dropsy, dolphin's fat is melted and taken with wine, the repulsive taste of it being neutralized by first touching the nostrils with unguent or some other odoriferous substance, or else by plugging the nostrils in some way or other. The flesh of strombi, pounded and given in three heminæ of honied wine and the same quantity of water, or, if there is fever, in hydromel, is very useful for dropsy: the same, too, with the juice of river-crabs, administered with honey. Water frogs, too, are boiled with old wine and spelt,339 and taken as food, the liquor in which they have been boiled being drunk from the same vessel: or else the feet, head, and tail of a tortoise are cut off, and the intestines removed, the rest of the flesh being seasoned in such a manner as to allow of its being taken without loathing. River-crabs, too, eaten with their broth, are said to be very good for the cure of phthisis.


Burns are cured by applying ashes of calcined sea-crabs or river-crabs with oil: fish-glue, too, and calcined frogs are used as an application for scalds produced by boiling water. The same treatment also restores the hair, provided the ashes are those of river-crabs: it is generally thought, too, that the preparation should be applied with wax and bears' grease. Ashes, too, of burnt beaver-skin are very useful for these purposes. Live frogs act as a check upon crysipelas, the belly side being applied to the part affected: it is recommended, too, to attach them lengthwise by the hinder legs, so as to render them more beneficial by reason of their increased respiration.340 Heads, too, of salted siluri341 are reduced to ashes and applied with vinegar.

Prurigo and itch-scab, not only in man but in quadrupeds as well, are most efficaciously treated with the liver of the pastinaca342 boiled in oil.


The exterior callosity with which the flesh of purples is covered, beaten up, unites the sinews, even when they have been severed asunder. It is a good plan, for patients suffering from tetanus, to take sea-calf's rennet in wine, in doses of one obolus, as also fish-glue.343 Persons affected with fits of trembling find much relief from castoreum,344 provided they are well anointed with oil. I find it stated that the surmullet,345 used as an article of diet, acts injuriously upon the sinews.


Fish, used as an aliment, it is generally thought, make blood. The polyp,346 bruised and applied, arrests hæmorrhage, it is thought: in addition to which we find stated the following particulars respecting it—that of itself it emits a sort of brine, in consequence of which, there is no necessity to use any in cooking it—that it should always be sliced with a reed —and that it is spoilt by using an iron knife, becoming tainted thereby, owing to the antipathy347 which naturally exists (between it and iron). For the purpose also of arresting hæmorrhage, ashes of burnt frogs are applied topically, or else the dried blood of those animals. Some authorities recommend the frog to be used, that is known by the Greeks as "calamites,"348 from the fact that it lives among reeds349 and shrubs; it is the smallest and greenest of all the frogs, and either the blood or the ashes of it are recommended to be employed. Others, again, prescribe, in cases of bleeding at the nostrils, an injection of the ashes of young water-frogs, in the tadpole state, calcined in a new carthen vessel.

On the other hand, again, in cases where it is required to let blood, the kind of leech is used which is known among us by the name of "sanguisuga.350" Indeed, the action of these leeches is looked upon as pretty much the same as that of the cupping-glasses351 used in medicine, their effect being to relieve the body of superfluous blood, and to open the pores of the skin. Still, however, there is this inconvenience attending them—when they have been once applied, they create a necessity352 for laving recourse to the same treatment at about the same period in every succeeding year. Many physicians have been of opinion also, that leeches may be successfully applied in cases of gout. When gorged, they fall off in consequence of los<*>ag their hold through the weight of the blood, but if not, they must be sprinkled with salt353 for the purpose.

Leeches ar apt, however, to leave their heads buried in the flesh; the consequence of which is an incurable wound, which has caused death in many cases, that of Messalinus,354 for example, a patrician of consular rank, after an application of leeches to his knee. When this is the case, that which was intended as a remedy is turned into an active poison;355 a result which is to be apprehended in using the red leeches more particularly. Hence it is that when these last are employed, it is the practice to snip them with a pair of scissors while sucking; the consequence of which is, that the blood oozes forth, through a siphon, as it were, and the head, gradually contracting as the animal dies, is not left behind in the wound. There is a natural antipathy356 existing between leeches and bugs, and hence it is that the latter are killed by the aid of a fumigation made with leeches. Ashes of beaver-skin burnt with tar, kneaded up with leek-juice, arrest bleeding at the nostrils.


To extract pointed weapons which have pierced the flesh, ashes of calcined shells of the sæpia are used, as also of the purple, the meat of salted fish, bruised river-crabs, or flesh of the silurus357 (a river-fish that is found in other streams as well as the Nilus358), applied either fresh or salted. The ashes also of this fish, as well as the fat, have the property of extracting pointed bodies, and the back-bone, in a calcined state, is used as a substitute for spodium.359


Ulcers of a serpiginous nature, as also the fleshy excrescences which make their appearance in them, are kept in check by applying ashes of calcined heads of mænæ,360 or else ashes of the silurus.361 Carcinomata, too, are treated with heads of salted perch, their efficacy being considerably increased by using some salt along with the ashes, and kneading them up with heads of cunila362 and olive-oil. Ashes of sea-crabs, calcined with lead, arrest the progress of carcinomatous sores: a purpose for which ashes of river-crabs, in combination with honey and fine lint, are equally useful; though there are some authorities which prefer mixing alum and barley with the ashes. Phagedænic ulcers are cured by an application of dried silurus pounded with sandarach;363 malignant cancers, corrosive ulcers, and putrid sores, by the agency of stale cybium.364

Maggots that breed in sores are removed by applying frogs' gall; and fistulas are opened and dried by introducing a tent made of salt fish, with a dossil of lint. Salt fish, kneaded up and applied in the form of a plaster, will remove all proud flesh in the course of a day, and will arrest the further progress of putrid and serpiginous ulcers. Alex,365 applied in lint, acts detergently, also, upon ulcers; the same, too, with the ashes of calcined shells of sea-urchins. Salted slices of the coracinus366 disperse carbuncles, an effect equally produced by the ashes of salted surmullets.367 Some persons, however, use the head only of the surmullet, in combination with honey or with the flesh of the coracinus. Ashes of the murex, applied with oil, disperse tumours, and the gall of the sea-scorpion makes scars disappear.


To remove warts, the liver of the glanis368 is applied to the part; ashes also of heads of mænæ369 bruised with garlic— substances which should be used raw where it is thymewarts370 that require to be removed—the gall of the red seascorpion,371 smarides372 pounded and applied, or alex373 thoroughly boiled. Ashes of calcined heads of mænæ374 are used to rectify malformed nails.


The milk is increased in females by eating the glauciscus375 in its own liquor, or else smarides376 with a ptisan, or boiled with fennel. Ashes of calcined shells of the murex or purple, applied with honey, are an effectual cure for affections of the mamillæ; river-crabs, too, and sea-crabs, applied topically, are equally good. The meat of the murex, applied to the mamillæ, removes hairs377 growing upon those parts. The squatina,378 applied topically, prevents the mamillæ from becoming too distended. Lint greased with dolphin's379 fat, and then ignited, produces a smoke which acts as an excitant upon females suffering from hysterical suffocations; the same, too, with strombi,380 left to putrefy in vinegar. Heads of perch or of mænæ,381 calcined and mixed with salt, oil, and cunila,382 are curative of diseases of the uterus: used as a fumigation, they bring away the afterbirth. Fat,383 too, of the sea-calf, melted by the agency of fire, is introduced into the nostrils of females when swooning from hysterical suffocations; and for a similar purpose, the rennet of that animal is applied as a pessary, in wool.

The pulmo marinus,384 attached to the body as an amulet, is an excellent promoter of menstruation; an effect which is equally produced by pounding live sea-urchins, and taking them in sweet wine. River-crabs,385 bruised in wine, and taken internally, arrest menstruation. The silurus,386 that of Africa387 more particularly, used as a fumigation, facilitates parturition, it is said. Crabs, taken in water, arrest menstruation; but used with hyssop, they act as an emmenagogue, we are told. In cases, too, where the infant is in danger of suffocation at the moment of delivery, a similar drink, administered to the mother, is highly efficacious. Crabs, too, either fresh or dried, are taken in drink, for the purpose of preventing abortion. Hippocrates388 prescribes them as a promoter of menstruation, and as an expellent of the dead fœtus, beaten up with five389 roots of lapathum and rue and some soot, and administered in honied wine. Crabs, boiled and taken in their liquor, with lapathum390 and parsley, promote the menstrual discharge, and increase the milk. In cases of fever, attended with pains in the head and throbbing of the eyes, crabs are said to be highly beneficial to females, given in astringent wine.

Castoreum,391 taken in honied wine, is useful as a promoter of menstruation: in cases of hysterical suffocation, it is given to the patient to smell at with pitch and vinegar, or else it is made up into tablets and used as a pessary. For the purpose also of bringing away the afterbirth it is found a useful plan to employ castoreum with panax,392 in four cyathi of wine; and in cases where the patient is suffering from cold, in doses of three oboli. If, however, a female in a state of pregnancy should happen to step over castoreum, or over the beaver itself, abortion, it is said, will be the sure result: so, too, if castoreum is only held over a pregnant woman's head, there will be great danger of miscarriage.

There is a very marvellous fact, too, that I find stated in reference to the torpedo:393 if it is caught at the time that the moon is in Libra, and kept in the open air for three days, it will always facilitate parturition, as often as it is introduced into the apartment of a woman in labour. The sting, too, of the pastinaca,394 attached to the navel, is generally thought to have the property of facilitating delivery: it must be taken, however, from the fish while alive; which done, the fish must be returned to the sea. I find it stated by some authorities that there is a substance called "ostraceum," which is also spoken of as "onyx"395 by others; that, used as a fumigation, it is wonderfully beneficial for suffocations of the uterus; that in smell it resembles castoreum, and is still more efficacious, if burnt with this last substance; and that in a calcined state it has the property of healing inveterate ulcers, and cancerous sores of a malignant nature. As to carbuncles and carcinomatous sores upon the secret parts of females, there is nothing more efficacious, it is said, than a female crab beaten up, just after full moon, with flower of salt396 and applied with water.


Depilatories are prepared from the blood, gall, and liver of the tunny, either fresh or preserved; as also from pounded liver of the same fish, preserved with cedar resin397 in a leaden box; a re- cipe which we find given by the midwife Salpe398 for disguising the age of boys on sale for slaves. A similar property belongs to the pulmo marinus,399 to the blood and gall of the sea-hare, and to the sea-hare itself, stifled in oil. The same, too, with ashes of burnt crabs or sea scolopendræ,400 mixed with oil; sea-nettles,401 bruised in squill vinegar; and brains of the torpedo402 applied with alum on the sixteenth day of the moon. The thick matter emitted by the small frogs, which we have described when treating403 of eye-diseases, is a most efficient depilatory, if applied fresh: the same, too, with the frog itself, dried and pounded, and then boiled down to one-third in three heminæ of water, or else boiled in a copper vessel with oil in a like proportion. Others, again, prepare a depilatory from fifteen frogs, in manner already404 stated under the head of remedies for the eyes. Leeches, also, grilled in an earthen vessel, and applied with vinegar, have the same property as a depilatory; the very odour, too, which attaches to the persons who thus burn them is singularly efficacious for killing bugs.405 Cases are to be found, too, where persons have used castoreum with honey, for many days together, as a depilatory. In the case, however, of every depilatory, the hairs should always be removed before it is applied.


Dentition in infants is promoted, and the gums greatly relieved, by rubbing them with ashes of a dolphin's teeth, mixed with honey, or else by touching the gums with the tooth itself of that fish. One of these teeth, worn as an amulet, is a preventive of sudden frights;406 the tooth of the dog-fish407 being also possessed of a similar property. As to ulcers which make their appearance in the ears, or in any other parts of the body, they may be cured by applying the liquor of river-crabs,408 with barley-meal. These crabs, too, bruised in oil and employed as a friction, are very useful for other kinds of maladies. A sponge moistened with cold water from time to time,409 or a frog applied, the back part to the head, is a most efficacious cure for siriasis410 in infants. When the frog is removed, it will be found quite dry, they say.


A surmullet411 stifled in wine; the fish called "rubellio;"412 or a couple of eels similarly treated; or a grapefish,413 left to putrefy in wine, all of them, produce an aversion to wine in those who drink thereof.


In the number of antaphrodisiacs, we have the echeneïs;414 the skin from the left side of the forehead of the hippopotamus,415 attached to the body in lamb-skin; and the gall of a live torpedo,416 applied to the generative organs.

The following substances act as aphrodisiacs—the flesh of river-snails, preserved in salt and given to drink in wine; the erythinus417 taken as food; the liver of the frog called "diopetes" or "calamites"418 attached to the body in a small piece of crane's skin; the eye-tooth of a crocodile, attached to the arm; the hippocampus;419 and the sinews of a bramble-frog,420 worn as an amulet upon the right arm. A bramble-frog, attached to the body in a piece of fresh sheep-skin, effectually puts an end to love.


A decoction of frogs in water, reduced to the form of a lini- ment, is curative of itch-scab in horses; indeed, it is said, that a horse, when once treated in this manner, will never again be attacked with the disease. Salpe says that if a live frog is given to dogs in their mess, they will lose the power of barking.


Among the aquatic productions ought also to be mentioned calamochnos, in Latin known as "adarea,"421 a substance which collects about small reeds, from a mixture of the foam of fresh and of sea water. It possesses certain caustic properties, and hence it is that it is so useful as an ingredient in "acopa"422 and as a remedy for cold shiverings; it is used too, for removing freckles upon the face of females. And now we are speaking of adarca, the reed ought equally to be mentioned. The root of that known as the "phragmites,"423 pounded fresh, is curative of sprains, and, applied topically with vinegar, removes pains in the spine. The calcined bark, too, of the Cyprian424 reed, known as the "donax," is curative of alopecy and inveterate ulcers; and its leaves are good for the extraction of foreign bodies adhering to the flesh, and for the cure of erysipelas: should, however, the flower of the panicle happen to enter the ears, deafness425 is the consequence.

The ink of the sæpia426 is possessed of such remarkable potency, that if it is put into a lamp, Anaxilaüs tells us, the light will become entirely changed,427 and all present will look as black as Æthiopians. The bramble-frog, boiled in water, and given to swine with their drink, is curative of the maladies with which they are affected; an effect equally produced by the ashes of any other kind of frog. If wood is rubbed with the pulmo marinus,428 it will have all the appearance of being on fire; so much so, indeed, that a walking-stick, thus treated, will light the way like a torch.429


Having now completed our exposition of the properties which belong to the aquatic productions, it would appear by no means foreign to my purpose to give a list of the various animated beings which inhabit the seas; so many as these are in number, of such vast extent, and not only making their way into the interior of the land to a distance of so many miles, but also surrounding the exterior of it to an extent almost equal to that of the world itself. These animals, it is generally considered, embrace one hundred and seventy-six different430 species, and it will be my object to set them forth, each by its distinct name, a thing that cannot possibly be done in reference to the terrestrial animals and the birds.

For, in fact, we are by no means acquainted with all the wild beasts or all the birds that are to be found in India, Æthiopia, Scythia, or the desert regions of the earth; and even of man himself there are numerous varieties, which as yet we have been unable431 to make ourselves acquainted with. In addition, too, to the various countries above mentioned, we have Taprobane432 and other isles of the Ocean, about which so many fabulous stories are related. Surely then, every one must allow that it is quite impossible to comprise every species of animal in one general view for the information of mankind. And yet, by Hercules! in the sea and in the Ocean, vast as it is, there exists nothing that is unknown to us,433 and, a truly marvellous fact, it is with those things which Nature has concealed in the deep that we are the best acquainted!

To begin then with the monsters434 that are found in this ele- ment. We here find sea-trees,435 physeters,436 balænæ,437 pistrices,438 tritons,439 nereids,440 elephants,441 the creatures known as seamen,442 sea-wheels,443 oreæ,444 sea-rams,445 musculi,446 other fish too with the form of rams,447 dolphins,448 sea-calves,449 so celebrated by Homer,450 tortoises451 to minister to our luxury, and beavers, so extensively employed in medicine,452 to which class belongs the otter,453 an animal which we nowhere find frequenting the sea, it being only of the marine animals that we are speaking. There are dog-fish,454 also, drinones,455 cornutæ,456 swordfish,457 saw-fish,458 hippopotami459 and crocodiles,460 common to the sea, the land, and the rivers; tunnies461 also, thynnides, siluri,462 coracini,463 and perch,464 common to the sea only and to rivers.

To the sea only, belong also the acipenser,465 the dorade,466 the asellus,467 the acharne,468 the aphye,469 the alopex,470 the eel,471 the araneus,472 the boca,473 the batia,474 the bacchus,475 the batrachus,476 the belonæ,477 known to us as "aculeati,"478 the balanus,479 the corvus,480 the citharus, the least esteemed of all the turbots, the chalcis,481 the cobio,482 the callarias,483 which would belong to the genus of the aselli484 were it not smaller; the colias,485 otherwise known as the fish of Parium486 or of Sexita,487 this last from a place of that name in Bætica its native region, the smallest, too, of the lacerti;488 the colias of the Mæotis, the next smallest of the lacerti; the cybium,489 (the name given, when cut into pieces, to the pelamis490 which returns at the end of forty days from the Euxine to the Palus Mæotis); the cordyla491—which is also a small pelamis, so called at the time when it enters the Euxine from the Palus Mæotis—the cantharus,492 the callionymus493 or uranoscopus, the cinædus, the only494 fish that is of a yellow colour; the cnide, known to us as the sea-nettle;495 the different kinds of crabs,496 the striated chemæ,497 the smooth chemæ, the chemæ belonging to the genus of pelorides,498 all differing in the variety of their colours and in the roundness of the shells; the chemæ glycymarides,499 still larger than the pelorides; the coluthia or coryphia;500 the various kinds of shellfish, among which we find the pearl oysters,501 the cochleæ,502 (belonging to which class are the pentadactyli,503) the helices,504 by some known as actinophori, the spokes505 on whose shells are used for musical purposes;506 and, in addition to these, the round cochleæ, the shells of which are used in measuring oil, as also the seacucumber,507 the cynopos,508 the cammarus,509 and the cynosdexia.510

Next to these we have the sea-dragon,511 a fish which, according to some, is altogether distinct from the dracunculus,512 and resembles the gerricula in appearance, it having on the gills a stickle which points towards the tail and inflicts a wound like that of the scorpion513 when the fish is handled—the erythinus,514 the echeneïs,515 the sea-urchin,516 the sea-elephant, a black kind of crayfish, with four forked legs, in addition to two arms with double joints, and furnished, each of them, with a pair of claws, indented at the edge; the faber,517 also, or zæus, the glauciscus,518 the glanis,519 the gonger,520 the gerres,521 the galeos,522 the garos,523 the hippos,524 the hippuros,525 the hirundo,526 the halipleumon,527 the hippocampus,528 the hepar,529 the ictinus530 and the iulis.531 There are various kinds also of lacerti,532 the springing loligo,533 the crayfish,534 the lantern-fish,535 the lepas,536 the larinus, the sea-hare,537 and the sea-lion,538 with arms like those of the crab, and in the other parts of the body like the cray-fish.

We have the surmullet539 also, the sea black-bird,540 highly esteemed among the rock-fish; the mullet,541 the melanurus,542 the mæna,543 the mæotis,544 the muræna,545 the mys,546 the mitulus,547 the myiscus,548 the murex,549 the oculata,550 the ophidion,551 the oyster,552 the otia,553 the orcynus—the largest of all the pelamides554 and one that never returns to the Palus Mæotis, like the tritomus555 in appearance, and best when old—the orbis,556 the orthagoriscus,557 the phager,558 the phycis559 a rock-fish, the pelamis,560 (the largest kind of which is called "apolectum,"561 and is tougher than the tritomus) the sea-pig,562 the phthir,563 the sea-sparrow,564 the pastinaca,565 the several varieties of the polyp,566 the scallop,567 which is larger and more swarthy in summer than at other times, and the most esteemed of which are those of Mitylene,568 Tyndaris,569 Salonæ,570 Altinum,571 the island of Chios, and Alexandria in Egypt; the small scallop,572 the purple,573 the pegris,574 the pinna,575 the pinnotheres,576 the rhine577 or squalus of the Latins, the turbot,578 the scarus579 a fish which holds the first rank at the present day; the sole,580 the sargus,581 the squilla,582 the sarda583—such being the name of an elongated pelamis584 which comes from the Ocean; the scomber,585 the salpa,586 the sorus,587 the scorpæna,588 the sea-scorpion,589 the solas,590 the sciæna,591 the sciadeus,592 the scolopendra,593 the smyrus,594 the sæpia,595 the strombus,596 the solen,597 otherwise known as the aulos, donax, onyx or dactylus; the spondylus,598 the smaris,599 the starfish,600 and the sponges.601 There is the sea-thrush602 also, famous among the rock-fish, the thynnis,603 the thranis, by some writers known as the xiphias;604 the thrissa,605 the torpedo,606 the tethea,607 the tritomus, a large kind of pelamis,608 which admits of being cut into three cybia;609 the shells of Venus,610 the grapefish,611 and the xiphias.612


To the above enumeration we will add some names given in the poem of Ovid,613 which are not to be found in any other writer: species, however, which are probably peculiar to the Euxine, on the shores614 of which he commenced that work towards the close of his life. The fishes thus mentioned by him are the sea-ox, the cercyrus, that dwells among the rocks, the orphus,615 the red erythinus,616 the iulus,617 the tinted mormyr, the chrysophrys618 a fish of a golden colour, the parus,619 the tragus,620 the melanurus621 remarkable for the beauty of its tail, and the epodes,622 a flat fish.

In addition to these remarkable kinds of fishes, the same poet tells us that the channes623 conceives of itself, that the glaucus624 never makes its appearance in summer, that the pompilus625 always accompanies vessels in their course, and that the chromis626 makes its nest in the water. The helops, he says, is unknown to our waters; from which it would appear that those are in error who look upon it as identical with our acipenser.627 Many persons have given the preference to the helops before all other fish, in point of flavour.

There are several fishes also, which have been mentioned by no author; such, for instance, as the one called "sudis" by the Latins, and "sphyrene" by the Greeks, names which indicate the peculiar form of its muzzle.628 It is one of the very largest kinds, but rarely found, and by no means of inferior flavour. "Perna," too, is the name given to a kind of shellfish, found in vast numbers in the vicinity of the islands of the Euxine. These fish are found firmly planted in the sand, resembling in appearance the long shank629 of a hog. Opening wide their shells, where there is sufficient space, they lie in wait for their prey; this opening being not less than a foot in breadth, and the edges of it garnished around with teeth closely set, much resembling the teeth of a comb in form. Within the shell, the meat consists of a vast lump of flesh. I once saw, too, a fish called the "hyæna,"630 which had been caught off the island of Ænaria.631

In addition to these animals, there are certain excretions thrown up by the sea, which do not merit any further notice, and indeed ought to be reckoned among the sea-weeds, rather than looked upon as animated beings.

SUMMARY.—Remedies, narratives, and observations, nine hundred and ninety.

ROMAN AUTHORS QUOTED.—Licinius Macer,632 Trebius Niger,633 Sextius Niger634 who wrote in Greek, the Poet Ovid,635 Cassius Hemina,636 Mæcenas,637 Iacchus,638 Sornatius.639

FOREIGN AUTHORS QUOTED.—Juba,640 Andreas,641 Salpe,642 Apion,643 Pelops,644 Apelles,645 Thrasyllus,646 Nicander.647

1 It is in the last six Books of Pliny, and those only, we regret to say, that we are enabled to avail ourselves of the new readings of the Bamberg MS., which has been so admirably collated by M. Ian. In a vast number of passages previously looked upon as hopelessly corrupt, or else not at all suspected of being in a mutilated state, this MS. supplies words and clauses, the existence of which in the original was hitherto unknown; indeed by its aid the indefatigable Sillig has been enabled, if we may be allowed the term, almost to rewrite the last six Books of Pliny. From a perusal of these new readings, as Dr. Smith has justly remarked, we have reason to infer "that the text of the earlier Books is still in a very defective state, and that much of the obscurity of Pliny may be traced to this cause."

2 The Echeneis remora of Linnæus. See B. ix. c. 41.

3 He alludes to the "rostra," or metal beaks, with which the prows of the ships of war were furnished.

4 An absurd tradition, no doubt, invented, probably, to palliate the disgrace of his defeat.

5 From the delay caused by the stoppage of the prætorian ship.

6 Caligula.

7 For Astura and Antium, see B. iii. c. 9.

8 And well it might surprise him. If there was any foundation at all for the story, there can be little doubt that a trick was played for the purpose of imposing upon Caligula's superstitious credulity, and that the rowers as well as the diving sailors were privy to it.

9 "Limax." A singular comparison, apparently.

10 In B. ix. c. 41.

11 See B. ix. c. 41, where he is speaking of a murex, a fish which bears no such affinity to the remora as to warrant our author's expression, "Idem valere omnia ea genera."

12 Properly meaning "delay." "Remora" is another reading, and perhaps a better one, as the word is found in Plautus.

13 In B. ix. c. 41.

14 From λύειν τὰς ὠδίνας, "to release from the pains of childbirth."

15 See B. ix. c. 67.

16 Ajasson remarks that it was owing probably to this opinion that it was formerly the belief, that by holding the breath a person could render himself proof against the shock of the torpedo; a precaution recommended by Kæmpfer, in his "Amenitates Exoticæ," p. 514. Ed. 1712.

17 "Quâdam aurâ sui corporis adficiat membra" seems a preferable reading to "Quâdam aurâ corporis sui adficiat membra," as given by the Bamberg MS., and adopted by Sillig.

18 See B. ix. c. 72, and the Note.

19 A fabulous story, Ajasson remarks, but one that was commonly believed in the 16th and 17th centuries. Gessner, however, a conscientious enquirer into the mysteries of Nature, asserts (de Aquatilibus, p. 563) that, to his own knowledge, the sight of this fish was productive of the symptoms here mentioned. Beckmann reckons the Aplysia depilans (with which the Sea-hare of the ancients is identified) in the number of the animal poisons, and remarks that (as we find stated by Cœlius Rhodiginus, B. xxvi. c. 30) the Emperor Titus was dispatched by the agency of this poison, administered to him by the direction of his brother Domitian. Hist. Inv. vol. I. p. 51. Bohn's Ed.

20 Athenæus says, B. viii., that the Scarus pursues it and devours it.

21 "Quibus impactus est." A curious expression; if indeed it is the correct reading.

22 See B. ix. c. 72.

23 Mituli. See B. ix. c. 74.

24 "Cetos."

25 Ajasson remarks, in confutation of this story, that there are few rivers in Arabia of such a breadth.

26 See B. xi. c. 34.

27 Of this work, begun by Ovid during his banishment in Pontus, and probably never completed, only a fragment of one hundred and thirty-two lines has come down to us. Pliny again makes reference to it, in the last Chapter of the present Book.

28 Or "Treatise on Fishes."

29 See B. ix. c. 69, and B. xi. c. 61.

30 Quoted from the Halieuticon.

31 The wolf fish. The Perca labrax of Linnæus. See B. ix. cc. 24, 28, 74, 79, and B. x. c. 89.

32 From the Halieuticon of Ovid.

33 See B. ix. cc. 14, 35, 39, 48, 74, 79, 81.

34 From the Halieuticon.

35 From the Halieuticon.

36 See B. ix. cc. 21, 26, 67.

37 From the Halieuticon.

38 From the Halieuticon. See Note 31 above, if indeed the same fish is meant. See also B. xxxi. c. 44, and the Note.

39 From the Halieuticon.

40 See B. ix. c. 85.

41 In B. ix. c. 39. Aristotle, however, as there stated, was not of the same opinion.

42 See B. xx. c. 98.

43 "Novacula piscis." Pliny is the only ancient author that mentions this fish. There are numerous varieties of it, among which the best known are the Coryphæna novacula of Linnæus, the Rason of the Mediterranean, highly esteemed as an article of food, and the Coryphæna pentedactyle of Bloch, identical with the Hemiptéronote à cinq taches, of Lacépède.

44 An absurdity, owing, no doubt, to its name.

45 Or "globe-fish." The Mola, orbis marinus, or sun-fish of modern Natural History, the Lune de mer, or poisson-lune of the French. Though the skin is harsh and tough, there is no firmness in its flesh, which is of a gluey consistency.

46 In reality it has scales, but they are almost imperceptible, from their minuteness.

47 Or rather, as Dalechamps observes, "all belly."

48 See B. ix. cc. 44, 45, and B. xviii. c. 87.

49 See B. ix. cc. 1, 21 and c. 53 of the present Book. There are two varieties of it, the Xiphias gladius of Bloch and Lacépède, and the Xiphias machæra of Shaw.

50 See B. v. c. 1.

51 Martial, B. iv. Ep. 30, speaks of this being the case at the fishponds of Baiæ, where the Emperor's fish were in the habit of making their appearance when called by name.

52 A village of Caria, celebrated for its sanctuary of Zeus Stratios. Ælian, Hist. Anim. B. xii. c. 30, says that there was a spring of clear water, within the sanctuary, which contained fish with golden necklaces and rings.

53 "Inaures." He probably means ornaments suspended from the gills, a thing which, in the case of eels, might be done.

54 "Senum delubrum." Ælian speaks of tame fish in the Old Men's Harbour (λιμὴν) at Chios.

55 In B. xxxi. c. 22.

56 The seat of the worship of the half-fish goddess Addirga, Atergatis, Astarte, or Derceto. See B. v. c. 19. The original names of Hierapolis (the Holy City) were Bambyce and Mabog.

57 See B. iii. c. 9.

58 A Greek name signifying "black-tails." See c. 53 of this Book. Holland translates it "the black-tailed ruffe" or "sea-bream."

59 See B. v. c. 38.

60 See B. v. c. 31, and B. xxxi. c. 43.

61 See B. iii. c. 14.

62 See B. v. cc. 3, 4.

63 See B. iii. cc. 16, 26.

64 Ajasson thinks that this may possibly be true to some small extent.

65 Identical with the fish called "orbis," already mentioned in c. 5 of this Book. Ajasson remarks that though these fish have been known to weigh as much as three hundred pounds, there are many others which grow to a larger size, the sturgeon, and the silurus, for instance.

66 Ajasson thinks that this notion may possibly have been derived from the name, which not improbably was given to it from the spongy and oleaginous nature of the flesh.

67 See B. iii. c. 16.

68 Owing, perhaps, to the moisture of the atmosphere.

69 We learn from Festus, that he prohibited the use also of the scarus, a fish with scales.

70 "Ad pulvinaria." Literally, "At the cushions;" in reference to the practice of placing the statues of the gods upon pillows at the Lectisternia, which were sacrifices in the nature of feasts, at which images of the gods were placed reclining on couches, with tables and food before them, as if they were really partaking of the things offered in sacrifice. Livy, B. v. c. 13. gives an account of a Lectisternium celebrated with great pomp, which he asserts to have been the first instance of the practice.

71 In B. ix. c. 54.

72 See B. iii. c. 11.

73 Theophrastus reckons coral among the precious stones, and the Pseudo-Orpheus among the minerals. Pliny would seem to be at a loss whether to consider it as an animal or a vegetable. In reality it is the production of marine organized bodies of an arborescent habit, known as Corallina, with jointed stems, supported on a kind of root divided into branches, which are likewise jointed.

74 Because κειρε̂ιται, it is "cut short" in the sea, a far-fetched derivation, apparently.

75 Solinus informs us that Zoroaster attributed certain mysterious properties to coral.

76 A practice still retained, though the original intention of it has been lost sight of. As to the form of the coral now used by infants, see Note 85 to B. xxviii. c. 7.

77 In reality, the Pastinaca or Sting-ray is not venomous; but the wounds inflicted by the sting in its tail are highly dangerous, from their tendency to gangrene

78 In B. ix. c. 72. As Ajasson remarks, it is quite possible that the sting of the Pastinaca might penetrate to the heart of a young tree, and so kill it; but that is no proof of its being poisonous. See also B. ix. cc. 40, 67.

79 Or Mustela, the sea-weasel, mentioned in B. ix. c. 29, and in c. 37 of the present Book. See also Note 12 to B. ix. c. 29. Ajasson is of opinion that under the names of "Galeos" and "Mustela," the ancients confounded the Squalus galeus and the Squalus mustelus of Linnæus.

80 See B. xix. c. 15, and B. xxii. c. 49.

81 As water, and are consequently amphibious.

82 The Castoreum of the ancients, the "castor" of our Materia Medica, is not in reality produced from the testes of the beaver, as was supposed by the ancients, but from two oval pouches situate near the anus of the animal of either sex. There are four of these pouches in all, two containing a species of fat, and two larger ones including in their membranous cells a viscous fetid substance, which forms the castor of medicine. It is considered to be an antispasmodic.

83 "Folliculos." A very appropriate term, as Ajasson remarks.

84 See B. xii. c. 49, and B. xxxiv. c. 14.

85 See B. xxv. c. 70.

86 Castor is still given to females to inhale, when suffering from hysteria.

87 See B. xx. c. 54.

88 See B. xxiv. c.38.

89 See B. viii. c. 41, B. x. c. 95, and B. xi. cc. 24, 28.

90 See B. xxix. c. 32.

91 See B. viii. c. 35, and B. xvi, c.80.

92 See B. xx. c. 81; B. xxii. c. 13; B. xxiii. c. 23, and B. xxiv. c. 73.

93 See B. xii. c. 57.

94 Or Mistletoe; see B. xvi. c. 92.

95 As to the identity of the "nitrum" of the ancients, see B. xxxi. c. 46 and the Notes.

96 See B. xx. c. 76.

97 Under the head of "testudines," he includes the tortoises, terrapenes, and turtles, which form an order of reptiles, known in Natural History as Chelonia, and characterised by the body being enclosed between a double shield or shell, out of which protrude the head, tail, and four extremities.

98 See B. ix. cc. 11, 12.

99 Our tortoises so called.

100 Our Chelonides, or turtles.

101 The Emydes and Trionyches of Modern Natural History.

102 The Emydes and Trionyches of Modern Natural History.

103 Or turtle.

104 See B. x. c. 86.

105 To make it of a yellow or golden colour, Dalechamps says.

106 Identified by Ajasson with the Emys lutaria of Modern Natural History.

107 Our Houseleek. See B. xxv. c. 102.

108 Because it is then powerless, and can make no effort to rise.

109 An absurd story, founded, no doubt, on the extremely slow pace of the tortoise. Ajasson remarks that it is the fresh-water tortoise, more particularly, that is so slow in its movements.

110 In B. xxi. c. 44.

111 Or Gilt-head. "Aurata." See B. ix. c. 25.

112 In B. viii. c. 38. See also B. xxviii. c. 30.

113 Among others, in B. vii. c. 13, and B. xxviii. c. 23.

114 In B. xxviii. c. 23.

115 As to this point, see c. 12 of this Book, and the Notes.

116 He must mean the Sea-dragon, mentioned in B. ix. c. 43, and in c. 53 of the present Book; for he has already stated in B. xxix. c. 20, that the serpent called "draco" is destitute of venom. See also B. viii. cc. 13, 14, 22, 41, and B. x. cc. 5, 92, 95, 96.

117 See B. viii. c. 41, B. x. c. 95, and B. xi. cc. 24, 28, 29.

118 See B. ix. cc. 71, 86, and c. 53 of the present Book.

119 See Note 16 above.

120 Rondelet asserts, B. vi. c. 19, that he himself had cured the sting of the sea-dragon by an application of the liver of that fish.

121 See B. xxix. c. 32.

122 See B. viii. c. 35, B. xi. c. 43, and B, xvi. c. 80.

123 See B. xxiii. c. 29.

124 Nicander, in his Theriaca, classes the Elops among the innocuous serpents. In B. ix. c. 27, we are informed that one name given to the Acipenser was "Elops." But see the remark made in c. 54 of this Book.

125 See B. xxiii. c. 80.

126 From c. 53 of the present Book, we learn that the Sarda was a kind of Pelamis, or young tunny, which was pickled, like our Anchovy.

127 See Note 16 above.

128 Tunny cut into slices, and pickled. See B. ix. c. 18.

129 See B. ix. cc. 40, 67, 74, 83.

130 See B. viii. c. 48, B. xi. cc. 19, 76, 116, B. xxv. c. 76.

131 See B. x. c. 86.

132 Under the name "magi," he is probably speaking here, not of the ordinary magicians, but the Magi of the East, from whom Democritus largely borrowed.

133 A piece of wit on the part of our author, in which he seldom indulges.

134 See B. xi. c. 76.

135 From "rubus," a "bramble."

136 In B. viii. c. 48. It is not improbable that the "rubetæ" of the ancients were toads.

137 Projections of the bones in which the eyes are set, as Dalechamps remarks.

138 "Plenæ veneficiorum." It was long a matter of doubt whether the toad is really poisonous, but it has been recently ascertained that the pustules on the skin contain a most active poison.

139 "Solium" and "oleum" are the readings here, but we adopt the conjecture of M. Ian, and substitute "ollam."

140 "Averting dogs."

141 The Enhydris, probably. See B. xxx. c. 8.

142 See B. xxvi. c. 33.

143 "Cancri fluviatiles." Our crawfish, the Potamobios of Leach.

144 See B. xix. cc. 31, 36, 44, and B. xx. c. 48.

145 It is difficult to say whether he means the shrew-mouse here, the bite of which was supposed to be poisonous, or the serpent called Scytale, mentioned by Lucan, B. ix. 1. 717.

146 See Note 44 above.

147 The Crab. This is giving the serpent credit for too much wisdom; an acquaintance, in fact, with the fantastic names which mankind have bestowed upon the signs of the Zodiac.

148 See B. ix. c. 32.

149 The same as the Orbis or Orthagoriscus of Chapters 5 and 9 of this Book, the Mola or sun-fish of the Mediterranean. See B. ix. c. 17.

150 Or sting-ray. See B. ix. c. 72.

151 There is considerable truth in this observation.

152 The sea-horse, the Syngnathus hippocampus of Linnæus. See B. ix. c. 1

153 See B. xxi. c. 105.

154 The same, probably, as the "opocarpathon" of B. xxviii. c. 45, a substance which does not appear to have been identified with any degree of certainty. See also c. 31 of the present Book.

155 B. ix. c. 79.

156 Ajasson remarks that these statements are consistent with fact.

157 "Deep-sea" oysters.

158 In Asia Minor. See B. v. c. 32, where it is called "Grynia."

159 In Lemnos. See B. iv. c. 23, and B. v. c. 32.

160 This is an error: the statement is made, not in B. ix., but in B. ii. c. 109.

161 See B. ix. c. 74. It is at the spawning season that this milky liquid is found in the oyster; a period at which the meat of the fish is considered unwholesome as food. We have a saying that the oyster should never be eaten in the months without an r; that the same, too, was the opinion in the middle ages is proved by the Leonine line:
"Mensibus erratis vos ostrea manducatis."
"In the r'd months you may your oysters eat."

162 See B. iii. c. 9. Horace speaks of the oysters of Circeii, B. ii. Sat. 4. l. 33.

163 There has been considerable discussion among the commentators as to the meaning of the word "spondylus" here. We are inclined to adopt the opinion of Venette, and to think that it means the so-called "meat" of the oyster. It must be short, and consequently plump and comparatively destitute of beard, and it must not be fleshy, as that would imply a degree of toughness not desirable in an oyster. The words "nec fibris laciniata ac tota in alvo," only seem to be an amplification of the preceding ones, "spondylo brevi et non carnoso."

164 Literally, "Having beautiful eyebrows."

165 See B. ix. c. 79.

166 See B. v. c. 40.

167 See B. iii. c. 9.

168 "Dulciora."

169 Those of Rutupæ, the present Richborough in Kent, were highly esteemed by the Romans. See Juvenal, Sat. 4. l. 141.

170 "Suaviora."

171 The district in the vicinity of Bordeaux, now called Medoc. The oysters of Medulæ are mentioned in terms of praise by Ausonius, Epist. vii. and Epist. cxliii.

172 "Acriora."

173 See B. iii. c. 4.

174 See B. v. c. 32.

175 See B. iii. c. 23.

176 See B. iii. c. 9.

177 They probably gave the name of "oyster" to some other shell-fish of large size. In Cook's Voyages we read of cockles in the Pacific, which two men were unable to carry.

178 From τρὶς, "thrice," and δάκνω, "to bite."

179 Ajasson remarks that many persons are unable to digest oysters, in an uncooked state.

180 Ajasson remarks that calcined oyster-shells formed an ingredient in the famous lithontriptic of Mrs. Stephens, a so-called remedy which obtained for her a considerable reward, voted by the English Parliament in the middle of last century.

181 A statement purely imaginary, Ajasson thinks; the liquid of this class of shell-fish containing no element whatever to fit it for an antidote.

182 Or antidote.

183 In B. xxvi. c. 66.

184 Many varieties of sea-weed are now known, Ajasson says, to possess this property, and are still used by savage nations for colouring the body. In Europe, the use of indigo, madder, and other tinctorial plants of a more decided character, has caused them to be entirely neglected for dyeing purposes.

185 Probably the Syngnathus hippocampus of Linnæus. See B. ix. c. <*>.

186 As to the Nitrum of the ancients, see B. xxxi. c. 46.

187 Or Cuttlefish. See B. ix. c. 44.

188 See B. ix. c. 35.

189 See c. 17 of the present Book.

190 This seems to be the meaning of "conchyliorum" here, though in most instances Pliny uses it as synonymous with the purple. See B. ix. cc. 60, 61, 64.

191 See B. xxv. c. 70.

192 This assertion reminds us of the healing effects of the fish with which Tobit cured his father's blindness. See Tobit, c. xi. v. 13.

193 See c. 13 of this Book.

194 Identified by Ajasson with the white Rascasse of the Mediterranean. Hardouin combats the notion that this was the fish, the gall of which was employed by Tobit for the cure of his father, and is inclined to think that the Silurus was in reality the fish; a notion no better founded than the other, Ajasson thinks.

195 In his "Messenia," for instance. The fragment has been preserved by Ælian, Hist. Anim. B. xiii. c. 4. Ajasson remarks that the ancients clearly mistook the swimming bladder of the fish for the gall.

196 Or "heaven-gazer."

197 The original has "ab oculo quem,"—but we have adopted the reading suggested by Dalechamps, "Ab oculis quos in superiore capite." Ajasson says that the white rascasse has the eyes so disposed on the upper part of the head as to have the appearance of gazing upwards at the heavens. Hence it is that at Genoa, the fish is commonly known as the prête or "priest."

198 See B. ix. c. 32.

199 See Chapter 17 of the present Book.

200 "Albugines."

201 Meaning, literally, "Fallen from Jupiter," in reference to their supposed descent from heaven in showers of rain.

202 Cortex.

203 See B. xxxiv. co. 22, 23.

204 "Ossiculo."

205 Literally, "fish-glue." We can hardly believe Pliny that any fish was known by this name. Hardouin takes the fish here spoken of to be identical with that mentioned in B. ix. c. 17, as being caught in the Borysthene, and destitute of bones. It is most probable, however, that the "ichthyocolla" of the ancients, or "fish-glue," was the same as our isinglass, and that it was prepared from the entrails of various fish, the sturgeon more particularly, the Acipenser huso of Linnæus.

206 The best isinglass still comes from Russia.

207 " Nativi coloris." See B. viii. c. 23. Beckmann says, in reference to the present passage: "We manufacture the wool of our brown sheep in its natural colour, and this was done also by the ancients."—Hist. Inv. vol. ii. p. 110, Bohn's Ed.

208 The "calamites" above mentioned, so called from "calamus," a reed.

209 The Bryonia Cretica of Linnæus; see B. xxiii. c. 16.

210 An eminent surgeon, born at Sidon in Phœnicia, who practised at Rome, probably in the first century B.C.

211 "Mutis," silent," or "voiceless" frogs, as suggested by Gessner, Hist. Anim. B. ii., would almost seem to be a preferable reading here to "multis," "many."

212 Another reading is "tænia," a fish mentioned by Epicharmus, Athenæus informs us, and considered by Ajasson to be probably identical with the Cepola rubescens, or Cepola tænia of Linnæus.

213 The same as the Batis of the Greeks, Hardouin thinks, the Raia batis, a kind of skate.

214 See B. ix. c. 28.

215 See the preceding Chapter.

216 See c. 13 of the present Book.

217 See B. ix. c. 71.

218 As to "nitrum," see B. xxxi. c. 46.

219 See B. xxxi. c. 43.

220 See Note 89 to Chapter 23 of this Book.

221 "Canicula." See B. ix. cc. 11, 70.

222 Or sting-ray.

223 Tunny cut in slices. See B. ix. c. 18.

224 See end of B. xxxi.

225 For the purpose, probably, of assuaging the pain of tooth-ache by their coolness.

226 See B. ix. cc. 40, 67.

227 " Cetum." See B. ix. cc. 40, 74.

228 Ajasson is of opinion that here and in c. 19 Pliny has mistaken the otter for a serpent, the mammiferæ only having eye or canine teeth. Aristotle, Hist. Anim. B. i. c. i., calls the otter by the name of "Enhydris." See B. xxx. c. 8, where Pliny speaks of the "Enhydris" as a " male white serpent."

229 Or seal. See B. ix. c. 15.

230 See B. ix. c. 42. Holland calls the mæna the "cackerel."

231 Or sting-ray.

232 See B. ix. c. 1.

233 Much like the cod-liver oil, held in such high repute at the present day.

234 " Icthyocolla." See Chapter 24 of the present Book.

235 Of course this assertion as to the nest of the kingfisher is altogether fabulous, and the sea-productions here described by Pliny were long considered, though destitute of leaves, flowers, and fruit, to belong to the vegetable kingdom. Peyssonnel, however, made the discovery that they belong to the animal kingdom, and that they owe their origin to a species of polyp.

236 Or kingfisher. See B. x. c. 47.

237 " Oculorum cicatrices."

238 See end of B. xx.

239 See end of B. viii.

240 See B. ix. c. 42.

241 See B. ix. cc. 40, 67. The Bamberg MS. has here "rhine," (the fish again mentioned in Chapter 53 of this Book) instead of "rana;" a reading which Sillig rejects. Hardouin conjectures that "raia" is the correct reading, the sea-frog having no sting or stickle in the tail.

242 See B. ix. c. 67.

243 Or sea-lizard, a fish again mentioned in Chapter 53 of this Book. Ælian also speaks of it, Hist. Nat. B. xii. c. 25; but it has not been hitherto identified.

244 See c. 25 of this Book.

245 See c. 13 of this Book.

246 See B. xxxi. c. 43.

247 See B. ix. cc. 17, 25, 75.

248 It is not clear whether he means the gum ammoniac of B. xii. c. 49, and B. xxiv. c. 14, or the sal ammoniac of B. xxxi. c. 39.

249 " Saliva." See the recipe of Sallustius Dionysius in Chapter 26 of this Book.

250 The Dryophites of Rondelet, Dalechamps says.

251 Identical with the Strombus of cc. 39, 46, and 53 of this Book.

252 See B. ix. c. 1.

253 Littré remarks that Pliny here seems to speak of the "Tethea" as a mollusk; whereas in c. 31, from his expression "Fungorum verius generis quam piscium," he would appear to be describing a zoophyte.

254 See B. ix. cc. 17, 25, 75.

255 See B. ix. cc. 24, 48, 67, 74, 75.

256 See B. xx. c. 38.

257 A rock fish, according to Athenæus, B. vii. Rondelet, B. vi. c. 7, identifies it with the fish called girello by the people of Liguria, the donzelia of other districts.

258 Sliced tunny. See B. ix. c. 18.

259 A genus which comprises the "myes," mentioned in B. ix. c. 56, according to Dalechamps.

260 See B. ix. c. 60.

261 See B. xxi. c. 105.

262 See B. xxviii. c. 45, and Chapter 20 of the present Book.

263 Identical with our mussel, probably.

264 Holland identifies this with the cockle, but it is probably a smaller kind of mussel.

265 See B. xxxiv. c. 50.

266 We learn from Chapter 53 of this Book, that one class of the "Chamæ," or gaping cockles, was known as "Pelorides." Horace also mentions them.

267 See B. xxxi. c. 46.

268 See Note 51 above. Sillig would here read "tetheum," apparently, in the singular.

269 Described in B. xxvii. c. 29.

270 A city not far from the Canopic branch of the Nile.

271 "Dantur" seems a preferable reading to "datur."

272 See B. ix c. 42.

273 Our crawfish, the Astacus potamobios of Leach.

274 See Chapter 13 of this Book.

275 See B. xix. c. 27, and B. xxv. c. 64.

276 See B. ix. cc. 23, 77.

277 See end of B. xxxi.

278 See B. ix. cc. 20, 24, 36.

279 See B. ix. cc. 24, 48, 67, 74, 75.

280 "Rhombus." See B. ix. cc. 20, 36, 67, 79.

281 See Chapters 23, 34, 30 and 53 of this Book.

282 Rondelet, B. vi. c. 19, suggests "capite"—"in the head" —but the present reading is supported by the text of Plinius Valerianus, B. ii. c. 39, and of Marcus Empiricus, c. 28.

283 As to the identity of the Enhydris, see Chapters 19 and 26 of the present Book : also B. xxx. c. 8.

284 Probably the βλεννὸς of Oppian, B. i. c. 108. Dalechamps identifies it with the mullet called "myxon," apparently the same fish as the "bacchus" mentioned in Chapter 25 of this Book. Rondelet appears to identify it with some other sea-fish, small, and extremely rare. On the other hand, the fish mentioned by Oppian is thought by Littré to be the "gobius" of the Latins, ("gobio" or "cobio," mentioned by Pliny in B. ix. c. 83, and in c. 53 of the present Book), which is generally considered the same as our gudgeon, and was a worthless fish, "vilis piscis," as Juvenal says. One of the Linnæan orders of fishes is called "Blennius," the blenny.

285 See B. ix. c. 28.

286 See B. ix. c. 68.

287 Or sea-lungs. See B. ix. c. 71, and B. xviii. c. 85.

288 Or crawfish.

289 "Pectines." See B. ix. cc. 51, 52, 68, 74, 112.

290 Athenæus adds a fourth name, "solen;" and a fifth was "dactylus," see B. ix. c. 87. According to Dalechamps, the name "donax" was given to one kind of scallop, from its fancied resemblance to a thick, hollow, river-reed, and that of "onyx" from the resemblance of its colour to that of the finger-nails.

291 It is not improbable that he may mean the same animal that has been mentioned in cc. 19 and 26 of this Book, the Enhydris. See also B. xxx. c. 8.

292 See B. xxix. c. 22.

293 See B. ix. cc. 17, 25, 75.

294 See B. ix. c. 42, and Chapter 27 of this Book.

295 See B. ix. cc. 18, 19, and Chapter 53 of this Book.

296 Salted tunny. See B. ix. c. 18.

297 See B. ix. cc. 24, 48, 74, 75.

298 Our crawfish.

299 See B. ix. cc. 24, 32.

300 See B. ix. c. 24.

301 See Chapters 23, 24, 30, 32, and 53 of the present Book. Also B. xx. c. 53.

302 See B. ix. c. 42.

303 "Perca." See B. ix. c. 24.

304 See Note 93 above.

305 See B. ix. c. 14.

306 In B. ix. c. 14.

307 Ajasson remarks that many writers have identified the Smaris with the Sardine or the Anchovy. In his opinion, however, it is neither; but he thinks that under this head were included seven or eight varieties of the Pickerel, the principal of which are, the Sparus smaris of Linnæus and Lacépède, the Sparus mana of Linnæus, or Sparus mendola of Lacépède, and the Sparus haffara of Lacépède and Linnæus.

308 See Chapter 22 of the present Book.

309 See B. ix. c. 1.

310 Literally, the "little serpent." Some think that it is the Ophidium barbatum of Linnæus. Rondelet identifies it, B. xiv. c. 2, with the small fish called donzella by the people of Montpellier. See c. 31, Note 55.

311 See B. xxx. c. 22.

312 See B. xiv. c. 8.

313 "Rubetæ." See c. 18 of this Book; also B. viii. c. 48; B. xi. cc. 19, 76, 116, and B. xxv. c. 76.

314 See B. ix. c. 72; B. xxv. c. 77, and Chapter 3 of this Book.

315 Or seal-skin. See B. viii. c. 49, and B. ix. c. 15,

316 In B. xxvii. c. 33.

317 In B. xxvi. c. 66.

318 Or "sea-lungs." See B. ix. c. 71, B. xviii. c. 5, and Chapters 32, 46, and 52 of the present Book. Ajasson remarks that this is still the common name of many kinds of Medusæ.

319 Our crawfish.

320 See B. ix. cc. 17, 25, 75.

321 "Mituli." See Chapter 31 of the present Book.

322 In B. viii. c. 49.

323 See Note 14 above.

324 See Chapter 13 of the present Book.

325 See B. ix. c. 29.

326 See B. ix. cc. 35, 76.

327 See B. ix. c. 1.

328 See B. ix. c. 28.

329 See B. ix. c. 24.

330 "Ablatis unguibus."

331 "Rubeta."

332 Our crawfish.

333 Because the nightingale sings at night, instead of sleeping.

334 See B. ix. cc. 2, 5, 6, 7, 15.

335 Or seal.

336 "Spondylus."

337 See Chapter 29 of this Book.

338 See Chapters 30 and 31 of the present Book.

339 See B. xviii. c. 19.

340 "Crebriore anhelitu."

341 See B. ix. cc. 17, 25, 75.

342 Or sting-ray. See B. ix. cc. 37, 40, 67, 72.

343 Ichthyocolla. See Chapter 24 of this Book.

344 See Chapter 13 of this Book.

345 See B. ix. c. 30.

346 See B. ix. c. 46.

347 This seems to be the meaning of "naturâ dissidente," if it is the correct reading. That, however, suggested by Dalechamps would seem to be preferable, "naturâ retinente,"—"it being the nature of its flesh to cling to the knife."

348 See Chapter 24 of this Book.

349 "Calami."

350 "Bloods bankers."

351 "Cucurbitæ medicinales."

352 This does not appear to be considered the case at the present day.

353 A method <*> still employed.

354 See B. x. c. 27.

355 "Invehu<*> virus remedio verso." The reading is probably corrupt, but the meaning is pretty evident.

356 See B. xx <*>. c. 17, and c. 47 of this Book.

357 See B. ix. cc. 17, 25, 75.

358 See B. ix. c. 17. Ajasson says that it is also found of enormous size, in the Danube and in the Theisse.

359 See B. xxxiv. c. 33.

360 See B. ix. c. 42.

361 See Note 55 above.

362 "Cunila capitata." See B. xx. c. 65.

363 See B. xxxiv. c. 55.

364 Tunny sliced and salted; see B. ix. c. 18.

365 See B. xxxi. c. 44.

366 See B. ix. cc. 24, 32.

367 See B. ix. c. 30.

368 See B. ix. c. 67.

369 See Note 58 above.

370 "Thymia."

371 Ajasson thinks that the ancients knew but one kind of sea-scorpion, but in different states, the Cottus scorpius, probably, of Linnæus.

372 See Chapter 34 of this Book.

373 See Note 63 above.

374 See Note 58 above.

375 This fish has not been identified. It is possible, however, that it may be the same as the "glaucus" mentioned in B. ix. c. 25.

376 See Note 69 above.

377 See B. xxvi. c. 92.

378 See B. ix. cc. 14, 40, 67.

379 An asserted remedy, founded, as Ajasson remarks, upon nothing but a pun, the resemblance between δελφῖς, a "dolphin," and δελφὺς, the "womb."

380 See Chapters 29 and 39 of this Book.

381 See B. ix. c. 42.

382 See B. xx. c. 65.

383 In other words, seal-oil.

384 Or sea-lungs. See Chapter 36 of this Book.

385 Or crawfish.

386 See B. ix. c. 17; also Chapter 43 of this Book.

387 Meaning Egypt, probably; see the passages referred to in the preceding note.

388 De Morb. Mulier. I. 128.

389 We would adopt the suggestion of M. Ian, and read "quinis cum." in preference to "cum quinis;" "five crabs with roots of lapathum and rue."

390 See B. xx. c. 85.

391 See Chapter 13 of the present Book.

392 See B. xii. c. 57.

393 See B. ix. cc. 24, 48, 74, 75.

394 Or sting-ray. See B. ix. c. 72.

395 The callosity is here meant, Hardouin supposes, which covers the purple in the shell. See Chapter 41 of this Book.

396 "Salis flore." See B. xxxi. c. 42.

397 "Cedrium." See B. xvi. c. 21, and B. xxiv. c. 11.

398 See end of B. xxviii.

399 Or "sea-lungs." See Chapter 36 of this Book.

400 See B. ix. c. 67

401 See B. ix. c. 68.

402 See Note 90 above.

403 In Chapter 24 of this Book.

404 See the preceding Note.

405 See Chapter 42 of this Book.

406 In the case of infants, probably.

407 "Canicula." See B. ix. cc. 11, 70.

408 Or "crawfish,"

409 "Crebro humefacto" seems a preferable reading to "cerebro humefacto," though supported by the Bamberg MS.

410 See B. xxii. c. 29, and B. xxx. c. 47.

411 See B. ix. c. 30.

412 Identified with the "erythinus" of B. ix. c. 23, and mentioned in the next Chapter.

413 See B. ix. c. 1.

414 Or Remora. See B. ix. c. 41.

415 See B. viii. c. 39.

416 See Note 90 above.

417 See B. ix. c. 23.

418 See Chapter 24 of this Book.

419 See B. ix. c. 1.

420 "Rubeta." See B. viii. c. 48, B. xi. cc. 19, 76, 116, B. xxv. c. 76, and c. 18 of this Book.

421 See B. xv. c. 36, and B. xx. c. 22.

422 "Remedies for lassitude." See B. xxiii. cc. 45, 80; B. xxvii. c.13, and B. xxix. cc. 13, 37.

423 See B. xvi. c. 66, and B. xxiv. c. 50.

424 See B. xvi. c. 66, and B. xxiv. c. 50.

425 See B. xxiv. c. 50.

426 See B. ix. cc. 20, 44, 74, 78.

427 "Ablato priore lumine." Hardouin justly ridicules this assertion. This ink, as Ajasson remarks, is intensely black.

428 See B. ix. c. 71, and Chapter 36 of this Book.

429 This seems to be the meaning of "adeo ut baculum ita præluceat."

430 Some MSS. have here "164," the Bamberg MS. and others" 144." Owing to the corrupt state of the text in many parts of this Chapter, it is impossible to say which reading is correct.

431 "Invenire non potuimus" seems a preferable reading to "invenire potuimus."

432 Modern Ceylon. See B. vi. cc. 23, 24, B. vii. c. 2, and B. ix. c. 54.

433 "Quæ nascuntur certa sunt." A bold assertion. The various fishes now known amount to many thousands; and there are still vast numbers, no doubt, with which science has not hitherto become acquainted.

434 "Belluæ."

435 He may possibly allude to the plants mentioned in B. xiii. cc. 48, 49, 50, 51, and 52; though Hardouin seems to think it impossible to discover what he means, seeing that he is speaking of sea-monsters, beings with animal life. See also B. ix. c. 3.

436 See B. ix. c. 3.

437 See B. ix. cc. 2, 5.

438 See B. ix. c. 3; probably the same as the "pristis" of B. ix. c. 2.

439 See B. ix. c. 4.

440 See B. ix. c. 4.

441 See B. ix. c. 4.

442 "Homines marini." See B. ix. c. 4.

443 See B. ix. c. 3.

444 See B. ix. c. 5.

445 See B. ix. c. 4.

446 See B. ix. c. 88, and B. xi. c. 62

447 See B. ix. c. 67.

448 See B. ix. c. 7.

449 See B. ix. c. 15.

450 Odyssey, B. iv. 1. 436.

451 Turtles. See B. ix. c. 13.

452 See Chapter 13 of this Book.

453 See B. viii. c. 47; also Chapters 26 and 32 of this Book.

454 See B. ix. c. 70.

455 The name of a fish unknown. Sillig conjectures that Pliny may have had in view the fish called "dromades" by Aristotle. "Dromones" is another reading, a sort of small crab.

456 Littré translates this "horned ray."

457 "Gladii." See B. ix. cc. 1, 21; the same, probably, as the "xiphias" mentioned at the end of this Chapter.

458 See B. ix. c. 1.

459 See B. viii. c. 39.

460 See B. viii. c. 37.

461 See B. ix. cc. 18, 20. Holland says, "Some take 'thynni' for the milters, and 'thynnides' for the spawners." In his translation, however, he identifies the "thynnides" with the "pelamides," or young tunnies, mentioned in this Chapter, and in B. ix. c. 18.

462 See B. ix. cc. 17, 25.

463 See B. ix. cc. 24, 32.

464 "Peræ." See B. ix. c. 24.

465 See B. ix. c. 27.

466 "Aurata." See B. ix. c. 25.

467 See B. ix. cc. 25, 28.

468 Considered by some to be the whiting. Littré identifies it with the Perca labrax of Linnæus.

469 See B. ix. c. 74; where it is called "apua."

470 The "sea-fox." See B. ix. c. 67.

471 "Anguilla." See B. ix. cc. 2, 37, 38.

472 Or sea-spider. See B. ix. c. 72.

473 The same as the bogue of the coasts of Narbonne, according to Rondelet, B. v. c. 11.

474 See Chapter 25 of the present Book.

475 See B. ix. c. 28.

476 Or See B. ix. c. 40.

477 "Sea-needles." Identified by some with the horn-fish, horn-back, or needle-fish.

478 "Needle-fish."

479 "Acorn-fish." A shell-fish, according to Rondelet, B. i. c. 30, which frequents the clefts of rocks.

480 "Sea-raven." According to some authorities, identical with the Trigla hirundo of Linnæus. Hardouin says that it is the fish called capone by the people of Rome.

481 See B. ix. c. 71

482 The same, probably, as the "gobio," mentioned in B. ix. c. 83.

483 See B. ix. c. 28.

484 See B. ix. cc. 25, 28.

485 Thought by some to be a kind of mackerel, by others to be a tunny. Rondelet says, B. viii. c. 8, that it is a fish still called coguiol by the people of Marseilles.

486 In the Hellespont.

487 Or Sexis, according to Pintianus.

488 Or "sea-lizards."

489 See B. ix. c. 18. He surely does not intend to include this among his "one hundred and seventy-six different kinds of aquatic animals"!

490 Or young tunny. See B. ix. c. 18.

491 See B. ix. c. 18.

492 Rondelat says, B. v. c. 4, that it is a fish still known (in his time) as cantheno, by the people of Narbonne. Ovid, in his Halieuticon, 1. 103, speaks of the unpleasant flavour of its juices.

493 See Chapter 24 of the present Book.

494 Of course, as Hardouin says, he does not include the shell-fishes in this assertion. The fish with this uncomplimentary name has not been identified.

495 "Urtica." See B. ix. c. 68.

496 See B. ix. c. 51.

497 Or "chamæ;" different varieties of gaping cockles.

498 Or "monster"-cockles.

499 Or "sweet" cockles.

500 See Chapter 27 of this Book.

501 See B. ix. c. 54.

502 Or "cochli." As to the various kinds of cochleæ, see B. ix. c. 51.

503 "Five-fingered." So called from some peculiarity in their shape.

504 Considered by some to be the striated mussel, the Pecten of Linnæus.

505 "Radii."

506 This is not improbably the meaning of the very elliptical sentence, "Quibus radii cantant."

507 See B. ix. c. 1.

508 The "dog's-face," literally. This fish has not been identified: indeed the reading is doubtful.

509 A kind of crab or crayfish. See B. xxvii. c. 2.

510 Literally, the "dog's right hand." This fish has not been identified: Hardouin suggests that it may have been a zoöphyte.

511 See B. ix. c. 43, and Chapters 17 and 26 of this Book.

512 Or "little dragon."

513 The sea-scorpion, probably.

514 See B. ix. c. 23; also Chapters 31 and 50 of this Book.

515 Or Remora. See B. ix. c. 41; also Chapter 1 of this Book.

516 See B. ix. cc. 14, 74.

517 See B. ix. c. 32.

518 See Chapter 46 of the present Book.

519 See B. ix. c. 67.

520 Possibly the same as the "Conger" of B. ix. c. 24.

521 A fish similar, most probably, to the "gerricula" previously mentioned. Holland calls it a "pilchard" or "herring."

522 A kind of squalus. See B. ix. c. 70.

523 See B. xxxi. c. 43.

524 Or "horse." The crab, probably, mentioned in B. ix. c. 51.

525 See B. ix. c. 24.

526 Or sea-swallow. See B. ix. c. 43.

527 "Lungs of the sea." The same as the Pulmones, or sea-lungs, mentioned in B. ix. c. 71, and in Chapter 36 of this Book.

528 See B. ix. c. 1.

529 Or "sea-liver." A sort of rock-fish, according to Athenæus.

530 The same as the "milvus" or "sea-kite," mentioned in B. ix. c. 43.

531 See Chapter 31 of this Book. Instead of this fish and the preceding one, most of the editions mention the "elacatenes," a cetaceous fish, according to Athenæus, much used for salting.

532 "Sea-lizards."

533 See B. ix. c. 45.

534 "Locusta." See B. ix. c. 50.

535 "Lucerna." See B. ix. c. 43.

536 Neither this fish nor the "larinus" has been identified.

537 See B. ix. c. 72, and Chapter 3 of this Book.

538 See B. ix. c. 51.

539 See B. ix. c. 30.

540 See B. ix. c. 20.

541 See B. ix. c. 26.

542 See Chapter 8 of this Book. Holland translates this—"The blacke taile perch, (which some take for a ruffe, others for a sea-breame)."

543 See B. ix. c. 42.

544 A fish of the Nile, according to Ælian. "Meryx" is another reading, a kind of Scarus, it is thought.

545 See B. ix. c. 23.

546 A shell-fish. See B. ix. c. 56.

547 See Chapter 31 of this Book.

548 See Chapter 31 of this Book.

549 See B. ix. c. 61.

550 The "eye-fish." A kind of lamprey has been suggested.

551 See Chapter 35 of this Book.

552 See B. ix. c. 21.

553 "Sea-ears." A kind of oyster, Holland says.

554 See B. ix. c. 20.

555 He speaks of it as a kind of Pelamis, a little further on.

556 The sun-fish. See Chapter 5 of this Book.

557 The same, probably, as the "orbis." See Chapters 5 and 9 of the present Book.

558 Or phagrus. See B. ix. c. 24.

559 See B. ix. c. 42.

560 A young tunny. See B. ix. c. 20.

561 A "choice bit." See B. ix. c. 20.

562 See B. ix. c. 17.

563 This fish has not been identified.

564 See B. ix. c. 36.

565 Or sting-ray. See B. ix. c. 40.

566 See B. ix. c. 48.

567 See B. ix. c. 51.

568 See B. v. c. 39.

569 Probably the place of that name in Sicily, mentioned in B. ii. c. 94, and B. iii. c. 14.

570 See B. iii. c. 26.

571 See B. iii. c. 22.

572 "Pectunculus." See Note 65 above.

573 See B. ix. c. 60.

574 An unknown fish. The reading is doubtful.

575 See B. ix. c. 66.

576 See B. ix. c. 66.

577 See B. ix. c. 40.

578 "Rhombus." See B. ix. c. 36.

579 See B. ix. c. 29.

580 See B. ix. c. 36.

581 See B. ix. c. 30.

582 The same, perhaps, as the "pinnotheres" of B. ix. c. 66, a kind of shrimp.

583 See Chapter 17 of this Book.

584 See B. ix. c. 18.

585 See B. ix. c. 19.

586 See B. ix. c. 32.

587 Considered by Sillig to be the same as the "Saurus" of Chapter 28 of this Book; the "sea-lizard," apparently.

588 It does not seem to have been identified; though Rondelet says that it is the same as the Rascasse of the Mediterranean.

589 See B. xx. c. 53, and Chapters 23, 30, 32, 34, and 35 of this Book.

590 This fish has not been identified; indeed the reading is very doubtful.

591 See B. ix. c. 24.

592 A fish similar to the preceding one, probably; some kind of ombre, Littré thinks.

593 See B. ix. c. 67.

594 Probably the same as the "Myrus" of B. ix. c. 39.

595 See B. ix. c. 45.

596 See Chapter 30 of this Book.

597 See Chapter 32 of this Book.

598 A sort of mollusk, Littré thinks. There is a shell-fish known as the Spondylus gæderopus of Linnæus.

599 See Chapters 34, 45, and 46, of this Book

600 See B. ix. c. 86.

601 See B. ix. c. 69.

602 See B. ix. c. 20.

603 A sort of tunny, probably.

604 See Chapter 6 of this Book. Probably the same as the "gladius" of this Chapter, and of B. ix. cc. 1, 21.

605 Considered by Littré to be the Shad.

606 See B. ix. c. 67.

607 See Chapter 30 of this Book.

608 See B. ix. c. 18.

609 See B. ix. c. 18.

610 See B. ix. c. 52, and Chapter 1 of this Book.

611 See B. ix. c. 1, and c. 49 of this Book.

612 See Note 3 above.

613 The Halieuticon, already mentioned in Chapter 5 of this Book.

614 At the town of Tomi, whither he was banished by Augustus Cæsar.

615 See B. ix. c. 24.

616 See B. ix. cc. 23, 77, and Chapters 31, 50, of this Book.

617 The same, probably, as the "iulis" mentioned in the preceding Chapter.

618 The "golden brow." The same as the "Aurata" or "dorade" of B. ix. c. 25, and Chapters 16 and 53 of this Book.

619 An unknown fish; the reading is doubtful.

620 The "goat-fish." It does not appear to have been identified.

621 Literally, the "black tail." See the preceding Chapter.

622 According to Rondelet, a fish resembling the Coracinus.

623 See B. ix. c. 23.

624 See B. ix. c. 25.

625 See B. ix. c. 47.

626 See B. ix. c. 42.

627 See B. ix. c. 27. Ajasson is of opinion that the "helops" is the Russian sturgeon, the "acipenser," the common sturgeon.

628 Resembling a "stake" in appearance. It has been suggested that this is the Esox sphyræna.

629 "Perna." Hardouin says that from the diminutive of this, "pernula," the modern word "pearl" is derived.

630 A sort of "tursio," Dalechamps says. See B. ix. c. 11.

631 See B. iii. c. 12.

632 See end of B. xix.

633 See end of B. viii.

634 See end of B. xii.

635 See end of B. xviii.

636 See end of B. xii.

637 See end of B. ix.

638 According to Suetonius, Fescennius Iacchus was a grammarian who taught in Cisalpine Gaul. See also B. xxxvii. c. 54.

639 See end of B. xxxi.

640 See end of B. v.

641 See end of B. xx.

642 See end of B. xxviii.

643 See end of B. xxx.

644 See end of B. xxxi.

645 See end of B. xxviii.

646 See end of B. ii.

647 See end of B. viii.

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