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1 See B. vii. c. 39, B. xxxv. c. 34, and B. xxxvi. c. 4.
2 We have an account of this statue, and of the temple in which it was placed, by Pausanias, B. v. There is no work of Phidias now in existence; the sculptures in the Parthenon were, however, executed by his pupils and under his immediate directions, so that we may form some judgment of his genius and taste.—B. There is a foot in the British Museum, said to be the work of Phidias.
3 An Athenian; see B. xxxvi. c. 5. He is spoken of in high terms by Pausanias and Valerius Maximus.
4 Tutor of Ptolichus of Corcyra, and highly distinguished for his statues of the slayers of the tyrants at Athens. He is mentioned also by Lucian and Pausanias.
5 The reading is uncertain here, the old editions giving "Nestocles." We shall only devote a Note to such artists as are mentioned by other authors besides Pliny.
6 An Athenian; mentioned also by Pausanias.
7 There were probably two artists of this name; one an Argive, tutor of Phidias, and the other a Sicyonian, the person here referred to.
8 A native of Ægina, mentioned by Pausanias. There is also a statuary of Elis of the same name, mentioned by Pausanias, and to whom Thiersch is of opinion reference is here made.
9 See Chapter 5 of this Book.
10 An Argive, mentioned by Pausanias.
11 See Chapter 5 of this Book.
12 Again mentioned by Pliny, as a native of Rhegium in Italy.
13 A native of Paros, mentioned also by Pausanias and Strabo.
14 Probably "Perillus," the artist who made the brazen bull for Phalaris, the tyrant of Agrigentum. The old reading is "Parelius."
15 This and the following word probably mean one person—"Asopodorus the Argive."
16 Perhaps the same person that is mentioned by Pausanias, B. vi. c. 20, as having improved the form of the starting-place at the Olympic Games.
17 Mentioned by Pausanias as an Arcadian, and son of Clitor.
18 A native of Clitorium in Arcadia, and mentioned also by Pausanias.
19 He is said by Pausanias and Athenæus to have been the son, also, of Myron.
20 Son of Motho, and a native of Argos. He was brother and instructor of the younger Polycletus, of Argos. He is mentioned also by Pausanias and Tatian.
21 He is once mentioned by Pausanias, and there is still extant the basis of one of his works, with his name inscribed.
22 It is supposed that there were two artists of this name, both natives of Sicyon, the one grandson of the other. They are both named by Pausanias.
23 Probably a Sicyonian; he is mentioned also by Pausanias.
24 As Pliny mentions two artists of this name, it is impossible to say to which of them Pausanias refers as being an Athenian, in B. vi. c. 4.
25 The elder artist of this name. He was an Athenian, and his sister was the wife of Phocion. He is also mentioned by Plutarch and Pausanias.
26 An Athenian; he is mentioned also by Vitruvius, Pausanias, and Tatian. Winckelmann mentions an inscription relative to him, which, however, appears to be spurious.
27 He is mentioned also by Pausanias, and is supposed by Sillig to have been a Theban.
28 Praxiteles held a high rank among the ancient sculptors, and may be considered as second to Phidias alone; he is frequently mentioned by Pausanias and various other classical writers. Pliny gives a further account of the works of Praxiteles in the two following Books.—B.
29 He was also an eminent painter, and is also mentioned by Quintilian, Dio Chrysostom, and Plutarch.
30 Another reading is "Echion."
31 See B. xxxv. cc. 32, 36.
32 This great artist, a native of Sicyon, has been already mentioned in B. vii. c. 39, and in the two preceding Chapters of the present Book; he is again mentioned in B. xxxv. c. 39.—B. See note 28 above.
33 Also a native of Sicyon. He is mentioned by Tatian.
34 Mentioned also by Pausanias, Plutarch, Strabo, and Appian. The next two names in former editions stand as one, "Euphronides."
35 Supposed to have been an architect, and builder of the Pharos near Alexandria: see B. xxxvi. c. 18. The same person is mentioned also by Strabo, Lucian, and Suidas.
36 An Athenian. He is mentioned also by Pausanias, Plutarch, Diogenes Laertius, and Tatian.
37 See B. xxxv. c. 36.
38 A Sicyonian, pupil of Lysippus. He is also mentioned by Pausanias; see also B. xxxvi. c. 4.
39 Son and pupil of Lysippus. He is mentioned also by Tatian, and by some writers as the instructor of Xenocrates.
40 Sillig thinks that this is a mistake made by Pliny for "Daïppus," a statuary mentioned by Pausanias.
41 Son of Praxiteles, and mentioned by Tatian in conjunction with Euthycrates. The elder Cephisodotus has been already mentioned. See Note 52.
42 Another son of Praxiteles. He is also alluded to by Pausanias, though not by name.
43 His country is uncertain, but he was preceptor of Mygdon of Soli. See B. xxxv. c. 40.
44 Mentioned also by Tatian; his country is unknown.
45 It is doubtful whether Pausanias alludes, in B. vi. c. 4, to this artist, or to the one of the same name mentioned under Olymp. 102. See Note 51.
46 Sillig suggests that this word is an adjective, denoting the country of Polycles, in order to distinguish him from the elder Polycles.
47 We learn from Pausanias that he worked in conjunction with Timarchides. The other artists here mentioned are quite unknown.
48 Sillig, in his "Dictionary of Ancient Artists," observes that "this passage contains many foolish statements." Also that there is "an obvious intermixture in it of truth and falsehood."
49 This is universally admitted to have been one of the most splendid works of art. It is celebrated by various writers; Pausanias speaks of it in B. i. See also B. xxxvi. c. 4.—B.
50 As being made for the Temple of Diana at Ephesus.
51 Probably "Callimorphos," or "Calliste." We learn from Pausanias that it was placed in the Citadel of Athens. Lucian prefers it to every other work of Phidias.
52 A figure of a female "holding keys." The key was one of the attributes of Proserpina, as also of Janus; but the latter was an Italian divinity.
53 "Ædem Fortunæ hujusce diei." This reading, about which there has been some doubt, is supported by an ancient inscription in Orellius.
54 "Artem toreuticen." See Note at the end of B. xxxiii.
55 Pliny has here confounded two artists of the same name; the Polycletus who was the successor of Phidias, and was not much inferior to him in merit, and Polycletus of Argos, who lived 160 years later, and who also executed many capital works, some of which are here mentioned. It appears that Cicero, Vitruvius, Strabo, Quintilian, Plutarch, and Lucian have also confounded these two artists; but Pausanias, who is very correct in the account which he gives us of all subjects connected with works of art, was aware of the distinction; and it is from his observations that we have been enabled to correct the error into which so many eminent writers had fallen.—B.
56 Derived from the head-dress of the statue, which had the "head ornamented with a fillet" Lucian mentions it.
57 The "Spear-bearer."
58 "Canon." This no doubt was the same statue as the Doryphoros. See Cicero, Brut. 86, 296.
59 Or "strigil." Visconti says that this was a statue of Tydeus purifying himself from the murder of his brother. It is represented on gems still in existence.
60 "Talo incessentem." "Gesner (Chrestom. Plin.) has strangely explained these words as intimating a person in the act of kicking another. He seems to confound the words talus and calx."—Sillig, Dict. Ancient Artists.
61 "The players at dice." This is the subject of a painting found at Herculaneum.—B.
62 The "Leader." A name given also to Mercury, in Pausanias, B. viii. c. 31. See Sillig, Dict. Ancient Artists.
63 "Carried about." It has been supposed by some commentators, that Artemon acquired this surname from his being carried about in a litter, in consequence of his lameness; a very different derivation has been assigned by others to the word, on the authority of Anacreon, as quoted by Heraclides Ponticus, that it was applied to Artemon in consequence of his excessively luxurious and effeminate habits of life.—B. It was evidently a recumbent figure. Ajasson compares this voluptuous person to "le gentleman Anglais aux Indes"—"The English Gentleman in India!"
64 See Note 80 above.
65 "Quadrata." Brotero quotes a passage from Celsus, B. ii. c. 1, which serves to explain the use of this term as applied to the form of a statue; "Corpus autem habilissimum quadratum est, neque gracile, neque obesum."—B. "The body best adapted for activity is square-built, and neither slender nor obese."
66 "Ad unum exemplum." Having a sort of family likeness, similarly to our pictures by Francia the Goldsmith, and Angelica Kaufmann.
67 Myron was born at Eleutheræ, in Bœotia; but having been presented by the Athenians with the freedom of their city, he afterwards resided there, and was always designated an Athenian.—B.
68 This figure is referred to by Ovid, De Ponto, B. iv. Ep. 1, l. 34, as also by a host of Epigrammatic writers in the Greek Anthology.
69 See the Greek Anthology, B. vi. Ep. 2.
70 "Player with the Discus." It is mentioned by Quintilian and Lucian. There is a copy of it in marble in the British Museum, and one in the Palazzo Massimi at Rome. The Heifer of Myron is mentioned by Procopius, as being at Rome in the sixth century. No copy of it is known to exist.
71 Seen by Pausanias in the Acropolis at Athens.
72 Or "Sawyers."
73 In reference to the story of the Satyr Marsyas and Minerva; told by Ovid, Fasti, B. vi. l. 697, et seq.
74 Persons engaged in the five contests of quoiting, running, leaping, wrestling, and hurling the javelin.
75 Competitors in boxing and wrestling.
76 Mentioned by Cicero In Verrem, Or. 4. This Circus was in the Eleventh Region of the city.
77 See the Anthology, B. iii. Ep. 14, where an epigram on this subject is ascribed to Anytes or Leonides; but the Myro mentioned is a female. See Sillig, Dict. Ancient Artists.
78 She was a poetess of Teios or Lesbos, and a contemporary of Sappho.
79 "Multiplicasse veritatem." Sillig has commented at some length on this passage, Dict. Ancient Artists.
80 See Note 2 above.
81 There is a painter of this name mentioned in B. xxxv. c. 43. The reading is extremely doubtful.
82 Mentioned by Plato, De Legibus, B. viii. and by Pausanias, B. vi. c. 13. He was thrice victorious at the Olympic Games.
85 Diogenes Laertius mentions a Pythagoras, a statuary, in his life of his celebrated namesake, the founder of the great school of philosophy.—B. Pausanias, B. ix. c. 35, speaks of a Parian statuary of this name.
86 See Note 79 above.
87 See end of B. vii.
88 Cicero remarks, Brut. 86, 296, "that Lysippus used to say that the Doryphoros of Polycletus was his master," implying that he considered himself indebted for his skill to having studied the above-mentioned work of Polycletus.—B.
89 In Chapter 17 of this Book.—B.
90 The same subject, which, as mentioned above, had been treated by Polycletus.—B.
92 The head encircled with rays.
93 The lines of Horace are well known, in which he says, that Alexander would allow his portrait to be painted by no one except Apelles, nor his statue to be made by any one except Lysippus, Epist. B. ii. Ep. 1, l. 237.—B.
94 This story is adopted by Apuleius, in the "Florida," B. i., who says that Polycletus was the only artist who made a statue of Alexander.
95 This expression would seem to indicate that the gold was attached to the bronze by some mechanical process, and not that the statue was covered with thin leaves of the metal.—B.
96 In the Eighth Region of the City.
97 A large group of equestrian statues, representing those of Alexander's body-guard, who had fallen at the battle of the Granicus.
98 A.U.C. 606.
99 See the Greek Anthology, B. iv. Ep. 14, where this subject is treated of in the epigram upon his statue of Opportunity, represented with the forelock.
100 Which is a word of Greek origin, somewhat similar to our word "proportion."
101 At Lebadæa in Bœotia.
102 Hardouin seems to think that "fiscina" here means a "muzzle." The Epigram in the Greek Anthology, B. iv. c. 7, attributed to King Philip, is supposed by Hardouin to bear reference to this figure.
103 The circumstance here referred to is related by Q. Curtius, B. ix. c. 5, as having occurred at the siege of the city of the Oxydracæ; according to other historians, however, it is said to have taken place at a city of the Malli.—B.
104 See Note 1, above.
106 Or Bacchus.
107 See Pausanias, B. i. c. 20. Sillig says, "Pliny seems to have confounded two Satyrs made by Praxiteles, for that here named stood alone in the 'Via Tripodum' at Athens, and was quite different from the one which was associated with the figure of Intoxication, and that of Bacchus." —Dict. Ancient Artists.
108 "Much-famed." Visconti is of opinion that the Reposing Satyr, formerly in the Napoleon Museum at Paris, was a copy of this statue. Winckelmann is also of the same opinion.
109 In the Second Region of the city. According to Cicero, in Verrem. vi., they were brought from Achaia by L. Mummius, who took them from Thespiæ, A.U.C. 608.
110 See B. xxxvi. c. 4.
111 A woman plaiting garlands.
112 A soubriquet for an old hag, it is thought.
113 A female carrying wine.
114 According to Valerius Maximus, B. ii. s. 10, these statues were restored, not by Alexander, but by his successor Seleucus.—B. Sillig makes the following remark upon this passage—" Pliny here strangely confounds the statues of Harmodius and Aristogiton, made by Praxiteles, with other figures of those heroes of a much more ancient date, made by Antenor."
115 From σαυρὸς, a "lizard," and κτἐλνω, "to kill." This statue is described by Martial, B. xiv. Ep. 172, entitled "Sauroctonos Corinthius."—B. Many fine copies of it are still in existence, and Winckelmann is of opinion that the bronze at the Villa Albani is the original. There are others at the Villa Borghese and in the Vatican.
116 In her worthless favours, probably. Praxiteles was a great admirer of Phryne, and inscribed on the base of this statue an Epigram of Simonides, preserved in the Greek Anthology, B. iv. Ep. 12. She was also said to have been the model of his Cnidian Venus.
117 This artist is mentioned also by Cicero, Pausanias, Propertius, and Ovid, the two latter especially remarking the excellence of his horses.—B. See B. xxxiii. c. 55.
118 The mother of Hercules.—B.
119 See B. xxxvi. c. 4. Having now given an account of the artists most distinguished for their genius, Pliny proceeds to make some remarks upon those who were less famous, in alphabetical order.—B.
120 The "highly approved."
121 Or "Lioness." See B. vii. c. 23.
122 The reading is doubtful here. "Iphicrates" and "Tisicrates" are other readings.
123 The same story is related by Athenæus, B. xiii., and by Pausanias.—B.
124 Pisistratus and his sons, Hippias and Hipparchus.
125 A lioness.
126 She having bitten off her tongue, that she might not confess.
127 Hardouin has offered a plausible conjecture, that for the word "Seleucum," we should read "Salutem," as implying that the two statues executed by Bryaxis were those of Æsculapius and the Goddess of Health.—B.
128 Already mentioned as a son of Lysippus.
129 In the Eighth Region of the City.
130 This reading appears preferable to "Cresilas," though the latter is supported by the Bamberg MS.
131 Ajasson quotes here the beautiful words of Virgil—"Et dulces moriens reminiscitur Argos"—"Remembers his lov'd Argos, as he dies."
132 Dalechamps supposes that Pericles was here represented in the act of addressing the people; Hardouin conceives that this statue received its title from the thunder of his eloquence in debate, or else from the mighty power which he wielded both in peace and war, or some of the other reasons which Plutarch mentions in the Life of Pericles.—B.
133 It is doubtful to which of the artists of this name he alludes, the elder or the younger Cephisodotus, the son of Praxiteles. Sillig inclines to think the former—Dict. Ancient Artists.
134 The "Deliverer."
135 The elder Canachus, probably.
136 The "Lovely." Brotero says that this is believed to be the Florentine Apollo of the present day. It stood in the Temple at Didymi, near Miletus, until the return of Xerxes from his expedition against Greece, when it was removed to Ecbatana, but was afterwards restored by Seleucus Nicator.
137 See B. v. c. 31.
138 "Alterno morsu calce digitisque retinentibus solum, ita vertebrato dente utrisque in partibus ut a repulsu per vices resiliat." He seems to mean that the statue is so made as to be capable of standing either on the right fore foot and the left hind foot, or on the left fore foot and the right hind foot, the conformation of the under part of the foot being such as to fit into the base.
139 The following are the words of the original: "Ita vertebrato dente utrisque in partibus." I confess myself unable to comprehend them, nor do I think that they are satisfactorily explained by Hardouin's comment.—B.
140 The "Riders on horseback."
141 It is supposed by Sillig, Dict. Ancient Artists, that this is the same person as the Cresilas, Ctesilas, or Ctesilaüs, before mentioned in this Chapter, and that Pliny himself has committed a mistake in the name.
142 A figure of a man "brandishing a spear." See Note 83 above.
143 He is mentioned by Quintilian as being more attentive to exactness than to beauty; also by Diogenes Laertius, B. v. c. 85. Sillig supposes that he flourished in the time of Pericles. Pausanias, B. i., speaks of his Lysimache.
144 The Athenians in their flattery, as we learn from Seneca, expressed a wish to affiance their Minerva Musica to Marc Antony. His reply was, that he would be happy to take her, but with one thousand talents by way of portion.
145 He is mentioned by Xenophon, according to whom, he dedicated the brazen statue of a horse in the Eleusinium at Athens. He was probably an Athenian by birth.
146 Son of Patroclus, who is previously mentioned as having lived in the 95th Olympiad. He was a native of Sicyon, and flourished about B.C. 400. Several works of his are also mentioned by Pausanias.
147 Or "strigil." See Note 19 above.
148 The first Grecian slain at Troy.
149 Famous also as a painter. See B. xxxv. c. 40.—B. Paris, the son of Priam, was known by both of these names.
150 Q. Lutatius Catulus.
151 "Bonus Eventus;" Varro, de Re Rustica, B. i. c. 1, applies this term to one of the deities that preside over the labours of the agriculturist. His temple was situate near the Baths of Agrippa.—B.
152 In the Eighth Region of the City.
153 See Note 78, page 171.
154 Pausanias, B. vi., speaks of a statue of Ancient Greece, but the name of the artist is not mentioned.—B.
155 See B. iv. c. 8.
156 Brotero informs us, from Ficoroni, that there is a gem still in existence on which this design of Eutychides is engraved.—B.
157 Thiersch considers him to be identical with the elder Hegesias. He is mentioned also by Pausanias, B. viii. c. 42.
158 See Note 68, above.
159 Dedicated by Augustus on the Capitoline Hill, in the Eighth Region of the City.
160 Sillig distinguishes three artists of this name.
161 See B. v. c. 40, and B. vii. c. 2.
162 The "Sacrificers of the ox."
163 The son also.
164 Martial expresses the same idea in his Epigram, B. i. Ep. 7; but he does not refer to this statue.—B. Two copies of this Ganymede are still in existence at Rome.
165 Pausanias informs us, B. i. and B. ix., that he saw this statue in the Prytanæum of Athens.—B. Autolycus obtained this victory about the 89th or 90th Olympiad.
166 It was in honour of a victory gained by him in the pentathlon at the Great Panathenæa, that Callias gave the Symposium described by Xenophon.
167 Martial, B. ix. Ep. 51, where he is pointing at the analogy between
his poems and the works of the most eminent sculptors, probably refers to
"Nos facimus Bruti puerum, nos Lagona vivum."—B.
The reading "Lagonem," or "Langonem," certainly seems superior to that of the Bamberg MS.—"Mangonem," a "huckster."
168 For some further mention of him, see end of B. iv.
169 Delafosse has pointed out the resemblance between this statue and one of the works of Michael Angelo, representing David kneeling on Goliath, and pressing back the giant's neck.—B.
170 A native of Argos, who flourished in the 95th Olympiad. He was the son of Motho, and brother and instructor of the younger Polycletus of Argos. Several of his statues are mentioned by Pausanias and Tatian.
171 Ajasson thinks that three statues in the Royal Museum at Paris may possibly be copies of this Discobolus of Naucydes.
172 The Goddess of Health, and daughter of Æsculapius. Niceratus was a native of Athens, and is also mentioned by Tatian.
173 A "Female sacrificing." The reading is very doubtful.
174 The "Man cooking entrails." For some further account of this statue, see B. xxii. c. 20. This artist is unknown, but Thiersch suggests that he may have been the father of Cleomenes, whose name appears on the base of the Venus de Medicis.
175 The master of the Gymnasium.
176 He is twice mentioned by Pausanias: more particularly for the excellence of his horses and oxen. His country is unknown.
177 "The beautiful-legged." This statue has been mentioned at the end of Chapter 18, as having been greatly admired by Nero.
178 This, it is supposed, is the statue to which Martial alludes in his Epigram, mentioned in Note 95 above.—B.
179 There were two artists of this name, both natives of Samos. The present is the elder Theodorus, and is mentioned by Pausanias as having been the first to fuse iron for statues. He is spoken of by numerous ancient authors, and by Pliny in B. vii. c. 57, B. xxxv. c. 45, and B. xxxvi. c. 19, where he is erroneously mentioned as a Lemnian.
180 At Crete: Athenagoras mentions him in conjunction with Dædalus.
181 See B. vii. c. 21. Hardouin thinks that this bears reference to the conquest of the younger Marius by Sylla, mentioned in B. xxxiii. c. 5. Müller and Meyer treat this story of the brazen statue as a fiction.
182 Probably the same author that is mentioned at the end of B. xxxiii. See also B. xxxv. c. 36.
183 The Galli here spoken of were a tribe of the Celts, who invaded Asia Minor, and afterwards uniting with the Greeks, settled in a portion of Bithynia, which hence acquired the name of Gallo-Græcia or Galatia.—B.
184 See end of B. xxxiii. Attalus I., king of Pergamus, conquered the Galli, B.C. 239. Pyromachus has been mentioned a few lines before, and Stratonicus, in B. xxxiii. c. 55, also by Athenæus.
185 A native of Carthage. A work of his is mentioned by Cicero, In Verrem 4, 14, and in the Culex, 1. 66, attributed to Virgil. See also B. xxxiii. c. 55.
186 In the Eighth Region of the City.
187 We are informed by Pausanias, B. x., that Nero carried off from Greece 500 bronze statues of gods and men.—B.
188 See B. xxxvi. c. 24.
189 See B. xxxv. c. 55.
190 Mentioned by Pausanias, B. vi. Many of these artists are altogether unknown.
191 See B. xxxiii. c. 55.
192 See B. xxxiii. c. 55.
193 See B. xxxiii. c. 56, and B. xxxv. c. 35.
194 Probably the same artist that has been mentioned in the preceding page.
195 The artist already mentioned as having been represented by Silanion.
196 Pausanias, B. iii., speaks of his statue of Cynisca, a female who was victor at the Olympic games. Indeed, the victors at these games were frequently represented in a posture resembling that of adoration.
197 A man "scraping himself," probably. See Note 19, page 175. The "Tyrannicides" were Harmodius and Aristogiton.
198 Tatian mentions an artist of this name.
199 Sillig thinks that this was Seleucus, king of Babylon, B.C. 312.
200 See Note 70 above
201 Pausanias, B. viii., gives an account of a statue of Diana, made of Pentelican marble, by this Cephisodotus, a native of Athens; he is supposed to have flourished in the 102nd Olympiad. In the commencement of this Chapter, Pliny has enumerated a Cephisodotus among the artists of the 120th Olympiad.—B.
203 The elder artist of this name. See B. xxxv. c. 34.
204 A native of Sicyon; Pausanias, B. v. cc. 17, 21, informs us that Cleon made a statue of Venus and two statues of Jupiter; he also mentions others of his works in B. vi.—B.
205 A native of Megara. He made a 'statue of Diagoras the pugilist, who was victor at the Olympic games, B.C. 464. He is mentioned also by Pausanias.
206 Probably the same with the "Laïppus" mentioned in the early part of this Chapter. Silling, Diet. Ancient Artists, considers "Daïppus" to be the right name.
207 See Note 26 above.
208 A native of Sicyon, and pupil of Pison, according to Pausanias, B. vi. c. 3. He flourished about the 100th Olympiad.
209 Works of his at Athens are mentioned by Pausanias, B. i. c. 2, who also states that he was father of Euohir, the Athenian.
210 A statuary of Syracuse, son of Niceratus. He made two statues of Hiero Il., king of Syracuse, who died B.C. 215. He must not be confounded with the painter and statuary of the same name, mentioned in B. xxxiii. c. 56, and B. xxxv. c. 35. He is mentioned also by Pausanias.
211 An Athenian, son of Euctemon. He is mentioned also by Tatian, and is supposed by Sillig to have flourished about B.C. 420.
212 Called Dinomache by Plutarch.
213 Already mentioned as a successful pupil of Lysippus.
214 He was probably a native of Agrigentum, and flourished about B.C. 560. The brazen bull of Perillus, and his unhappy fate, are recorded by many of the classical writers, among others by Valerius Maximus, B. ix. cc. 2, 9, and by Ovid, Art. Am. B. i. ll. 653-4.—B.
215 See B. vii. c. 57.
216 Mentioned at the commencement of this Chapter.
217 A statuary of Ægina, mentioned also by Pausanias, B. v. c. 27, in connexion with Dionysius of Argos. He flourished about Olymp. 76.
218 Already mentioned in B. xxxiii. c. 55, and previously in this Chapter.
219 "Scopas uterque." Sillig, Diet. Ancient Artists, expresses an opinion that these words are an interpolation; but in his last edition of Pliny, he thinks with M. Ian, that some words are wanting, expressive of the branch in which these artists excelled. See also B. xxxvi. cc. 5, 14.
220 He is previously mentioned in this Chapter. See p. 179.
221 An Athenian artist, son of Eubulides. He is also mentioned by Pausanias.
222 A Lacedæmonian artist, also mentioned by Pausanias.
223 See B. xxxvi. c. 4.
224 Mentioned also by Pausanias, B. i. c. 3.
225 Probably not the Athenian statuary mentioned by Pausanias, B. ix. c. 7. See Sillig, Dict. Ancient Artists.
226 A native of Phocis, mentioned also by Vitruvius.
227 Also a Dithyrambic poet; mentioned by Diodorus Siculus.
228 In B. xxxv. c. 36.
229 See B. xxxiii. c. 55.
230 Mentioned by Tatian as having made the statue of Eutychis. See Pliny, B. vii. c. 3.
231 He executed a statue of Hephæstion; and an inscription relative to him is preserved by Wheler, Spon, and Chishull.
232 See B. xxxvi. c. 4.
233 A native of Sardis; mentioned by Pausanias.
234 An Athenian, mentioned also by Pausanias.
235 Strabo mentions some of his productions in the Temple at Ephesus.
236 "Fritterer away of his works." He was also an engraver on gold, and a painter. He is spoken of in high terms by Vitruvius, Pausauias, and Dionysius of Halicarnassus.
237 We have an account of Cato's honourable conduct on this occasion in Plutarch.—B. See also B. xxix. c. 30.
238 "Inane exemplum." Hardouin thinks that this is said in reference to his neglect of the example set by his grandfather, Cato the Censor, who hated the Greeks. See B. vii. c. 31.
239 In the poisoned garment, which was the eventual cause of his death.—B.
240 The general who conducted the war against Mithridates.—B.
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