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CHAP. 1. (1.)—EPIRUS.

The third great Gulf of Europe begins at the mountains of Acroceraunia1, and ends at the Hellespont, embracing an extent of 2500 miles, exclusive of the sea-line of nineteen smaller gulfs. Upon it are Epirus, Acarnania, Ætolia, Phocis, Locris, Achaia, Messenia, Laconia, Argolis, Megaris, Attica, Bœotia; and again, upon the other sea2, the same Phocis and Locris, Doris, Phthiotis, Thessalia, Magnesia, Macedonia and Thracia. All the fabulous lore of Greece, as well as the effulgence of her literature, first shone forth upon the banks of this Gulf. We shall therefore dwell a little the longer upon it.

Epirus3, generally so called, begins at the mountains of Acroceraunia. The first people that we meet are the Chaones, from whom Chaonia4 receives its name, then the Thesproti5, and then the Antigonenses6. We then come to the place where Aornos7 stood, with its exhalations so deadly to the feathered race, the Cestrinis8, the Perrhæbi9, in whose coun- try Mount Pindus is situate, the Cassiopæi10, the Dryopes11, the Sellæ12, the Hellopes13, the Molossi, in whose territory is the temple of the Dodonæan Jupiter, so famous for its oracle; and Mount Tomarus14, so highly praised by Theopompus, with its hundred springs gushing from its foot.

(2.) Epirus, properly so called, advances towards Magnesia and Macedonia, having at its back the Dassaretæ, previously15 mentioned, a free nation, and after them the Dardani, a savage race. On the left hand, before the Dardani are extended the Triballi and the nations of Mœsia, while in front of them the Medi and the Denselatæ join, and next to them the Thracians, who stretch away as far as the Euxine: in such a manner is a rampart raised around the lofty heights of Rhodope, and then of Hæmus.

On the coast of Epirus is the fortress of Chimær16, situate upon the Acroceraunian range, and below it the spring known as the Royal Waters17; then the towns of Mæandria, and Cestria18, the Thyamis19, a river of Thesprotia, the colony of Buthrotum20, and the Ambracian Gulf21, so famed in history; which, with an inlet only half a mile in width, receives a vast body of water from the sea, being thirty-seven miles in length, and fifteen in width. The river Acheron, which runs through Acherusia, a lake of Thesprotia, flows into it22 after a course of thirty-six miles; it is considered wonderful for its bridge, 1000 feet in length, by a people who look upon everything as wonderful that belongs to themselves. Upon this Gulf is also situate the town of Ambracia. There are also the Aphas and the Arachthus23, rivers of the Molossi; the city of Anactoria24, and the place where Pandosia25 stood.


The towns of Acarnania26, the ancient name of which was Curetis, are Heraclia27, Echinus28, and, on the coast, Actium, a colony founded by Augustus, with its famous temple of Apollo and the free city of Nicopolis29. Passing out of the Ambracian Gulf into the Ionian Sea, we come to the coast of Leucadia, with the Promontory of Leucate30, and then the Gulf and the peninsula of Leucadia31, which last was formerly called Neritis32. By the exertions of the inhabitants it was once cut off from the mainland, but was again joined to it by the vast bodies of sand accumulated through the action of the winds. This spot is called Dioryctos33, and is three stadia in length: on the peninsula is the town of Leucas, formerly called Neritus34. We next come to Alyzia35, Stratos36, and Argos37, surnamed Amphilochian, cities of the Acarnanians: the river Acheloüs38 flows from the heights of Pindus, and, after separating Acarnania from Ætolia, is fast adding the island of Artemita39 to the mainland by the continual deposits of earth which it brings down its stream.

CHAP. 3. (2.)—ÆTOLIA.

The peoples of Ætolia are the Athamanes40, the Tymphæi41, the Ephyri42, the Ænienses, the Perrhæbi43, the Dolopes44, the Maraces, and the Atraces45, in whose territory rises the river Atrax, which flows into the Ionian Sea. Calydon46 is a city of Ætolia, situate at a distance of seven miles from the sea, and near the banks of the river Evenus47. We then come to Macynia48, and Molycria, behind which lie Mounts Chalcis49 and Taphiassus. On the coast again, there is the promontory of Antirrhium50, off which is the mouth of the Corinthian Gulf, which flows in and separates Ætolia from the Peloponnesus, being less51 than one mile in width. The promontory which faces it on the opposite side is called Rhion52. The towns of Ætolia, however, on the Corinthian Gulf are Naupactus53 and Pylene54; and, more inland, Pleuron and Hali- cyrna55. The most famous mountains are Tomarus, in the district of Dodona, Crania56 in Ambracia, Aracynthus57 in Acarnania, and Acanthon58, Panætolium59, and Macynium60, in Ætolia.


Next to Ætolia are the Locri61, surnamed Ozolæ; a people exempt from tribute. Here is the town of Œanthe62, the port63 of Apollo Phæstius, and the Gulf of Crissa64. In the interior are the towns of Argyna, Eupalia65, Phæstum, and Calamisus. Beyond are the Cirrhaean plains of Phocis, the town of Cirrha66, and the port of Chalæon67, seven miles from which, in the interior, is situate the free town of Delphi68, at the foot of Mount Parnassus69, and having the most celebrated oracle of Apollo throughout the whole world. There is the Fountain too of Castalia70, and the river Cephisus71 which flows past Delphi, rising in the former city of Lilæa72. Besides these, there is the town of Crissa73 and that of Anticyra74, with the Bulenses75; as also Naulochum76, Pyrrha, Amphissa77, exempt from all tribute, Tithrone, Tritea78, Ambrysus79, and Drymæa80, which district has also the name of Daulis. The extremity of the gulf washes one corner of Bœotia, with its towns of Siphæ81 and Thebes82, surnamed the Corsian, in the vicinity of Helicon83. The third town of Bœotia on this sea is that of Pagæ84, from which point the Isthmus of the Peloponnesus projects in the form of a neck.


The Peloponnesus, which was formerly called Apia85 and Pelasgia, is a peninsula, inferior in fame to no land upon the face of the earth. Situate between the two seas, the Ægæan and the Ionian, it is in shape like the leaf of a plane-tree, in consequence of the angular indentations made in its shores. According to Isidorus, it is 563 miles in circumference; and nearly as much again, allowing for the sea-line on the margin of its gulfs. The narrow pass at which it commences is know by the name of the Isthmus. At this spot the two seas, which we have previously mentioned, running from the north and the east, invade the land from opposite sides86, and swallow up its entire breadth, the result being that through these inroads in opposite directions of such vast bodies of water, the sides of the land are eaten away to such an extent, that Hellas87 only holds on to the Peloponnesus by the narrow neck, five miles in width, which intervenes. The Gulfs thus formed, the one on this side, the other on that, are known as the Corinthian88 and the Saronic Gulfs. The ports of Lecheæ89, on the one side, and of Cenchreæ on the other, form the frontiers of this narrow passage, which thus compels to a tedious and perilous circumnavigation such vessels as from their magnitude cannot be carried across by land on vehicles. For this reason it is that both King Demetrius90, Cæsar the Dictator, the prince Caius91, and Domitius Nero92, have at different times made the attempt to cut through this neck by forming a navigable canal; a profane design, as may be clearly seen by the result93 in every one of these instances.

Upon the middle of this intervening neck which we have called the Isthmus, stands the colony of Corinth, formerly known by the name of Ephyre94, situate upon the brow of a hill, at a distance of sixty stadia from the shore of either sea. From the heights of its citadel, which is called Acrocorinthos, or the "Heights of Corinth," and in which is the Fountain of Pirene, it looks down upon the two seas which lie in the opposite directions. From Leucas to Patræ upon the Corinthian gulf is a distance of eighty-eight miles. The colony of Patræ95 is founded upon the most extensive promontory of the Peloponnesus, facing Ætolia and the river Evenus, the Corinthian Gulf being, as we have previously96 stated, less than a mile in width at the entrance there, though extending in length as far as the isthmus, a distance of eighty-five miles.

CHAP. 6. (5.)—ACHAIA.

The province called Achaia97 begins at the Isthmus; from the circumstance of its cities being ranged in regular succession on its coast, it formerly had the name of Ægialos98. The first place there is Lecheæ, already mentioned, a port of the Corinthians; next to which is Olyros99, a fortress of the people of Pellene100; then the former towns of Helice and Bura101, and the places in which their inhabitants took refuge after their towns had been swallowed up by the sea, Sicyon102 namely, Ægira103, Ægium, and Erineos104. In the interior are Cleonæ and Hysiæ105; then come the port of Panormus106, and Rhium already mentioned; from which promontory, Patræ, of which we have previously spoken, is distant five miles; and then the place where Pheræ107 stood. Of the nine mountains of Achaia, Scioessa is the most famous; there is also the Fountain of Cymothoë. Beyond Patræ we find the town of Olenum108, the colony of Dyme109, the places where Bupra- sium110 and Hyrmine once stood, the Promontory of Araxus111, the Bay of Cyllene, and the Promontory of Chelonates, at five miles' distance from Cyllene112. There is also the fortress of Phlius113; the district around which was called by Homer Aræthyrea114, and, after his time, Asopis.

The territory of the Eleans then begins, who were formerly called Epei, with the city of Elis115 in the interior, and, at a distance of twelve miles from Phlius, being also in the interior, the temple of Olympian Jupiter, which by the universal celebrity of its games, gives to Greece its mode of reckoning116. Here too once stood the town of Pisa117, the river Alpheus flowing past it. On the coast there is the Promontory of Ichthys118. The river Alpheus is navigable six miles, nearly as far as the towns of Aulon119 and Leprion. We next come to the Promontory of Platanodes120. All these localities lie to the west.


Further south is the Gulf of Cyparissus, with the city of Cyparissa121 on its shores, the line of which is seventy-two miles in length. Then, the towns of Pylos122 and Methone123, the place where Helos stood, the Promontory of Acritas124, the Asinæan Gulf, which takes its name from the town of Asine125, and the Coronean, so called from Corone; which gulfs terminate at the Promontory of Tanarum126. These are all in the country of Messenia, which has eighteen mountains, and the river Pamisus127 also. In the interior are Messene128, Ithome, Œchalia, Arene129, Pteleon, Thryon, Dorion130, and Zancle131, all of them known to fame at different periods. The margin of this gulf measures eighty miles, the distance across being thirty.


At Tænarum begins the territory of Laconia, inhabited by a free nation, and situate on a gulf 106 miles in circuit, and 38 across. The towns are, Tænarum132, Amyclæ133, Pheræ134, and Leuctra135; and, in the interior, Sparta136, Theramne137, and the spots where Cardamyle138, Pitane139, and Anthea formerly stood; the former site of Thyrea140, and Gerania141. Here is also Mount Taygetus142, the river Eurotas, the Gulf of Egilodes143, the town of Psamathus, the Gulf of Gytheum144, so called from the town of that name, from which place the passage is the safest across to the island of Crete. All these places are bounded by the Promontory of Malea145.


The next gulf, which extends as far as Scyllæum146, is called the Argolic Gulf, being fifty miles across, and 162 in circuit. The towns upon it are, Bœa147, Epidaurus148, surnamed Limera, Zarax149, and the port of Cyphanta150. The rivers are the Inachus151 and the Erasinus, between which lies Argos, surnamed Hippium152, situate beyond the place called Lerna153, and at a distance of two miles from the sea. Nine miles farther is Mycenæ154, and the place where, it is said, Tiryns155 stood; the site, too, of Mantinea156. The mountains are, Artemius, Apesantus157, Asterion158, Parparus, and some others, eleven in number. The fountains are those of Niobe159, Amymone, and Psamathe.

From Scyllæum to the Isthmus of Corinth is a distance of 177 miles. We find here the towns of Hermione160, Trœzen161, Coryphasium162, and Argos, sometimes called "Ina- chian," sometimes "Dipsian"163 Argos. Then comes the port of Schœnites164, and the Saronic Gulf, which was formerly encircled with a grove of oaks165, from which it derives its present name, oaks in ancient Greece having been so called. Upon this gulf is the town of Epidaurus, famous for its temple of Æsculapius166, the Promontory of Spiræum167, the port of Anthedus168, Bucephalus169, and then Cenchreæ, previously mentioned, on this side of the Isthmus, with its temple of Neptune170, famous for the games celebrated there every five years. So many are the gulfs which penetrate the shores of the Peloponnesus, so many the seas which howl around it. Invaded by the Ionian on the north, it is beaten by the Sicilian on the west, buffeted by the Cretan on the south, by the Ægean on the S.E., and by the Myrtoan on the N.E.; which last sea begins at the Gulf of Megara, and washes all the coast of Attica.

CHAP. 10. (6.)—ARCADIA.

Its interior is occupied for the greater part by Arcadia, which, remote from the sea on every side, was ori- ginally called Drymodes171, and at a later period Pelasgis. The cities of Arcadia are, Psophis172, Mantinea173, Stymphalus174, Tegea175, Antigonea176, Orchomenus177, Pheneum178, Palantium179 (from which the Palatium180 at Rome derives its name), Megalopolis181, Gortyna182, Bucolium, Carnion, Parrhasia183, Thelpusa184, Melænæ185, Heræa186, Pylæ187, Pallene, Agræ, Epium, Cynæthæ188, Lepreon of Arcadia189, Parthe- nium190, Alea, Methydrium191, Enispe, Macistum, Lampia, Clitorium192, and Cleonæ193; between which two last towns is the district of Nemea, commonly known as Bembinadia194.

The mountains of Arcadia are, Pholöe195, with a town of the same name, Cyllene

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