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1 In the south-west corner of Asia Minor, bounded on the north and north-east by the mountains Messagis and Cadmus, dividing it from Lydia and Phrygia, and adjoining to Phrygia and Lycia on the south-east.
3 Now Cape Ghinazi. It was also called Artemisium, from the temple of Artemis or Diana situate upon it.
4 Discharging itself into the bay of Telmissus, now Makri.
5 "Telmissus" is the reading here in some editions.
6 Situate in the district of Caria called Peræa. It was also the name given to a mountainous district. In Hoskyn's map the ruins of Dædala are placed near the head of the Gulf of Glaucus, on the west of a small river called Inegi Chai, probably the ancient Ninus, where Dædalus was bitten by a water-snake, in consequence of which he died.
7 On the Gulf of Glaucus: Stephanus however places it in Lycia. Mela speaks only of a promontory of this name.
8 Leake places this river immediately west of the Gulf of Glaucus.
9 Placed by Strabo sixty stadia from the sea, west of the Gulf of Glaucus, and east of Carinus. Its site is uncertain, but it may possibly be the place discovered by Fellows, which is proved by inscriptions to have been called Cadyanda, a name otherwise unknown to us. This lies N.N.E. of Makri, on the Gulf of Glaucus or Makri, at a place called Hoozoomlee, situate on an elevated plain.
10 The same as the river Calbis of Strabo and Mela, at present the Dalamon Tchy, Quingi or Taas, having its sources in Mount Cadmus above Cibyra. It was said to have derived its name from an Indian, who had been thrown into it from an elephant.
11 Their district was Cibyratis, of which the chief city was Cibyra. This place, uniting with the towns of Balbura, Bubon, and Œnianda, had the name of Tetrapolis; of which league Cibyra was the head, mustering 30,000 infantry and 2000 cavalry. The iron found in this district was easily cut with a chisel or other sharp tool. The site of this powerful city has been ascertained to be at Horzoom, on the Horzoom Tchy, a branch of the Dalamon Tchy or Indus. The ruins are very extensive, and the theatre in fine preservation.
12 Placed by Strabo west of Calynda. The ancient descriptions of its locality vary, but the place now known as Kaiguez is said to denote its site. The Caunii are frequently mentioned in the Persian, Grecian, and Roman histories. It was noted for its dried figs, mentioned by Pliny in B. xv. c. 19.
13 Supposed by Mannert to be the Physcus of Strabo and the Phuscæ of Ptolemy.
14 Leake says that this harbour is now called Aplothíka by the Greeks, and Porto Cavaliere by the Italians. He also says that on its western shore are the ruins of an Hellenic fortress and town, which are undoubtedly those of Loryma.
15 It had a port of the same name.
16 Called Pandion by Mela, according to Parisot.
17 Parisot suggests that it is the same as Loryma previously mentioned.
18 Like the Gulf of Schœnus, a portion probably of the Dorian Gulf, now the Gulf of Syme.
19 The modern name of this promontory is not given by Hamilton, who sailed round it. It has been confounded with the Cynos Sema of Strabo, now Cape Velo. The site of Hyda or Hyde is unknown.
20 There was a town of this name as well. Stephen of Byzantium tells us that it received its name from a shepherd who saved the life of Podalirius, when shipwrecked on the coast of Caria.
21 Part of it was situate on an island now called Cape Krio, connected by a causeway with the mainland. Its site is covered with ruins of a most interesting character in every direction. The Triopian promontory, evidently alluded to by Pliny, is the modern Cape Krio.
22 It has been remarked that in his description here Pliny is very brief and confused, and that he may intend to give the name of Triopia either to the small peninsula or island, or may include in this term the western part of the whole of the larger peninsula.
23 Of these conventus. For an account of Cibyra see last page.
24 On the Lycus, now known as the Choruk-Su. By different writers it has been assigned to Lydia, Caria, and Phrygia, but in the ultimate division of the Roman provinces it was assigned to the Greater Phrygia. It was founded by Antiochus II. on the site of a previous town, and named in honour of his wife Laodice. Its site is occupied by ruins of great magnificence. In the Apostolic age it was the seat of a flourishing Christian Church, which however very soon gave signs of degeneracy, as we learn from St. John's Epistle to it, Revel. ii. 14–22. St. Paul also addresses it in common with the neighbouring church of Colossæ. Its site is now called Eski-Hissar, or the Old Castle.
25 A tributary of the Phrygian Mæander.
26 The people of Hydrela, a town of Caria, said to have been founded by one of three brothers who emigrated from Sparta.
27 The people of Themisonium, now called Tseni.
28 The people of Hierapolis, a town of Phrygia, situate on a height between the rivers Lycus and Mæander, about five miles north of Laodicea, on the road from Apamea to Sardis. It was celebrated for its warm springs, and its Plutonium, or cave of Pluto, from which issued a mephitic vapour of a poisonous nature; see B. ii. c. 95. The Christian Church here is alluded to by St. Paul in his Epistle to the Colossians, iv. 13. Its ruins are situate at an uninhabited place called Pambuk-Kalessi.
29 Situate in the north of Phrygia Salutaris; its ruins being probably those to be seen at Afiour-Kara-Hisar. From the time of Constantine this place became the capital of Phrygia Salutaris. It stood in a fiuitful plain, near a mountain quarry of the celebrated Synnadic marble, which was white with red veins and spots. This marble was also called "Docimiticus," from Docimia, a nearer place.
30 As already mentioned in C. 25 of the present Book.
31 The site of Appia does not appear to be known. Cicero speaks of an application made to him by the Appiani, when he was governor of Cilicia, respecting the taxes with which they were burdened, and the buildings of their town.
32 Eucarpia was a town of Phrygia, not far from the sources of the Mæander, on the road from Dorylæum to Apamea Cibotus. The vine grew there in great luxuriance, and to its fruitfulness the town probably owed its name. Kiepert places it in the vicinity of Segielar, but its exact site is unknown.
33 The site of Dorylæum is now called Eski-Shehr. The hot-baths here are mentioned by Athenæus, and its waters were pleasant to the taste. Sheep-feeding appears to have been carried on here to a great extent, and under the Greek empire it was a flourishing place. The site of Midæum does not seem to be known.
34 The people of Julia, Juliopolis, or Julianopolis, a town of Lydia, probably to the south of Mount Tmolus.
35 This place was built near Celænæ by Antiochus Soter, and named after his mother Apama. Strabo says that it lay at the mouth of the river Marsyas. Its site has been fixed at the modern Denair. Some ancient ruins are to be seen.
36 Pliny commits an error here; Celænæ was a different place from Apamea, though close to it.
37 Meaning the "Fountains of the Pipe," and probably deriving its name from the legend here mentioned by Pliny, and in B. xvi. c. 44. Strabo describes the Marsyas and Mæander as rising, according to report, in one lake above Celænæ, which produced reeds adapted for making the mouth-pieces of musical instruments, but he gives no name to the lake. Hamilton found near Denair or Apamea, a lake nearly two miles in circumference, full of reeds and rushes, which he looks upon as the lake on the mountain Aulocrene, described by Pliny in the 31st Chapter of the present Book. His account however is very confused, as he mentions on different occasions a region of Aulocrene, a valley of Aulocrene, and a mountain of Aulocrene.
38 People of "the Mother City," said by Stephen of Byzantium to have received that name from Cybele, the Mother of the Gods.
39 Nothing is known of the site of Dionysopolis. It is mentioned in a letter of Cicero's to his brother Quintus, in which he speaks of the people of this place as being very hostile to the latter.
40 The site of Euphorbium is denoted, according to Leake, by the modern Sandukli. It lay between Synnas and Apamea, and not improbably, like Eucarpia, received its name from the fertility of its territory.
41 The site of Acmona has been fixed at Ahatkoi, but it seems doubtful.
42 The site of Pelta is by D'Anville called Ris-Chak or Hou-Chak.
43 The people of Silbium or Silbia, near Metropolis.
44 The Dorian settlements on the coast of Caria were so called. The Dorian Gulf was probably the Sinus Ceramicus mentioned below.
45 Of these places nothing whatever seems to be known.
46 Pitaium and Eutane seem to be unknown.
47 A member of the Dorian Hexapolis, or League of the Six Cities. The site of this famous city is occupied by the modern Boodroum, and its ruins are very extensive. It was famous as being the birth-place of the two historians Herodotus and Dionysius. It was the largest and best fortified city of Caria.
48 According to Parisot the site of this place is now called Angeli and Karabaglas.
49 This place must not be confounded with Tehnessus or Telmissus in Lycia, which has been previously mentioned. It was situate six miles from Halicarnassus. Of the other places here mentioned nothing seems to be known.
50 Now the Gulf of Staneo, Kos, or Boodroum. It took its name from the port of Ceramus, now Keramo, according to D'Anville.
51 Now the Gulf of Mandeliyeh. It took its name from the city of lasus, the site of which is now called Askem or Asyn-Kalessi.
52 Its ruins are to be seen at the port called Gumshlu. This was a Dorian colony on the coast of Caria, founded probably on the site of the old town of the Leleges.
53 It has been suggested that this was only another name for the new town of Myndos, in contradistinction to Palæomyndos, or "old Myndos."
54 Scylax the geographer is supposed to have been a native of this place. The town is supposed to have been built partly on the mainland and partly on an island. Pastra Linani is supposed to have been the harbour of Caryanda.
55 A Dorian city on the Promontory of Termerium.
56 Situate near lasus and Myndos. Leake conjectures that it may have been on the bay between Pastra Limâne and Asyn Kalesi. There was a statue here of Artemis Cindyas, under the bare sky, of which the incredible story was told that neither rain nor snow ever fell on it.
57 See note14 on the last page.
58 Its ruins are to be seen at the spot still called Melasso. It was a very flourishing city, eight miles from the coast of the Gulf of Iasus, and situate at the foot of a rock of fine white marble. It was partly destroyed in the Roman civil wars by Labienus. Its ruins are very extensive.
59 Hamilton has fixed the site of this place between four and five miles south-east of Kuyuja, near the mouth of the valley of the Kara-Su. The surrounding district was famous for the excellence of its figs. The city was built by Antiochus, the son of Seleucus.
60 Now called the Mendereh or Meinder.
61 Pococke thinks that the present Jenjer is the Orsinus, while Mannert takes it to be the Hadchizik, a little winding river that falls into the Mæander.
62 Now called Guzel-Hissar, according to Ansart.
63 On the road from Dorylæum to Apamea. It is said to have received its name from Attalus II., who named the town after his brother and predecessor EumenesII. Its site is known as Ishekle, and it is still marked by numerous ruins and sculptures.
64 A tributary of the Mæander. Its modern name is not mentioned.
65 Mannert takes the ruins to be seen at Jegni-Chehr to be those of ancient Orthosia. The town of Lysias does not appear to have been identified.
66 The situation of this district is not known. See B. xvi. c. 16, where it appears that this region was famous for its boxwood.
67 One of the numerous places of that name devoted to the worship of Bacchus. It was built on both sides of the ravine of the brook Eudon, which fell into the Meæander. Its ruins are to be seen at Sultan-Hissar, a little to the west of Hazeli.
68 Its ruins are to be seen at Ghiuzel-Hissar, near Aidin. This was a flourishing commercial city, included sometimes in Ionia, sometimes in Caria. It stood on the banks of the Eudon, a tributary of the river Mæander. Under the Seleucidæ it was called Antiochia and Seleucia.
69 From the beauty and fertility of the surrounding country.
70 An Ionic town of Caria, on the north side of the Sinus Latmicus, fifty stadia from the mouth of the Mæander.
71 Or Euromus, a town of Caria, at the foot of Mount Grion, which runs parallel with Latmos. Ruins of a temple to the north-west of Alabanda are considered to belong to Euromus.
72 A town of uncertain site. It must not be confounded with the place of the same name, mentioned in c. 31 of the present Book.
73 The ruins of its citadel and walls still exist on the east side of Mount Latmos, on the road from Bafi to Tchisme.
74 Situate about twenty miles south of Tralles. The modern site is doubtful, but Arab Hissa, on a branch of the Mæander, now called the Tchina, is supposed to represent Alabanda. It was notorious for the luxuriousness of its inhabitants. A stone found in the vicinity was used for making glass and glazing vessels. See B. xxxvi. c. 13.
75 Built by Antiochus I. Soter, and named, in honour of his wife, Stratonice. It stood south of Alabanda, near the river Marsyas. It is supposed that it stood on the site of a former city called Idrias, and still earlier, Chrysaoris.
76 D'Anville identifies it with a place called Keramo, but no such place appears to be known. Strabo places it near the sea between Cnidus and Halicarnassus, and Ceramus comes next after Cnidus. Ptolemy seems to place it on the south side of the bay. Of Hynidos nothing appears to be known.
77 Its situation is unknown; but there can be little doubt that it was founded by the Dorians who emigrated to the coast of Asia Minor from Argolis and Trœzene in the Peloponnesus. Phorontis appears to be unknown.
78 Parisot observes that many of the towns here mentioned belonged to the northern part of Phrygia.
79 The people of Alinda in Caria, which was surrendered to Alexander the Great by Alinda, queen of Caria. It was one of the strongest places in Caria. Its position has been fixed by Fellowes at Demmeergee-derasy, between Arab-Hissa and Karpuslee, on a steep rock.
80 Of Xystis, as also of Hydissa, nothing appears to be known.
81 Inhabitants of Apollonia in Caria, of which place nothing appears to be known.
82 Pococke says that the modern site of Trapezopolis is called Karadche.
83 The people of Aphrodisias, an ancient city of Caria, situate at the modern Ghera or Geyra, south of Antiochia on the Mæander. Aphrodite or Venus seems to have been principally worshipped at this place. Strabo places it in Phrygia.
84 Or Coscinia, a place in Caria, which, as we may gather from Strabo, ranked below a town. Leake thinks that Tshina, where Pococke found considerable remains, is the site of this place.
85 On the eastern bank of the Harpasus, a tributary of the Mæander. Its ruins are supposed to be those seen at a place called Harpas Kalessi. In B. ii. c. 98, Pliny speaks of a wonderful rock at this place.
86 Now known as the Harpa.
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