previous next


The Pamphylian Sea contains some islands of little note. The Cilician, besides four others of very considerable size, has Cyprus1, which lies opposite to the shores of Cilicia and Syria, running east and west; in former times it was the seat of nine kingdoms. Timosthenes states that the circumference of this island is 427 miles, Isidorus2 375; its length, between the two Promontories of Dinæ3 and Acamas4 lying on the west, is, according to Artemidorus, 160 1/2 miles, according to Timosthenes, 200. Philonides says that it was formerly called Acamantis, Xenagoras that it had the names of Cerastis5, Aspelia, Amathusia, and Macaria6, while Astynomus gives it the names of Cryptos7 and Colinia. Its towns are fifteen in number, Neapaphos8, Palæpaphos9, Curias10, Citium11, Corineum, Salamis12, Ama- thus13, Lapethos14, Solœ, Tamasos15, Epidarum, Chytri16, Arsinoë17, Carpasimn18, and Golgi19. The towns of Cinyria, Marium, and Idalium20 are no longer in existence. It is distant from Anemurium21 in Cilicia fifty miles; the sea which runs between the two shores being called the Channel of Cilicia22. In the same locality23 is the island of Eleusa24, and the four islands known as the Clides25, lying before the promontory which faces Syria; and again at the end of the other cape26 is Stiria: over against Neapaphos is Hierocepia27, and opposite to Salamis are the Salaininiæ.

In the Lycian Sea are the islands of Illyris, Telendos, and Attelebussa28, the three barren isles called Cypriæ, and Dionysia, formerly called Caretha. Opposite to the Promontory of Taurus are the Chelidoniæ29, as many in number, and extremely dangerous to mariners. Further on we find Leucolla with its town, the Pactyæ30, Lasia, Nymphäis, Macris, and Megista, the city on which last no longer exists. After these there are many that are not worthy of notice. Opposite, however, to Cape Chimæra is Dolichiste31, Chœrogylion, Crambussa32, Rhoge33, Enagora, eight miles in circumference, the two islands of Dædala34, the three of Crya35, Strongyle, and over against Sidyma36 the isle of Antiochus. Towards the mouth of the river Glaucus37, there are Lagussa38, Macris, Didymæ Helbo, Scope, Aspis, Telandria, the town of which no longer exists, and, in the vicinity of Caunus39, Rhodussa.

1 Now called Kibris.

2 Strabo makes it 425. Hardouin remarks that Isidorus has not made allowance for the margin of the creeks and bays.

3 The north-eastern extremity of Cyprus. It is now called Capo Sant Andreas. It is more generally known in the editions of Pliny by the name of Dinaretum.

4 Now called Capo Sant Epifanio, or Pifano, after the celebrated metropolitan of Cyprus. It is the western extremity of the island.

5 From the Greek κέρας"a horn." It was not improbably so called from the numerous horns or promontories on its coast.

6 From the Greek μακάριος "blessed," in compliment to its fertile soil and delightful temperature.

7 Apparently from the Greek κρυπτὸς "concealed." Stephanus Byzantinus says that it was so called because it was frequently hidden beneath the surface of the sea.

8 Or New Paphos. The spot is still called Bafa or Bafo.

9 Or Old Paphos, now Kukala or Konuklia. Old Paphos was situate near the promontory Zephyrium on the river Bocarno, where it had a good harbour; while New Paphos lay more inland, in the midst of a fertile plain, sixty stadia from the former. Old Paphos was the chief seat of worship of Aphrodite or Venus, who was said to have landed at that place after her ascent from the sea.

10 Situate on the most southerly point in the island; now Capo Gavatta or delle Gatte.

11 A town situate on the south coast of Cyprus. Its ruins are to be seen between Larnika and the port now known as Salines; they are very extensive. In B. xxx. c. 9, Pliny speaks of the salt lakes near this place, which are worked at the present day.

12 In the middle of the east coast. It was said to have been founded by Teucer the son of Telamon, who gave it the name of his native land from which he had been banished by his father.

13 Now called Old Limasol, a town on the south coast, celebrated for its worship of Aphrodite or Venus. It was a Phœnician settlement, and Stephanus calls it the most ancient city in the island. It long preserved its oriental customs, and here the Tyrian Hercules was worshipped under his name of Melkart.

14 Its site is now called Lapitho or Lapta.

15 Probably the same as the Temncse of Homer. It was situate in a fertile district in the middle of Cyprus, and in the neighbourhood of extensive copper mines. Near it was a celebrated plain, sacred to Venus, mentioned by Ovid.

16 Now called Chytria, a town of Cyprus on the road from Cerinea to Salamis.

17 In the east of Cyprus, near the Promontory of Acamas, formerly called Marion. Ptolemy Soter destroyed this town, and removed the inhabitants to Paphos. The modern name of its site is Polikrusoko or Crisophou, from the gold mines in the neighbourhood. There was more than one city of this name in Cyprus, which was probably bestowed on them during its subjection to the princes of the line of Lagus. Another Arsinoë is placed near Ammochostus to the north of the island, and a third of the same name appears in Strabo with a harbour, temple and grove, between Old and New Paphos.

18 Or Carpasia, to the north-east of the island, facing the Promontory of Sarpedon on the Cilician coast. It was said to have been founded by Pygmalion, king of Tyre. Pococke speaks of remains at Carpas, the site of this place, especially a long wall and a pier.

19 Or Golgos, famous for the worship of Aphrodite or Venus, which had existed here even before its introduction at Paphos by Agapenor. Its position is unknown.

20 Or Idalia, adjoining to which was a forest sacred to Aphrodite. The poets, who connect this place with her worship, give us no indications whatever of its precise locality. Engel identifies it with the modern Dalin, situate to the south of Leucosia, at the foot of Mount Olympus.

21 Now Cape Anamur.

22 "Aulon Cilicium," now the Sea of Caramania or Cyprus.

23 The Cilician Sea, namely.

24 There were several islands of this name. It is not improbable that Pliny alludes to the one lying off the coast of Caria between the isle of Rhodes and the mainland, and which seems to be the island marked Alessa in the maps. There was another of the same name close to the shore of Cilicia, afterwards known by the name of Sebaste.

25 Or Cleides, meaning the "Keys." This was a group of small islands lying to the north-east of Cyprus. The name of the islands was after- wards transferred by some geographer to the Cape which Pliny above calls Dinæ, and others Dinaretum.

26 Cape Acamas, now Pifano.

27 Or the "Sacred Garden." The names of this and the Salaminiæ do not appear to be known to the modern geographers.

28 This is identified by Beaufort with the islet called Bœshat, which is separated by a narrow channel from the Lycian shore. The others do not seem to have been identified. Attelebussa is supposed to take its name from a kind of destructive grasshopper without wings, called by the Greeks ἀττέλεβος.

29 Situate off the commencement of the sea-coast of Pamphylia, on the borders of Lycia. Beaufort speaks of them as five in number; he did not meet with any of the dangers of the navigation here mentioned by Pliny. The Greeks still call them Chelidoniæ, and the Italian sailors Celidoni, which the Turks have corrupted into Shelidan.

30 Hardouin supposes these four islands to be the names of the group forming the Pactyæ. The names given appear to signify, the "Wild" or "Rough Islands," the "Isle of the Nymphs," the "Long Island," and the "Greatest Island." They were off the coast of Lycia, and seem to have belonged to the Rhodians. The modern name of Megista is Kastelorizo, according to Ansart.

31 Or Doliche, the "Long Island," in the Lycian Sea, west of the ruins of Myra. Its modern name is Kakava. It is now uninhabited.

32 Still known as Grambousa, a small island off the east coast of Lycia. There seems to have been another of the same name off the Lycian coast.

33 An island off the coast of Lycia.

34 Hardouin thinks that they were opposite to the city of Dædala on the coast of Caria.

35 Off the city of Crya, probably, in Caria.

36 On the coast of Lycia.

37 In Lycia. See C. 29 of the present Book.

38 Probably so called from the number of hares found there.

39 On the coast of Caria.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system.

load focus Latin (Karl Friedrich Theodor Mayhoff, 1906)
hide Places (automatically extracted)

View a map of the most frequently mentioned places in this document.

hide References (14 total)
  • Cross-references to this page (10):
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), CYPRUS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), GOLGI
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), LAGU´SA
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), MEGISTE
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), PAMPHY´LIUM MARE
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), RHODUSSA
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), RHOGE
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), SA´LAMIS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), XENAGORAE INSULAE
    • Smith's Bio, Asty'nomus
  • Cross-references in general dictionaries to this page (4):
hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: