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2 An island called Halonnesus has been already mentioned in B iv. c. 23. None of these islands appear to have been identified.
3 See B. xxxvii. c. 32.
4 This seems to be the meaning, though, literally translated, it would be, "These were the prefects of kings."
5 It obtained this title ofπάνχρυσος, or "all golden," from its vicinity to the gold mines of Jebel Allaki, or Ollaki, from which the ancient Egyptians drew their principal supply of that metal, and in the working of which they employed criminals and prisoners of war.
7 Ansart suggests that the modern island of Mehun is here meant. Gosselin is of opinion that Pliny is in error in mentioning two islands in the Red Sea as producing the topaz.
8 Called Theron, as well as Epitheras. It was an emporium on the coast of the Red Sea for the trade with India and Arabia. It was chiefly remarkable for its position in mathematical geography, as, the sun having been observed to be directly over it forty-five days before and after the summer solstice, the place was taken as one of the points for determining the length of a degree of a great circle on the earth's surface.
10 In B. ii. c. 75.
11 In the same Chapter.
12 So called from Azania, the adjoining coast of Africa, now known as that of Ajan. It was inhabited by a race of Æthiopians, who were engaged in catching and taming elephants, and supplying the markets of the Red Sea coast with hides and ivory.
13 Now called Seyrman, according to Gosselin.
14 Its name was Adule, being the chief haven of the Adulitæ, of mixed origin, in the Troglodytic region, situate on a bay of the Red Sea, called Aduliticus Sinus. It is generally supposed that the modern Thulla or Zulla, still pronounced Azoole, occupies its site, being situate in lat. 15' 35' N. Ruins are said to exist there. D'Anville, however, in his map of the Red Sea, places Adule at Arkeeko, on the same coast, and considerably to the north of Thulla. According to Cosmas, Adule was about two miles in the interior.
15 Pliny gives a further description of this ape in B. viii. c. 21., and B. x. c. 72. They were much valued by the Roman ladies for pets, and very high prices were given for them.
16 Now called Dahal-Alley, according to Gosselin.
17 Hardouin, from Strabo, suggests that the reading ought to be Co- racios.
18 The "False Gates."
19 The "Gates."
20 D'Anville and Gosselin think that this is the island known as the French Island.
21 Ansart thinks that this promontory is that known as Cape de Meta, and that the port is at the mouth of the little river called Soul or Soal.
22 In his Ethiopian expedition. According to Strabo, he had altars and pillars erected there to record it.
23 Under the impression entertained by the ancients, that the southern progress of the coast of Africa stopped short here, and that it began at this point to trend away gradually to the north-west.
24 Coro. Salmasius seems with justice, notwithstanding the censures of Hardouin, to have found considerable difficulty in this passage. If it is Pliny's meaning that by sea round the south of the Promontory of Mossylum there is a passage to the extreme north-western point of Africa, it is pretty clear that it is not by the aid of a north-west wind that it could be reached. "Euro," "with a south-east wind," has been very properly suggested.
25 By this name he means the Æthiopian Troglodytæ. Of course it would be absurd to attempt any identification of the places here named, as they must clearly have existed only in the imagination of the African geographer.
26 The supposed commencement of the Atlantic, to the west of the Promontory of Mossylum.
29 Heliopolis, described in B. v. c. 4.
30 Considering it as part of Asia.
31 Conformably with the usage of modem geographers, and, one would almost think, with that of common sense.
32 Of the river Nile.
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