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1 Pliny here alludes to the doctrine of astrology, which forms the especial subject of the next Chapter.—B.
2 These statements are not found in any of the works of Hesiod now extant; it is scarcely necessary to observe, that they are entirely without foundation, and contrary to all observation and experience.—B.
3 The great age of Arganthonius is referred to by Lucian, in his treatise "De Macrobiis," "on Long-lived Men;" by Herodotus, B. i. c. 163; by Cicero, de Senect. sec. 19; and by Valerius Maximus, B. viii. c. 13; the three latter writers agree in making his age 120 years, and hence Pliny assigns to him the same age in the next page.—B. St. Augustine, De Civitate Dei, B. xv., quotes this passage of Pliny, and mentions the age of Arganthonius, as stated by him, to have been 152 years. For Tartessus, in Spain, see B. iii. c. 3, and B. iv. c. 36.
4 His story is told by Ovid, Met. B. x., where he is said to have become
5 Callimachus mentions a person of this name, who wrote a treatise on the art of making cheesecakes. There was also a physician so called, who flourished in the fifth century B.C. , and who is said by Galen to have been the first who wrote a treatise on the probe. Whether either of these individuals is the person here alluded to, is unknown.
6 We have the same statement as to the age of Epimenides, in Valerius Maximus, B. viii. s. 13; he also, in the same section, gives an account of the Epii, of Pictoreus, of Dandon, and of the king of the island of the Tyrians, all of which agree with the present statement, except that the person mentioned by Damastes is called Literius, and the last-named individual is styled the king of the island of the Lutmii.—B.
7 The king of the Tartessi, mentioned above.—B.
8 Pliny has already spoken of the vigorous old age of Masinissa, in the 12th Chapter of the present Book.—B.
9 We have an account of Gorgias in Cicero, de Seneet. sec. 9; in Valerius Maximus, B. viii. c. 13, and in Lucian.—B.
10 Valerius Maximus, ubi supra, reduces this to sixty-two years.—B.
11 We have the same statement respecting Peperna in Valerius Maximus, but he does not mention his age.—B.
12 The names of the succeeding censors were C. Claudius Pulcher, and T. Sempronius Gracchus.
13 V. Maximus gives the same account of the age of Corvinus, but he states the interval between his consulships to have been forty-seven years. According to the Fasti, in Dr. Smith's Dictionary of Antiquities, the interval was forty-eight years, from A.U.C. 406 to A.U.C. 455.—B.
14 The honour of the curule-chair—"sella curulis." It was attached to the offices of consul, prætor, and ædile; Corvinus had, therefore, been elected to one or other of these offices twenty-one times.—B.
15 Valerius Maximus gives the same account of Metellus. He also informs us that Metellus, although of an advanced age when created pontiff, held the office for twenty-two years; so also Cicero, de Senect. sec. 9.—B.
16 We have the same account of these females in Valerius Maximus. He adds, that Clodia survived all her children; Seneca, Epist. 77, also refers to the great age of Statilia.—B.
17 "Emboliaria," an actress in the "embolium," or interlude of the Roman stage; also called "acroama," by Cicero. It appears to have been a concert of musical instruments, perhaps accompanied by dancing.
18 Their consulship was A.U.C. 761.—B.
19 Their consulship was A.U.C. 671, which would leave an interval of ninety years between her first appearance and her appearance at the votive games.—B.
20 "Togatus saltare instituit." He acted in the "togatæ fabulæ," comedies representing Roman life, or the life of those who wore the toga, the civic costume of the Romans. The Greek comedies were called "palliatæ."
21 The secular games of Augustus are stated by Suetonius, in his Life of Augustus, c. 31, and by Dion Cassius, to have taken place A.U.C. 739.—B.
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