arguments are drawn from the causes of past or future
actions. The matter of these causes, by some called
by others δύναμις,
falls into two genera, which
are each divided into four species. For the motive
for any action is as a rule concerned with the acquisition, increase, preservation and use of things that are
good or with the avoidance, diminution, endurance
of things that are evil or with escape there from.
All these considerations carry great weight in deliberative oratory as well.