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2 At that period, however] “Et jam tum.” "Tunc temporis præcisè, at that time precisely, which is the force of the particle jam, as Donatus shows. * * * I have therefore written et jam separately. * * * Virg. Æn. vii. 737. Late jam tum ditione premebat Sarrastes populos." Cortius.
4 But after Cyrus in Asia, etc.] “Postea verò quàm in, Asiâ Cyrus,” etc. Sallust writes as if he had supposed that kings were more moderate before the time of Cyrus. But this can hardly have been the case. " The Romans," says De Brosses, whose words I abridge, " though not learned in antiquity, could not have been ignorant that there were great conquerors before Cyrus; as Ninus and Sesostris. But as their reigns belonged rather to the fabulous ages, Sallust, in entering upon a serious history, wished to confine himself to what was certain, and went no further back than the records of Herodotus and Thucydides." Ninus, says Justin. i. 1, was the first to change, through inordinate ambition, the veterem et quasi avitum gentibus morem; that is, to break through the settled restraints of law and order. Gerlach agrees in opinion with De Brosses.
5 Proof and experience] “Periculo atque negotiis.” Gronovius rightly interprets periculo "experiundo, experimentis," by experiment or trial. Cortius takes periculo atque negotiis for periculosis negotiis, by hendyadys; but to this figure, as Kritzius remarks, we ought but sparingly to have recourse. It is better, he adds, to take the words in their ordinary signification, understanding by negotia "res graviores." Bernouf judiciously explains negotiis by "ipsâ negotiorum tractatione," i.e. by the management of affairs, or by experience in affairs. Dureau Delamalle, the French translator, has "l'expérience et la pratique." Mair has "trial and experience," which, I believe, faithfully expresses Sallust's meaning. Rose gives only "experience" for both words.
6 And, indeed, if the intellectual ability, etc.] “Quod si--animi virtus,” etc. " Quod si" can not here be rendered but if; it is rather equivalent to quapropter si, and might be expressed by wherefore if, if therefore, if then, so that if.
11 Even in agriculture, etc.] “Quæ homines arant, navigant, ædificant, virtuti omnia parent.” Literally, what men plow, sail, etc. Sallust's meaning is, that agriculture, navigation, and architecture, though they may seem to be effected by mere bodily exertion, are as much the result of mental power us the highest of human pursuits.
12 Like travelers in a strange country] “Sicuti peregrinantes.” “Vivere nesciunt; igitur in vitâ quasi hospites sunt;” they know not how to use life, and are therefore, as it were, strangers in it. Dietsch. "Peregrinantes, qui, quâ transeunt, nullum sui vestigium relinquunt:" they are as travelers who do nothing to leave any trace of their course. Pappaur.
13 Of these I hold the life and death in equal estimation] “Eorum ego vitàm mortemque juxta æstimo.” I count them of the same value dead as alive, for they are honored in the one state as much as in the other. "Those who, are devoted to the gratification of their appetites," as Sallust says, "let us regard as inferior animals, not as men; and some, indeed, not as living, but as dead animals." Seneca, Ep. lx.
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