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1 V. Threw every thing, religious and civil into confusion] “Divina et humana cuncta permiscuit.” “"All things, both divine and human, were so changed, that their previous condition was entirely subverted."” Dietsch.
2 Civil dissensions] “Studiis civilibus.” This is the sense in which most commentators take studia; and if this be right, the whole phrase must be understood as I have rendered it. So Cortius; "Ut non prius finirentur [studio civilia] nisi bello et vastitate Italiæ." Sallust has studia paratium, Jug c. 42; and Gerlach quotes from Cic. pro Marcell. c. 10: "Non enim consiliis solis et studiis, sed armis etiam et castris dissidebamus."
4 Since the Roman name became great] “Post magnitudinem nominis Romani.” “"I know not why interpreters should find any difficulty in this passage. I understand it to signify simply since the Romans became so great as they were in the time of Hannibal; for, before that period they had suffered even heavier calamities, especially from the Gauls."” Cortius.
5 Syphax] “"He was King of the Masæsyli in Numidia; was at first an enemy to the Carthaginians (Liv. xxiv. 48), and afterward their friend (Liv. xxviii. 17). He then changed sides again, and made a treaty with Scipio ; but having at length been offered the hand of Sophonisba, the daughter of Asdrubal, in marriage, he accepted it, and returned into alliance with the Carthaginians. Being subsequently taken prisoner by Masinissa and Lælius, the lieutenant of Scipio, (Liv. xxx. 2) he was carried into Italy, and died at Tibur (Liv. xxx. 45)."” Bernouf.
6 His reign] “Imperii.” Cortius thinks that the grant of the Romans ceased with the life of Masinissa, and that his son Micipsa, reigned only over that part of Numidia which originally belonged to his father. But in this opinion succeeding commentators have generally supposed him to be mistaken.
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