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1507. Instrument or Means.—““ἔβαλλέ με λίθοιςhe hit me with stonesL. 3.8, ἵ_ησι τῇ ἀξί_νῃ he hurls his ax at him (hurls with his ax) X. A. 1.5.12, ταῖς μαχαίραις κόπτοντες hacking them with their swords 4. 6. 26, ““οὐδὲν ἤνυε τούτοιςhe accomplished nothing by thisD. 21.104, ἐζημίωσαν χρήμασιν they punished him by a fine T. 2.65, ὕ_οντος πολλῷ (ὕδατι) during a heavy rain X. H. 1.1.16 (934). So with δέχεσθαι: τῶν πόλεων οὐ δεχομένων αὐτοὺς ἀγορᾷ οὐδὲ ἄστει, ὕδατι δὲ καὶ ὅρμῳ as the cities did not admit them to a market nor even into the town, but (only) to water and anchorage T. 6.44. Often with passives: ““ᾠκοδομημένον πλίνθοιςbuilt of bricksX. A. 2.4.12.

a. The instrumental dative is often akin to the comitative dative: ““ἀλώμενος νηί τε καὶ ἑτάροισιwandering with his ship and companionsλ 161, ““νηυσὶν οἰχήσονταιthey shall go with their shipsΩ 731, ““θυ_μῷ καὶ ῥώμῃ τὸ πλέον ἐναυμάχουν ἐπιστήμῃthey fought with passionate violence and brute force rather than by a system of tacticsT. 1.49.

b. Persons may be regarded as instruments: ““φυλαττόμενοι φύλαξιdefending themselves by picketsX. A. 6.4.27. Often in poetry (S. Ant. 164).

c. Verbs of raining or snowing take the dative or accusative (1570 a).

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