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2395. Present or past temporal clauses take the indicative when the action is marked as a fact and refers to a definite occasion (negative οὐ). The principal clause commonly has the indicative, but may take any form of the simple sentence.

A. Temporal clauses denoting the same time as that of the principal verb (2383 A).

““ὅτε ταῦτα ἦν, σχεδὸν μέσαι ἦσαν νύκτεςit was about midnight when this was taking placeX. A. 3.1.33, cp. 1. 1. 1, cited in 2388, ἡνίκα δὲ δείλη ἐγίγνετο, ἐφάνη κονιορτός but when it was getting to be afternoon, a cloud of dust appeared 1. 8. 8, ““μέχρι ἀπὸ τοῦ ἴσου ἡγοῦντο, προθύ_μως εἱπόμεθαas long as they led on equal terms we followed willinglyT. 3.10, ““ὅσον χρόνον ἐκαθέζετο . . . ἀμφὶ τὴν περὶ τὸ φρούριον οἰκονομία_ν, . . . ἀπῆγον ἵππουςas long as he was employed with regulations about the fortress, they kept bringing horsesX. C. 5.3.25, ““ἐν ὡπλίζοντο, ἧκον . . . οἱ σκοποίwhile they were arming, the scouts cameX. A. 2.2.15, ἕως ἐστὶ καιρός, ἀντιλάβεσθε τῶν πρα_γμάτωνwhile there is opportunity, take our public policy in handD. 1.20.

N. μέμνημαι, οἶδα, ἀκούω often take ὅτε when instead of ὅτι that. Thus, μέμνημαι ὅτε ἐγὼ πρὸς σὲ ἦλθον I remember when (that) I came to you X. C. 1.6.12. ἡνίκα (and ἦμος in poetry) has a similar use. οἶδα ὅτε, ἀκούω ὅτε are probably due to the analogy of μέμνημαι ὅτε, originally I remember (the moment) when.

B. Temporal clauses denoting time prior to that of the principal verb (2383 B).

““ἐπεὶ δ᾽ ἐξῆλθεν, ἐξήγγειλε τοῖς φίλοις τὴν κρίσιν τοῦ Ὀρόντα_ ὡς ἐγένετοbut after he came out, he announced to his friends how the trial of Orontas had resultedX. A. 1.6.5 (observe that the aorist, and not the pluperfect, is commonly used to denote time previous to that of the main verb; cp. 1943), ἐπειδὴ δὲ ἐτελεύτησε Δα_ρεῖος . . ., Τισσαφέρνης διαβάλλει τὸν Κῦρον after Darius died Tissaphernes calumniated Cyrus 1. 1. 3, ὡς τάχιστα ἕως ὑπέφαινεν, ἐθύ_οντο as soon as daylight indistinctly appeared, they sacrificed 4. 3. 9, ἐξ οὗ φίλος εἶναι προσποιεῖται, ἐκ τούτου ὑ_μᾶς ἐξηπάτηκεν ever since Philip pretended to be friendly, from that time on he had deceived you D. 23.193. (On ever since expressed by the dative of the participle, see 1498.)

C. Temporal clauses denoting time subsequent to that of the principal verb (2383 C).

““ἔμειναν ἕως ἀφί_κοντο οἱ στρατηγοίthey waited until the generals arrivedX. H. 1.1.29, ““λοιδοροῦσι τὸν Σωτηρίδα_ν ἔστε ἠνάγκασαν . . . πορεύεσθαιthey kept reviling Soteridas until they forced him to march onX. A. 3.4.49, καὶ ταῦτα ἐποίουν μέχρι σκότος ἐγένετο and they kept doing this until darkness came on 4. 2. 4, ““τοὺς Ἕλληνας ἀπελύ_σατο δουλεία_ς ὥστ᾽ ἐλευθέρους εἶναι μέχρι οὗ πάλιν αὐτοὶ αὑτοὺς κατεδουλώσαντοshe released the Greeks from slavery so as to be free until they enslaved themselvesP. Menex. 245a.

hide References (2 total)
  • Cross-references to this page (2):
    • Raphael Kühner, Bernhard Gerth, Ausführliche Grammatik der griechischen Sprache, KG 3.2.4
    • Jeffrey A. Rydberg-Cox, Overview of Greek Syntax, Verbs: Mood
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