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1000. Plural.—The plural of proper names, of materials, and of abstracts is used to denote a class. (1) of proper names: ““Θησέεςmen like TheseusP. Th. 169b. (2) of materials: here the plural denotes the parts, the different kinds of a thing, a mass, etc.: ““τόξαbowHdt. 3.78, πυ_ροί, κρι_θαί wheat, barley X. A. 4.5.26, οἶνοι wines 4. 4. 9, ““κρέα_meatAr. Ran. 553 (κρέας piece of meat), ““ἥλιοιhot daysT. 7.87, ““ξύλαtimberT. 7.25. (3) of abstracts: here the plural refers to the single kinds, cases, occasions, manifestations of the idea expressed by the abstract substantive; or is referred to several persons: ““ἀγνωμοσύναιmisunderstandingsX. A. 2.5.6, ““θάλπηdegrees of heatX. M. 1.4.13. Used in the plural, abstract nouns may become concrete, as ““ταφαίfuneralT. 2.34 (ταφή sepulture), ““εὐφροσύναιgood cheerX. C. 7.2.28 (εὐφροσύνη mirth), ““χάριτεςproofs of good will, presentsD. 8.53, ““εὔνοιαιcases of benevolence, presentsD. 8.25.

a. Many concrete substantives are commonly used only in the plural: πύλαι gate, θύραι door, τὰ Ὀλύμπια the Olympic festival; and in poetry δώματα house, κλί_μακες ladder, λέκτρα bed; cp. 1006.

b. The plural, especially in poetry, may correspond to the English indefinite singular: ἐπὶ ναυσί by ship.

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