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2086. With participles of cause or purpose, etc. (2064, 2065): ὡς. This particle sets forth the ground of belief on which the agent acts, and denotes the thought, assertion, real or presumed intention, in the mind of the subject of the principal verb or of some other person mentioned prominently in the sentence, without implicating the speaker or writer.

a. Thus, ἀπῆλθον ὡς νι_κήσαντες may mean either they departed under the impression that they had been victorious (though as a matter of fact they may have been defeated) or pretending that they had been victorious (when they knew they had been defeated). The use of ὡς implies nothing as to the opinion of the speaker or writer. On the other hand ἀπῆλθον νι_κήσαντες means that, as a matter of fact, and on the authority of the writer, they had been victorious.

b. ὡς may be rendered as if (though there is nothing conditional in the Greek use, as is shown by the negative οὐ, not μή), by in the opinion (belief) that, on the ground that, under pretence of, under the impression that, because as he said (or thought; in the hope of, with the (avowed) intention of (with the future participle).

c. ““ἐνταῦθ᾽ ἔμενον ὡς τὸ ἄκρον κατέχοντες : οἱ δ᾽ ου᾽ κατεῖχον, ἀλλὰ μαστὸς ἦν ὑπὲρ αὐτῶνthere they remained in the belief that they were occupying the summit; but in fact they were not occupying it, since there was a hill above themX. A. 4.2.5, ταύτην τὴν χώρα_ν ἐπέτρεψε διαρπάσαι τοῖς Ἕλλησιν ὡς πολεμία_ν οὖσαν he turned this country over to the Greeks to ravage on the ground that it was hostile 1. 2. 19, τὴν πρόφασιν ἐποιεῖτο ὡς Πι_σίδα_ς βουλόμενος ἐκβαλεῖν he made his pretence as if he wished (i.e. he gave as his pretext his desire) to expel the Pisidians 1. 2. 1, παρεσκευάζοντο ὡς πολεμήσοντες they made preparations to go to war (with the avowed intention of going to war) T. 2.7, συλλαμβάνει Κῦρον ὡς ἀποκτενῶν he seized Cyrus for the purpose (as he declared) of putting him to death X. A. 1.1.3, and often with the future participle. After verbs of motion ὡς is rarely used.

d. ὡς with the absolute participle: ““οὐ δεῖ ἀθυ_μεῖν ὡς οὐκ εὐτάκτων ὄντων Ἀθηναίωνwe must not be discouraged on the ground that the Athenians are not well disciplinedX. M. 3.5.20, ““ἔλεγε θαρρεῖν ὡς καταστησομένων τούτων ἐς τὸ δέονhe bade him be of good cheer in the assurance that this would arrange itself in the right wayX. A. 1.3.8, ““ὡς ἐξὸν ἤδη ποιεῖν αὐτοῖς τι βούλοιντο, πολλοὺς ἀπέκτεινονin the belief that it was already in their power to do what they pleased, they put many to deathX. H. 2.3.21. Cp. also 2078, and 2122.

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  • Cross-references to this page (1):
    • Raphael Kühner, Bernhard Gerth, Ausführliche Grammatik der griechischen Sprache, KG 3.5.3
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