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2182. The subject of the dependent clause is often anticipated and made the object of the verb of the principal clause. This transference, which gives a more prominent place to the subject of the subordinate clause, is called anticipation or prolepsis (πρόληψις taking before).

““δέδοικα δ᾽ αὐτὴν μή τι βουλεύσῃ νέονbut I fear lest she may devise something untowardE. Med. 37, ““ᾔδει αὐτὸν ὅτι μέσον ἔχοι τοῦ Περσικοῦ στρατεύματοςhe knew that he held the centre of the Persian armyX. A. 1.8.21, ““ἐπεμέλετο αὐτῶν ὅπως ἀεὶ ἀνδράποδα διατελοῖενhe took care that they should always continue to be slavesX. C. 8.1.44. Note ὁρᾷς τὸν εὐτράπεζον ὡς ἡδὺς βίος thou seest how sweet is the luxurious life E. fr. 1052. 3.

a. Anticipation is especially common after verbs of saying, seeing, hearing, knowing, fearing, effecting.

b. When a subordinate clause defines a verbal idea consisting of a verb and a substantive, its subject may pass into the principal clause as a genitive depending on the substantive of that clause: ““ἦλθε δὲ καὶ τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις εὐθὺς ἀγγελία_ τῶ πόλεων ὅτι ἀφεστᾶσιand there came straightway to the Athenians also the report that the cities had revoltedT. 1.61 (= ὅτι αἱ πόλεις ἀφεστᾶσι).

c. The subject of the dependent clause may be put first in its own clause: ““ἐπιχειρήσωμεν εἰπεῖν, ἀνδρεία_ τί ποτ᾽ ἐστίνlet us try to say what courage isP. Lach. 190d.

d. The object of the subordinate clause may be anticipated and made the object of the principal clause. Thus, ““εἰρώτα_ Δα_ρεῖος τὴν τέχνην εἰ ἐπίσταιτοDarius asked if he understood the artHdt. 3.130.

e. A still freer use is seen in ἐθαύμαζεν αὐτὸν Λύ_σανδρος ὡς καλὰ τὰ δένδρα εἴη Lysander marvelled at the beauty of his trees (for τὰ δένδρα αὐτοῦ ὡς κτλ.) X. O. 4. <*>.

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