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2835. Adversative δέ often marks a silent contrast, as at the beginning of speeches (ἐγὼ δὲ οὕτω γιγνώσκω X. A. 4.6.10); in questions which imply opposition to something just said (S. O. C. 57); in answers (S. O. T. 379); in objections or corrections (S. Ant. 517); in τὸ δέ, τὰ δέ on the contrary, whereas really, where a true opinion is opposed to a false one; similarly in νῦν δέ but in fact, but as the case stands. When δέ is balanced by μέν (2904) it is antithetical rather than adversative.

a. δέ after a pronoun following a vocative produces a pause; as Νιόβα_ σὲ δ᾽ ἔγωγε νέμω θεόν ah Niobe, thee I regard as divine S. El. 150.

b. δέ instead of ἀλλά is rare except in the poets and Thucydides. Thus, προμηνύ_σῃς γε τοῦτο μηδενὶ τοὖργον, κρυφῆ δὲ κεῦθε make known this plan to no one, but hide it in secret S. Ant. 85, ““οὐκ ἐπὶ κακῷ, ἐπ᾽ ἐλευθερώσει δὲ τῶν Ἑλλήνων παρελήλυθαI have come, not to harm, but to liberate, the GreeksT. 4.86. Sometimes οὐ μέν precedes when δέ is used like ἀλλά<*>T. 1.50).

c. But not is ἀλλ᾽ ου᾽ or οὐ μέντοι, not οὐ δέ, in order to avoid confusion with οὐδέ nor, not even. But οὐ and δέ may be separated, as ““οὐ βουλομένων δέ . . . προσχωρεῖνbut since they did not wish to surrenderX. H. 1.6.13.

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