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408. The periphrastic third plural is used instead of the forms derived directly from the union of the stem with the ending.

Thus, γεγραμμένοι εἰσί is used for γεγραφ-νται which would become γεγράφαται by 35 b, ν between consonants passing into α. The periphrastic form is also used in verbs adding ς to their stems, as τετελε-σ-μένοι εἰσί for τετελε-σ-νται. Stems in ν that drop ν in the perfect system form their perfect and pluperfect regularly; thus, κρί_νω (κριν-) judge has κέκρινται, ἐκέκριντο.

N.—On the retention of -αται, -ατο see 465 f.

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