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1 ظَهَرَ ذ , (S, Msb, K, &c.,) aor. ظَهَرَ , (Msb,) inf. n. ظُهُورٌ, (S, Mgh, Msb, K, &c.,) [It was, or became, outward, exterior, external, extrinsic, or exoteric: and hence,] it appeared; became apparent, overt, open, perceptible or perceived, manifest, plain, or evident; (S, Mgh, Msb, K, TA;) after having been concealed, or latent: (Msb, TA:) and ↓ تظاهر signifies the same. (Har p. 85.) Hence the phrase ظَهَرَ لِى رَأْىٌ (assumed tropical:) [An idea, or opinion, occurred to me], said when one knows what he did not know before. (Msb.) [And هٰذَا مَا يَظْهَرُ لِى (assumed tropical:) This is what appears to me to be the case, or to be the right way or course; or this is my opinion.] ظَهَرَ الحَمْلُ, inf. n. as above, means Pregnancy became apparent, or manifest: it is said that this is not the case in less than three months. (Msb.) And it is said in a trad. of 'Áïsheh, كَانَ يُصَلِّى العَصْرَ فِى حُجْرَتِى قَبْلَ أَنْ تَظْهَرَ i. e. [He used to perform the prayer of the afternoon in my chamber] before it (meaning the sun) became high and apparent: (TA:) or وَالشَّمْسُ فِى حُجْرَتِى لَمْ تَظْهَرْ بَعْدُ i. e. [when the sun was in my chamber,] it not having risen high so as to be on the flat roof [thereof]: referring to the Prophet. (O. [But العَصْرَ must be a mistranscription for الفَجْرَ, i. e. the prayer of the dawn.]) The saying in the Kur [xxiv. 31], وَلَا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِِلَّا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا [which is app. best rendered And that they discover not their ornature except what is external thereof] has been expl. in seven different ways, most correctly as meaning the clothes: (O, TA:) accord. to 'Áïsheh, it means the bracelet (القُلْب) and the ring (الفَتَخَة): and accord. to I'Ab, the hand and the signet-ring and the face. (TA.) ― -b2- Also He went forth, or out, (Mgh, TA,) to the outside of a place. (O, TA.) ― -b3- And He (a bird) migrated, or went down, from one country or region to another: used in this sense by AHn in relation to the vulture, migrating to Nejd. (L.) ― -b4- ظَهَرَ عَنْهُ, said of a vice, or fault, (O, TA,) or a disgrace, (JK, A, O,) (tropical:) It did not cleave to him; (A, O, TA;) it was remote from him; (TA;) it quitted him, or departed from him. (JK.) ― -b5- ظَهَرْتُ بِهِ, (O, TA,) inf. n. ظَهْرٌ, (K,) (assumed tropical:) I gloried, or boasted, by reason of it. (O, K * TA.) [Respecting a meaning assigned to ظَهَرَ بِفُلَانٍ in the K, see 4.] ― -b6- أَكَلَ الرَّجُلُ أُكْلَةً ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا ظَهْرَةً means (assumed tropical:) [The man ate some food] in consequence of which] he became fat. (TA.) -A2- ظَهَرَهُ He mounted it; went, or got, upon it, or upon the top of it; (S, A, * Mgh, O, Msb, K;) as also ظَهَرَ عَلَيْهِ; (O;) namely, a house, (S,) or a house-top, (A, Mgh, O,) and a mountain, (A,) and a wall; (O, Msb;) properly, he became upon its back: (Mgh:) and [in like manner] one says, فُلَانٌ نَجْدًاظَهَّرَ , inf. n. تَظْهِيرٌ, Such a one mounted, or went up, upon the high region (ظَهْر) of Nejd. (O.) ― -b2- Hence, (Mgh, Msb,) ظَهَرَ عَلَيْهِ (S, Mgh, O, Msb, K) and بِهِ, (K,) inf. n. ظُهُورٌ (Bd in xxiv. 31) and ظَهْرٌ also, (Ham p. 301,) He overcame, conquered, subdued, overpowered, or mastered, him; gained the mastery or victory, or prevailed, over him; (S, Mgh, O, Msb, K;) namely, his enemy; (Msb;) and in like manner, [he conquered, won, achieved, or attained, it, i. e.] a thing. (O, TA.) [The saying فُلَانٌ لَا يَظْهَرُ عَلَيْهِ أَحَدٌ is expl. in the L and TA by the words اى لا يَسْلَم, and said to be tropical: but Ibr D thinks that the correct reading is لا يُسَلِّمُ, from التَّسْلِيمُ; and that it is said of one who will not give up, or resign, what is in his hand; so that the meaning is, (tropical:) Such a one is a person whom no one will overcome in respect of that which he holds in his possession.] ― -b3- And [hence also] ظَهَرَ عَلَيْهِ, (Msb, TA,) inf. n. ظُهُورٌ, (TA,) He knew, became acquainted with, or got knowledge of, him, or it. (Msb, TA.) So in the Kur xxiv. 31, وَا@لطِّفْلُ ا@لَّذِينَ لَمْ يَظْهَرُوا عَلَى عَوْرَاتِ ا@لنِّسَآءِ [And the young children] who have not attained knowledge of the عورات, (Bd, Jel,) meaning [pudenda, or] parts between the navel and the knee, (Jel,) of women, by reason of their want of discrimination: (Bd:) or (tropical:) who have not attained to the generative faculty; (O, Bd, * TA;) from الظُّهُورُ in the sense of الغَلَبَةُ. (Bd.) So too in the Kur [xviii. 19], إِِنْ يَظْهَرُوا عَلَيْكُمْ If they get knowledge of you. (O, TA.) ― -b4- And [hence] ظَهَرَ عَلَيْهِ, (Fr, A, O, TA,) and ↓ استظهرهُ , (S, A, O, K,) (tropical:) He knew it, or learned it, by heart; namely, the Kur-án; (A, O, TA;) and he recited it by heart: (A, * TA; and so in the S and O in explanation of the latter:) or [simply] he recited it by heart; namely, the Kur-án; as also ↓ اظهرهُ : (O, K, TA:) in the copies of the K we find أَظْهَرْتُ عَلَى القُرْآنِ and أَظْهَرْتُهُ; but the former is a mistake for ظَهَرْتُ, aor. ظَهَرَ . (TA.) -A3- For another signification of ظَهَرَ عَلَيْهِ, see 3. -A4- ظَهَرَ بِحَاجَتِى, (S, A, K,) aor. ظَهَرَ , (TA,) inf. n. ظَهْرٌ; (TK;) and ↓ ظهّرها , (K, TA,) in some copies of the K ظَهَرَهَا; (TA;) and ↓ اظهرها , (K,) inf. n. إِِظْهَارٌ; (TA;) and ↓ اِظَّهَرَهَا , (K,) of the measure اِفْتَعَلَ; (TA;) (tropical:) He held the object of my want in little, or light, estimation, or in contempt; (S, A;) [lit.] he put it behind [his] back; (S, K;) as though he put it away, [out of his sight,] and paid no regard to it. (S, TA.) One says also, يَظْهَرُونَ بِهِمْ وَلَا يَلْتَفِتُونَ إِِلَى أَرْحَامِهِمْ [They hold them in contempt, and do not pay any regard to their ties of relationship]. (S.) ― -b2- See also 10, in three places. -A5- ظَهَرَهُ, (O, K,) aor. ظَهَرَ , inf. n. ظَهْرٌ, (K,) He struck, or smote, (TA,) or hit, or hurt, (O, K,) his back. (O, K, TA.) -A6- ظَهِرَ, (S, O, K,) aor. ظَهَرَ , (K,) inf. n. ظَهَرٌ, (O, K,) He (a man, S, O) had a complaint of his back. (S, O, K.) -A7- ظَهُرَ, (JK, O, L,) or ظَهَرَ, (K, [but this is app. a mistranscription,]) inf. n. ظَهَارَةٌ, (S, O, L, K,) said of a camel, (JK, S, O,) He was, or became, strong (JK, S, O, L, K) in the back. (L, K.) 2 ظَهَّرَ see 1, near the middle: ― -b2- and again, in the last quarter: ― -b3- and see also 3. ― -b4- ظهّر الثَّوْبَ [and ↓ اظهرهُ , contr. of بطّنهُ and ابطنهُ,] He faced the garment, or piece of cloth; put a facing, or an outer covering, (ظِهَارَة,) to it. (TA.) -A2- See also 4, last sentence. 3 ظاهرهُ ذ , (A,) inf. n. مُظَاهَرَةٌ, (S, O, Msb,) He aided, or assisted, him; (S, A, O, Msb;) as also عَلَيْهِظَهَرَ . (Th, K.) And ظاهر عَلَيْهِ He aided, or assisted, against him. (TA.) ― -b2- ظاهر بِهِ: see 10. ― -b3- ظاهر بَيْنَهُمَا, (K,) i. e. (TA) بَيْنَ ثَوْبَيْنِ, (S, A, Mgh, TA,) and دِرْعَيْنِ, (A, Mgh, TA,) and نَعْلَيْنِ, (TA,) i. q. طَارَقَ بَيْنَهُمَا, (S, TA,) or طَابَقَ, (A, K, TA,) i. e. (TA) He put them on, or attired himself with them, [namely, two garments, and two coats of mail, and two sandals or soles, or rather, when relating to two soles, he sewed them together,] one over, or outside, the other: (Mgh, TA:) app. from تَظَاهُرٌ in the sense of “ mutual aiding or assisting. ” (IAth.) The phrase ظاهر بِدِرْعَيْنِ requires consideration; and the ب in it should be regarded as meant to denote conjunction; not as a part of the necessary complement of the verb. (Mgh.) ظاهر الدِّرْعَ is said to signify لَأَمَ بَعْضَهَا عَلَى بَعْضٍ [app. meaning He folded over and fastened one part of the coat of mail upon another]. (TA.) And ظاهر عَلَيْهِ جِلَالًا means He threw upon him (i. e. a horse) housings or coverings [one over another]. (TA in art. حنذ.) -A2- ظاهر مِنِ ا@مْرَأَتِهِ, (S, Mgh, O, Msb, K,) inf. n. ظِهَارٌ (S, Mgh, Msb, K) and مُظَاهَرَةٌ; (JK, TA;) and مِنْهَاتظاهر , (A, Mgh, O, TA,) and ↓ اِظَّاهَرَ ; (Mgh;) and منهاتظهّر , (S, Msb, K,) and ↓ اِظَّهَّرَ ; (O, TA;) and منهاظهّر , (S, O, K,) inf. n. تَظْهِيرٌ; (S;) signify the same; (O;) He said to his wife أَنْتِ عَلَىَّ كَظَهْرِ أُمِّى [Thou art to me like the back of my mother]; (S, Mgh, Msb, K;) [as though he said رُكُوبُكِ حَرَامٌ عَلَىَّ;] meaning رُكُوبُكِ لِلنِّكَاحِ حَرَامٌ عَلَىَّ كَرُكُوبِ أُمِّى لِلنِّكَاحِ; the back being specified in preference to the بَطْن or فَخِذ or فَرْج because the woman is likened to a beast that is ridden, and the act of نِكَاح to that of رُكُوب: the phrase being a form of divorce used by the Arabs in the Time of Ignorance. (Msb, * TA.) In the Kur lviii. 2 [and 4], some read ↓ يَظَّهَّرُونَ ; some ↓ يَظَّاهَرُونَ ; and 'Ásim read يُظَاهِرُونَ. (Bd.) The verb is made trans. by means of مِن because the man who uttered this sentence estranged himself from his wife. (IAth.) 4 اظهرهُ ذ He made it apparent, overt, open, perceptible or perceived, manifest, plain, or evident; he showed, exhibited, manifested, displayed, discovered, revealed, or evinced, it; or put it forth: (S, O, K:) [it is also used in relation to a saying, and an action, and the like, as meaning it showed, &c., as above, or it bespoke, it:] and Mtr relates his having heard from one worthy of reliance of the people of Baghdád, that they say ↓ تظاهرتُ بِهِ in the place of أَظْهَرْتُهُ, and scarcely ever employ اظهر in its usual sense. (Har p. 85.) [Hence, اظهر التَّضْعِيفَ He made the doubling of a letter distinct; as in لَحِحَتْ; which, accord. to a general rule, should be لَحَّتْ: opposed to أَدْغَمَ. And اظهر لَهُ كَذَا He showed, &c., to him such a thing: and he made a show of, professed, pretended, or feigned, to him such a thing: as, for instance, love.] ― -b2- أَظْهَرْتُ بِفُلَانٍ means أَعْلَيْتُ بِهِ [a phrase which I have not found except in this instance, app. I elevated, or exalted, such a one: like أَعْلَيْتُهُ, which has this meaning]: (S, IKtt, L, TA:) or أَعْلَنْتُ بِهِ [app. meaning I made such a one to be, or become, publicly known]: (So in the O:) [but the former explanation seems to be regarded by SM as the right; for he remarks that,] accord. to all the copies of the K, the explanation is أَعْلَنَ بِهِ, and refers to ظَهَرَ بِفُلَانٍ [instead of أَظْهَرَ]; so that what its author says in this case differs in two points of view from what is found in the “ Kitáb el-Abniyeh ” of IKtt, in which the ى in أَعْلَيْتُ has been marked as correct, and in the L [as well as in the S]. (TA.) -A2- اظهرهُ ا@للّٰهُ عَلَى عَدُوِّهِ means God made him to overcome, conquer, subdue, overpower, master, gain the victory over, or prevail over, his enemy. (S, A, O, TA.) ― -b2- And [hence] اظهرهُ عَلَيْهِ He (God) made him to know it, or become acquainted with it: you say, أَظْهَرَنِى ا@للّٰهُ عَلَى مَا سُرِقَ مِنِّى God made me to know [or discover] what had been stolen from me. (TA.) -A3- See also 1, last quarter, in two places. -A4- And see 2. -A5- اظهر signifies also He entered upon the time called the ظَهِيرَة: (A, Msb, K:) or the time called the ظُهْر. (Msb.) And He went, or journeyed, in the time called the ظَهِيرَة; as also ↓ ظهّر , (K,) inf. n. تَظْهِيرٌ: (TA:) or the time called the ظُهْر. (S, O.) 5 تظهّر ذ and اِظَّهَّرَ : see 3, latter half, in three places. 6 تَظَاْهَرَ see 1, first sentence: ― -b2- and see also 4, first sentence. ― -b3- تظاهروا They aided, or assisted, one another. (S, O, * K.) And تظاهروا عَلَى فُلَانٍ They leagued together, and aided one another, against such a one. (Ibn-Buzurj, TA in art. ضفر.) ― -b4- Also They regarded, or treated, one another with enmity, or hostility; or severed themselves, one from another: (S, Msb, K:) as though they turned their backs, one upon another: (S:) or, because they who do so turn their backs, one upon another. (Msb.) Thus the verb has two contr. meanings. (K.) ― -b5- تظاهر مِنِ ا@مْرَأَتِهِ and اِظَّاهَرَ: see 3, latter half, in three places. 8 اِظَّهَرَ ذ : see 1, last quarter. 10 استظهر بِهِ ذ He sought aid, or assistance, in, or by means of, him, or it, (S, O, Msb, K, TA,) عَلَيْهِ [against him, or it]; as also استظهرهُ. (TA.) [In the CK, after the explanation of استظهر به, is an omission, to be supplied by the insertion of وَقَرَأَهُ.] One says, استظهر بِا@لْغِنَى عَلَى النَّوَائِبِ [He sought aid in wealth against calamities, or afflictions]. (Msb.) And بِهِظاهر signifies the same as استظهر [in this sense or in another of the senses expl. in what follows]. (TA.) ― -b2- And استظهرتُ بِالشَّىْءِ, and بِهِظَهَرْتُ , and ↓ ظَهَرْتُهُ , I put the thing behind my back for protection, or security. (Har p. 265.) ― -b3- And استظهر He prepared for himself a camel, or two camels, or more, for future need: (T:) and استظهرهُ, and بِهِظَهَرَ , He prepared him, namely, a camel, for future need: (K:) and استظهر بِبَعِيرَيْنِ ظِهْرِيَّيْنِ He prepared for himself two camels for future need. (T. [See ظِهْرِىٌّ.]) ― -b4- Hence, (T,) استظهر signifies also He used precaution (T, Msb) with respect to anything: (T:) he secured himself, (اِسْتَوْثَقَ,) by using precaution; as, for instance, a woman does by remaining three days, before she performs the ablution termed غُسْل, and prays, after the usual period of the menses. (T, L.) One says, يُسْتَحَبُّ الاِسْتِظْهَارُ بِغَسْلَةٍ ثَانِيَةٍ وَثَالِثَةٍ The using precaution by a second and a third washing, to make sure of being pure, is approved. (Er-Ráfi'ee, Msb.) And استظهرتُ فِى طَلَبِ الشَّىْءِ I adopted the most fit, or proper, way, and used precaution, in seeking to attain the thing. (Msb.) ― -b5- See also 1, in the middle of the latter half. ظَهْرٌ ذ The back; contr. of بَطْنٌ: (S, A, O, Msb, K:) in a man, from the hinder part of the كَاهِل [or base of the neck] to the nearest part of the buttocks, where it terminates: (TA:) in a camel, the part containing six vertebræ on the right and left of which are [two portions of flesh and sinew called the] مَتْنَانِ: (AHeyth, T, O:) of the masc. gender: (Lh, A, K:) pl. [of pauc.] أَظْهُرٌ, and [of mult.] ظُهُورٌ and ظُهْرَانٌ. (Msb, K.) ― -b2- رَجُلٌ خَفِيفُ الظَّهْرِ (tropical:) A man having a small household to maintain: and ثَقِيلُ الظَّهْرِ (tropical:) having a large household to maintain. (K, * TA.) ― -b3- أَنْت عَلَىَّ كَظَهْرِ أُمِّى Thou art to me like the back of my mother: said by a man to his wife. (S, Mgh, Msb, K.) [This has been expl. above: see 3.] ― -b4- عَدَا فِى ظَهْرِهِ (tropical:) He stole what was behind him: (A:) [or he acted wrongfully in respect of what was behind him: for] لِصٌّ عَادِى ظَهْرٍ is expl. by the words عَدَا فِى ظَهْرٍ فَسَرَقَهُ [so that it app. means (tropical:) A thief who has acted wrongfully in respect of what was behind one, and stolen it]. (O, K.) ― -b5- أَقْرَانُ الظَّهْرِ (S, O, K) and الظُّهُورِ (O, TA) Adversaries who come to one from behind his back, in war, or fight. (S, O, K, * TA.) In the copies of the K, يُحِبُّونَكَ is erroneously put for يَجِيؤُونَكَ. (TA.) You say also, فُلَانٌ قِرْنُ الظَّهْرِ Such a one is an adversary who comes to one from behind, unknown. (IAar, As.) ― -b6- قَتَلَهُ ظَهْرًا He slew him unexpectedly; he assassinated him; syn. غِيلَةٌ. (IAar, TA.) ― -b7- جَعَلَنِى بِظَهْرٍ (tropical:) He cast me off. (TA.) And جَعَلتُ حَاجَتَهُ بِظَهْرٍ (tropical:) I cast his want behind my back: (AO, K:) and ↓ جَعَلَهَا ظِهْرِيَّةً signifies the same: (S:) and ↓ اِتَّخَذَهَا ظِهْرِيًّا , (K,) and ↓ ظِهْرِيَّةً : (TA:) or the former of the last two phrases signifies he held it in contempt; as though ظهريّا were an irreg. rel. n. from ظَهْرٌ: (TA:) or ↓ اِتَّخَذَهُ ظِهْرِيًّا signifies he neglected, or forgot, (S, O, * Msb,) him, as in the Kur xi. 94, (S, O,) or it, namely, what was said. (Msb.) And لَا تَجْعَلْ حَاجَتِى بِظَهْرٍ (tropical:) Forget not thou, or neglect not, my want: (S:) and ↓ جَعَلَهُ ظِهْرِيًّا signifies he forgot it; as well as جعله بِظَهْرٍ. (A.) And جَعَلْتُ هٰذَا الأَمْرَ بِظَهْرٍ, and رَمَيْتُهُ بِظَهْرٍ, (tropical:) I cared not for this thing. (Th, O.) ― -b8- فُلَانٌ مِنْ وَلَدِ الظَّهْرِ (assumed tropical:) Such a one is of those who do not belong to us: or of those to whom no regard is paid: (TA:) or of those who are held in contempt, and to whose ties of relationship no regard is paid. (S, TA.) ― -b9- هُوَ ا@بْنُ عَمِّهِ ظَهْرًا (tropical:) [He is his cousin on the father's side,] distantly related: contr. of دِنْيًا [and لَحًّا]. (As, A, O, TA.) ― -b10- رَجَعَ عَلَى ظَهْرِهِ [He receded, retired, or retreated]. (K in art. ثبجر.) ― -b11- هُوَ نَازِلٌ بَيْنَ ظَهْرَيْهِمْ, and ↓ بين ظَهْرَانَيْهِمْ , (S, A, O, Msb, K, *) in which latter the ا and ن are said by some to be added for corroboration, (Msb,) and for which one should not say ظَهْرَانِيهِمْ, (IF, S, O, Msb, K,) and بين أَظْهُرِهِمْ, (Msb, K,) (tropical:) He is making his abode in the midst of them; in the main body of them: (K, TA:) originally meaning he is making his abode among them for the purpose of seeking aid of them and staying himself upon them: as though it meant that the back of one of them was before him, and that of another behind him, so that he was defended in either direction: afterwards, by reason of frequency of usage, it came to be employed to signify abiding among a people absolutely. (IAth, Msb.) You say also هُوَ بَيْنَ ظَهْرَيْهِ, and ↓ بَيْنَ ظَهْرَانَيْهِ , meaning It (anything) is in the midst, or main part, of it, namely, another thing. (TA.) ― -b12- لَقِيتُهُ بَيْنَ الظَّهْرَيْنِ, and ↓ بَيْنَ الظَّهْرَانَيْنِ , (S, O, Msb, K,) (tropical:) I met him during the day, (Msb,) or during the two days, (S, O, K,) or during the three days, (K,) or the days: (S, O, Msb:) from the next preceding phrase. (TA.) And أَتَيْتُهُ مَرَّةً بَيْنَ الظَّهَرْينِ (tropical:) I came to him one day: or, accord. to Aboo-Fak'as, on a day between two years. (Fr.) And اللَّيْلِرَأَيْتُهُ بَيْنَ ظَهْرَانَىِ (tropical:) I saw him between nightfall and daybreak. (TA.) And النَّهَارِجِئْتُهُ بَيْنَ ظَهْرَانَىِ (tropical:) [I came to him between the beginning and end of the day]. (A.) ― -b13- تَقَلَّبَ ظَهْرًا لِبَطْنٍ (assumed tropical:) It turned over and over, or upside down, (lit. back for belly,) as a serpent does upon ground heated by the sun. (S and TA in art. قلب.) [Hence,] قَلَبْتُ الأَرْضَ ظَهْرًا لِبَطْنٍ (tropical:) [I turned the earth over, upside-down]. (A.) And [hence,] قَلَّبَ أَمْرَهُ ظَهْرًا لِبَطْنٍ, (O, * TA,) and ظَهْرَهُ لِبَطْنٍ, and ظَهْرَهُ لِبَطْنِهِ, and ظَهْرَهُ لِلْبَطْنِ, which last form is preferred by El-Farezdak to the second, because [as in the third form] the second of the two words is determinate like the first word, (tropical:) He meditated, or managed, the affair with forecast, and well. (O, * TA.) ― -b14- The Arabs used to say, هٰذَا ظَهْرُ السَّمَآءِ and هذا بَطْنُ السَّمَآءِ, both meaning (tropical:) This is the apparent, visible, part of the sky. (Fr, Az.) And the like is said of the side of a wall, which is its بَطْن to a person on the same side, and its ظَهْر to one on the other side. (Az.) ― -b15- مَا نَزَلَ مِنَ القُرْآنِ آيَةٌ إِِلَّا لَهَا ظَهْرٌ وَبَطْنٌ, [part of] a saying of Mohammad, [of which see the rest voce مُطَّلَعٌ,] means (assumed tropical:) Not a verse of the Kur-án has come down but it has a verbal expression and an interpretation: (K, * TA:) or a verbal expression and a meaning: or that which has an apparent and a known [or an exoteric] interpretation and that which has an intrinsic [or esoteric] interpretation: (TA:) or narration (K, TA) and admonition: (TA:) or [it is to be read and to be understood and taught; for] by the ظهر is meant the reading; and by the بطن, the understanding and teaching. (TA.) [See also بَطْنٌ.] ― -b16- ظَهْرٌ signifies also (tropical:) Camels on which people ride, and which carry goods; (S, * A, * O, K, * TA;) camels that carry burdens upon their backs in journeying: (TA:) [or] a beast: or a camel for riding: (Mgh:) pl. ظُهْرَانٌ. (TA.) It is said in a trad. of 'Arfajeh, فَتَنَاوَلَ السَّيْفَ مِنَ الظَّهْرِ And he reached, or took in his hand, the sword from the camels for carrying burdens and for riding: and in another, أَتَأْذَنُ لَنَا فِى نَحْرِ ظَهْرِنَا Dost thou permit us to slaughter our camels which we ride? (TA.) And one says also, هُوَ عَلَى ظَهْرٍ (tropical:) He is determined upon travel: (K:) as though he had already mounted a beast for that purpose. (TA.) ― -b17- [Hence, app.,] (assumed tropical:) Property consisting of camels and sheep or goats: (TA:) or much property. (K, TA.) ― -b18- (assumed tropical:) The short side [or lateral half] of a feather: (S, O, K:) pl. ظُهْرَانٌ: (S, M, K, TA, &c.:) opposed to بَطْنٌ, sing. of بُطْنَانٌ, (TA,) which latter signifies the “ long sides: ” (S, TA:) and ↓ ظُهَارٌ signifies the same as ظَهْرٌ, (K,) or the same as ظُهْرَانٌ, being an irregular pl.; and this is meant by the saying الظُّهَارُ بِالضَّمِ الجَمَاعَةُ, mentioned in a later place in the K [in such a manner as to have led to the supposition that ظُهَارٌ is also syn. with جَمَاعَةٌ]: (TA:) AO says that among the feathers of arrows are the ظُهَار, which are those that are put [upon an arrow] of the ظَهْر [or outer side] of the عَسِيب [app. here meaning the shaft] of the feather; (S, TA;) i. e., the shorter side, which is the best kind of feather; as also ظُهْرَان: sing. ظَهْرٌ: (TA:) ISd says that the ظُهْرَان are those parts of the feathers of the wing that are exposed to the sun and rain: (TA:) Lth says that the ظُهَار are those parts of the feathers of the wing that are apparent. (O, TA.) One says, رِشْ سَهْمَكَ بِظُهْرَانٍ وَلَا تَرِشْهُ بِبُطْنَانٍ [Feather thine arrow with short sides of feathers, and feather it not with long sides of feathers]. (S, TA.) [De Sacy supposes that ظُهُورٌ and بُطُونٌ are also pls. of ظَهْرٌ and بَطْنٌ thus used: (see his “ Chrest. Arabe, ” sec. ed., tome ii., p. 374:) but his reasons do not appear to me to be conclusive.] ↓ ظُهَارٌ and ظُهْرَانٌ are also used as epithets: you say, رِيشٌ ظُهَارٌ and رِيشٌ ظُهْرَانٌ. (TA.) ― -b19- [ظَهْرُ الكَفِّ and ↓ ظَاهِرُهَا mean (assumed tropical:) The back of the hand. And in like manner, ظَهْرُ القَدَمِ and ↓ ظَاهِرُهَا mean (assumed tropical:) The upper, or convex, side, or back, of the human foot, corresponding to the back of the hand, including the instep: opposed to بَطْن and بَاطِن. And ظَهْرُ اللِّسَانِ means (assumed tropical:) The upper surface of the tongue.] ― -b20- And ظَهْرٌ also signifies (tropical:) A way by land. (S, M, O, Msb, K.) This expression is used when there is a way by land and a way by sea. (M.) You say, سَارُوا فِى طَرِيقِ الظَّهْرِ (tropical:) They journeyed by land. (A.) ― -b21- And (assumed tropical:) An elevated tract of land or ground; as also ↓ ظَاهِرةٌ : (A:) or rugged and elevated land or ground; (JK, K;) as also ↓ ظَاهِرَةٌ : (JK:) opposed to بَطْنٌ, which signifies “ soft and plain and fine and low land or ground: ” (TA:) and ↓ ظَوَاهِرُ [pl. of. ظَاهِرَةٌ] signifies (assumed tropical:) elevated tracts of land or ground: (S, K:) you say, هَاجَتْ ظَوَاهِرُ الأَرْضِ, meaning, (assumed tropical:) the herbs, or leguminous plants, of the elevated tracts of land, or ground, dried up: (As, S, L:) and ↓ ظَاهِرٌ signifies (assumed tropical:) the higher, or highest, part of a mountain; (ISh, L, TA;) whether its exterior be plain or not: (TA:) and ↓ ظَاهِرَةٌ , the same, of anything: (L:) when you have ascended upon the ظَهْر of a mountain, you are upon its ظَاهِرَة. (TA.) ― -b22- سَالَ وَادِيهِمْ ظَهْرًا means (assumed tropical:) Their valley flowed with the rain of their own land: opposed to دُرْءًا, meaning, “ from other rain: ” (IAar, O, K: *) or the former signifies their valley flowed with its own rain: and the latter, “ with other than its own rain: ” (TA:) and some say ↓ ظُهْرًا , which Az thinks the better form. (O, TA.) ― -b23- [Hence, probably,] أَصَبْتُ مِنْهُ مَطَرَ ظَهْرٍ (assumed tropical:) I obtained from him, or it, much good. (Sgh, O, K.) ― -b24- And another signification of ظَهْرٌ is What is absent, or hidden, or concealed, from one. (O, K.) ― -b25- It is sometimes prefixed to another noun to give plainness and force to the expression; as in ظَهْرُ الغَيْبِ and ظَهْرُ القَلْبِ, meaning نَفْسُ الغَيْبِ and نَفْسُ القَلْبِ: (Msb:) or it is redundant in these instances. (Mgh.) Lebeed says, describing a [wild] cow going about after a beast of prey that had eaten her young one, “ وَتَسَمَّعَتْ رِزَّ الأَنِيسِ فَرَاعَهَا
عَنْ ظَهْرِ غَيْبٍ وَالأَنِيسُ سَقَامُهَا
” [And she heard the sound of man, and it frightened her, from a place that concealed what was in it; for man is her malady; i. e., a cause of pain and trouble and death to her]: (TA:) meaning, she heard the sound of the hunters, &c. (TA in art. غيب.) And you say, تَنَاوَلَهُ بِظَهْرِ الغَيْبِ بِمَا يَسُوؤُهُ He carped at him behind the back, or in absence, by saying what would grieve him. (TA in art. غيب.) And تَكَلَّمْتُ بِهِ عَنْ ظَهْرِ الغَيْبِ (A, O) or عن ظَهْرِ غَيْبٍ (TA) [app., (tropical:) I spoke it by memory; in the absence of a book or the like; as one says in modern Arabic, عَلَى الغَائِب. See also غَيْبٌ.] And قَرَأَهُ عَنْ ظَهْرِ القَلْبِ (tropical:) He recited it by heart, or memory; without book: (L, K: [in the latter, مِنْ is put in the place of عَنْ; but the right reading is that in the L: and in the CK is an omission here, to be supplied by the insertion of وَقَرَأَهُ:]) and ↓ قرأه ظَاهِرًا and قرأه عَلَى ظَهْرِ لِسَانِهِ [signify the same]. (K.) And حَمَلَ القُرْآنَ عَلَى ظَهْرِ لِسَانِهِ like حَفِظَهُ عَلَى ظَهْرِ قَلْبِهِ (tropical:) [He knew the Kur-án by heart]. (A, * O, TA.) ― -b26- One says also, فُلَانٌ يَأْكُلُ عَلَى ظَهْرِ يَدِ فُلَانٍ (tropical:) Such a one eats at the expense of such a one. (A, O, K. *) And in like manner, الفُقَرَآءُ يَأْكُلُونَ عَلَى ظَهْرِ أَيْدِى النَّاسِ (tropical:) The poor eat at the expense of the people. (A, TA.) And أَعْطَاهُ عَنْ ظَهْرِ يَدٍ (tropical:) He gave him originally; without compensation. (O, * K; but in some copies of the K we find مِنْ in the place of عَنْ.) It is said [in a trad.], أَفْضَلُ الصَّدَقَةِ مَا كَانَ عَنْ ظَهْرِ غِنًى (tropical:) The most excellent of alms is that which is [derived] from competence; ظهر: (Msb:) or simply عَنْ غِنًى, the word ظهر being here redundant: (Mgh:) or from manifest competence upon which one relies, and in which he seeks aid against calamities, or afflictions: or from what remains after fight: (Msb:) or from superfluous property. (TA.) -A2- See also ظَهِيرٌ -A3- قِدْرُ ظَهْرٍ means (assumed tropical:) An old cooking-pot: (O, K: *) pl. قُدُورُ ظُهُورٍ: (O:) as though, because of its oldness, it were thrown behind the back. (TA.) ظُهْرٌ ذ Midday, or noon: (IAth, TA:) or the time when the sun declines from the meridian: (Msb, * K, * O, * TA:) or [the time immediately] after the declining of the sun: (S, Mgh:) masc. and fem.; unless when the word صَلَاة is prefixed to it, in which case it is fem. only: (Msb:) [pl. أَظْهَارٌ. See also ظَهِيرَةٌ.] صَلَاةُ الظُّهْرِ means The prayer [i. e. the divinely-ordained prayer] of midday, or noon: (IAth, TA:) or of the time after the declining of the sun. (S, O.) In the phrases أَبْرِدُوا بِالظُّهْرِ [Defer ye the prayer of midday until the cooler time of day] and صَلَّى الظُّهْرَ [He performed the prayer of midday], the prefixed noun (صَلَاة) is suppressed. (Mgh.) -A2- سَالَ وَادِيهِمْ ظُهْرًا: see ظَهْرٌ, last quarter. ظَهِرٌ ذ , (S,) or ↓ ظَهِيرٌ , (K,) [the former agreeable with analogy, being derived from ظَهِرَ,] A man (S,) having a complaint of the back: (S, K:) or having a pain in the back: as also ↓ مَظْهُورٌ . (O, TA.) ظُهْرَةٌ ذ : see ظَهِيرٌ, in three places. -A2- Also The tortoise. (O, K.) ظِهْرَةٌ ذ : see ظَهِيرٌ, in six places. ظَهَرَةٌ ذ The goods, or furniture and utensils, of a house or tent; (IAar, S, O, K, TA;) as also أَهَرَةٌ: (IAar, TA:) or the former signifies the exterior of a house, or tent; and the latter, the “ interior thereof. ” (Th, TA.) ― -b2- And Abundance of مَال [i. e. property, or cattle]. (TA.) -A2- See also ظَهِيرٌ. ظِهْرِىٌّ ذ A camel prepared for future need; (T, S, O, K;) taken, by way of precaution, to bear the burden of any camel that may happen to fail in a journey: sometimes two or more unladen camels are taken for this purpose: some say that such a camel is thus called because its owner puts it behind his back, not riding it nor putting any burden upon it: (T, TA:) the word appears to be an irreg. rel. n. from ظَهْرٌ: (ISd, TA:) pl. ظَهَارِىٌّ, imperfectly decl., because the rel. ى retains its place in the sing. [inseparably; there being no such word as ظِهْر: but if it be a rel. n., this pl. is irreg., like مَهَارِىٌّ]. (S, O, K.) ― -b2- See ظَهْرٌ, first quarter, in five places, for examples of ظِهْرِىٌّ and ظِهْرِيَّةٌ used tropically. ظُهْرَان ذ [app. ظُهْرَانٌ (which is also a pl. of ظَهْرٌ used in several senses), or, perhaps ظُهْرَانِ, as having a dual meaning,] The upper, thick, pair of wings of the locust. (AHn, TA.) ― -b2- [See also ظَهْرٌ.] بَيْنَ ظَهْرَانَيْهِمْ ذ , and ظَهْرَانَيْهِ, and الظَّهْرَانَيْنِ, &c.: see ظَهْرٌ, former half, in five places. ظَهَارٌ ذ The exterior (K, TA) and elevated (TA) part of a [stony tract such as is called] حَرَّة. (K, TA.) ظُهَارٌ ذ Pain in the back. (Az, O, TA.) -A2- See also ظَهْرٌ, third quarter, in two places. ظَهِيرٌ ذ : see ظَاهِرٌ. -A2- Also An aider, or assistant; (S, A, O, Msb, K;) and so ↓ ظِهْرَةٌ (S, K) and ↓ ظُهْرَةٌ : (K:) [in one place, in the K, ظِهْرَةٌ is expl. by عَوْن; but by this is meant, as will be seen below, the same as is meant by مُعِين, by which all the three words are expl. in another place in the K, as well as in the S &c.:] and aiders, or assistants; (S, Msb;) as also ↓ ظِهْرَةٌ and ↓ ظُهْرَةٌ and ↓ ظَهْرٌ : (TA:) the pl. of ظَهِيرٌ is ظُهَرَآءُ. (O.) It is said in the Kur [xxv. 57], وَكَانَ الكَافِرُ عَلَى رَبِّهِ ظَهِيرًا And the unbeliever is an aider of the enemies of God [against his Lord]. (Ibn-'Arafeh.) You say also, فُلَانٌ عَلَى فُلَانٍظِهْرَتِى Such a one is my aider (عَوْن) against such a one: and عَلَى هٰذَاأَنَا ظِهْرَتُكَ الأَمْرِ I am thine aider against this thing, or affair. (S, O.) And it is also said in the Kur [lxvi. 4], وَا@لْمَلَائِكَةُ بَعْدَ ذٰلِكَ ظَهِيرٌ [And the angels after that will be his aiders]: and instance of ظهير in a pl. sense: (S, O, Msb:) for words of the measures فَعُولٌ and فَعِيلٌ are sometimes masc. and fem. [and sing.] and pl. (S.) You also say, ↓ جَآءَ فُلَانٌ فِى ظِهْرَتِهِ , (S, A, K,) and ↓ ظُهْرَتِهِ , (A, K,) and ↓ ظَهَرَتِهِ , and ↓ ظَاهِرَتِهِ , (K,) Such a one came among his people, (S,) or kinsfolk, (K,) and those who performed his affairs for him, (S, A,) i. e., his aiders, or assistants. (A.) And وَاحِدَةٍهُمْ فِى ظِهْرَةٍ They aid one another against the enemies. (TA.) ― -b2- Also Strong in the back; (K;) sound therein: (Lth:) and so ↓ مُظَهَّرٌ : (S, O, K:) applied to a man: (S:) or hard and strong; whether in the back or any other part is not said: (TA:) in this sense, (TA,) or as signifying strong, (S, O,) applied to a camel: fem. with ة. (S, O, TA.) ― -b3- Also A camel whose back is not used, on account of galls, or sores, upon it: or unsound in the back by reason of galls, or sores, or from some other cause. (Th.) Thus it has two contr. significations. (TA.) -A3- See also ظَهِرٌ. ظِهَارَةٌ ذ [The facing, or outer covering, or] what is uppermost, (TA,) what is apparent (Msb, TA) to the eye, (Msb,) not next the body, of a garment; (TA;) and in like manner, what is uppermost and apparent, not next the ground, of a carpet; (TA;) as also ↓ ظَاهِرَةٌ : (JK:) contr. of بِطَانَةٌ: (S, O, Msb, K:) pl. ظَهَائِرُ. (TA.) ظَهِيرَةٌ ذ The point of midday: (M, A, K:) or only in summer: (M, K:) or i. q. هَاجِرَةٌ [i. e. midday in summer or when the heat is vehement: or the period from a little before, to a little after, midday in summer: or midday, when the sun declines from the meridian, at the ظُهْر: or from its declining until the عَصْر]: (S, O, TA:) or the هَاجِرَة, which is when the sun declines from the meridian: (Msb:) or the vehement heat of midday: (IAth, TA:) or i. q. ظُهْرٌ [q. v.]: (Az, TA:) pl. ظَهَائِرُ. (TA.) You say, أَتْيْتُهُ حَدَّ الظَّهِيرَةِ [I came to him at the point of midday in summer; &c.]: and حِينَ قَامَ قَائِمُ الظَّهِيرَةِ [when the sun had become high, and the shade had almost disappeared: so expl. in art. قوم]. (S, O.) And أَبْرِدْ عَنْكَ مِنَ الظَّهِيرَةِ Stay thou until the middayheat shall have become assuaged, and the air be cool. (L in art. فيح.) And hence, in a trad. of 'Omar, when a man came to him complaining of gout in the feet, he said, كَذَبَتْكَ الظَّهَائِرُ, meaning Take thou to walking during the heat of the middays in summer. (TA.) ظُهَارِيَّةٌ ذ One of the modes of seizing [and throwing down] in wrestling: or i. q. شَغْزَبِيَّةٌ: (K:) the twisting one's leg with the leg of another in the manner that is termed شَغْزَبِيَّة, and so throwing him down: one says, أَخَذَهُ الظُّهَارِيَّةَ and الشَّغْزَبِيَّةَ [He seized him and threw him down by the trick above described]: both signify the same: (ISh, O:) or ظُهَارِيَّةٌ signifies the throwing one down upon the back. (Ibn-'Abbád, O, K.) ― -b2- And (hence, as being likened thereto, TA) (tropical:) A certain mode, or manner, of compressing, or coïtus. (O, K, TA.) ― -b3- And أَوْثَقَهُ الظُّهَارِيَّةَ He bound his hands behind his back. (Ibn-Buzurj, O, K, TA.) ظَاهِرٌ ذ [Outward, exterior, external, extrinsic, or exoteric: and hence, appearing, apparent, overt, open, perceptible or perceived, manifest, conspicuous, ostensible, plain, or evident: in all these senses] contr. of بَاطِنٌ: (S, K, TA:) and so ↓ ظَهِيرٌ . (TA.) [Hence, ظَاهِرًا Outwardly, &c.: and apparently; &c.: and فِى الظَّاهِرِ in appearance. And الظَّاهِرُ أَنَّهُ كَذَا It appears, or it seems, or what seems to be the case is, that it is so, or thus. And ظَاهِرُ كَذَا for ظَاهِرٌ فِيهِ كَذَا, meaning A person, or thing, in whom, or in which, such a quality is apparent, or manifest, &c.: see an ex. in a verse cited in the first paragraph of art. طعن.] See also مُظْهَرٌ. ― -b2- [Hence also,] عَيْنٌ ظَاهِرَةٌ A prominent eye; (S, O, K, TA;) that fills its cavity. (TA.) ― -b3- And هٰذَا أَمْرٌ ظَاهِرٌ عَنْكَ عَارُهُ (tropical:) This is a thing, or an affair, of which the disgrace is remote from thee: (S, TA:) or does not cleave to thee. (TA.) And هٰذَا عَيْبٌ ظَاهِرٌ عَنْكَ (tropical:) This is a vice, or fault, that does not cleave to thee. (A.) A poet says, (namely, Kutheiyir, accord. to a copy of the S, or Aboo-Dhu-eyb, TA,) “ وَعَيَّرَهَا الوَاشُونَ أَنِّى أُحِبُّهَا
وَتِلْكَ شَكَاةٌ ظَاهِرٌ عَنْكَ عَارُهَا
” (tropical:) [And the slanderers taunted her with the fact of my loving her; but that is a fault of which the disgrace is remote from thee]. (S, TA.) ― -b4- [الظَّاهِرُ also signifies The outside, or exterior, of a thing. You say, نَزَلَ ظَاهِرَ المَدِينَةِ He alighted, or took up his abode, outside the city: comp. ظَاهِرَةٌ. Hence,] ظَاهِرُ الكَفِّ and ظَاهِرُ القَدَمِ; and another signification of ظَاهِرٌ: for all of which see ظَهْرٌ, third quarter. ― -b5- [Also The external, outward, or extrinsic, state, condition, or circumstances, of a man: and the outward, or apparent, character, or disposition of the mind: opposed to البَاطِنُ.] ― -b6- One says also, فُلَانٌ ظَاهِرٌ عَلَى فُلَانٍ Such a one has the ascendancy, or mastery, over such a one; is conqueror of him, or victorious over him. (TA.) And هٰذَا أَمْرٌ ظَاهِرٌ بِكَ This is a thing, or an affair, that overcomes, or overpowers, thee. (TA.) And هٰذَا أَمْرٌ أَنْتَ بِهِ ظَاهِرٌ This is an affair which thou hast power to do. (TA.) [And هُوَ ظَاهِرٌ عَلَى كَذَا He is a conqueror, a winner, an achiever, or an attainer, of such a thing: see an ex. voce غَرَبٌ, near the end.] And الظَّاهِرُ is one of the names of God, meaning The Ascendant, or Predominant, over all things: or, as some say, He who is known -by inference of the mind from what appears to mankind of the effects of his actions and his attributes. (IAth, TA.) ― -b7- حَاجَتُهُ عِنْدَكَ ظَاهِرَةٌ means (tropical:) His want is in thine estimation [an object of contempt, or neglect, as though] cast behind the back. (O, * TA.) ― -b8- قَرَأَهُ ظَاهِرًا: see ظَهْرٌ, towards the end of the paragraph. -A2- شَآءٌ ظَوَاهِرُ Sheep, or goats, that come to the water every day at noon. (TA.) ظَاهِرَةٌ ذ as a subst.; and its pl. ظَوَاهِرُ: see ظَهْرٌ, in four places, in the third quarter of the paragraph. [Hence,] قُرَيْشُ الظَّوَاهِرِ Those, of Kureysh, that dwell in the exterior of Mekkeh, (O,) upon the mountains thereof, (K, * TA,) or upon the higher parts of Mekkeh: (TA:) those who dwell in the lower parts are called قُرَيْشُ البِطَاحِ; (O, * TA;) and these are the more honourable, (O, TA, *) because they are neighbours of the House of God. (O.) ― -b2- See also ظِهَارَةٌ. -A2- And see ظَهِيرٌ. -A3- Also The coming of camels, (S, O, K, TA,) and of sheep or goats, (TA,) to the water every day, at noon. (S, O, K, TA.) One says, of camels, [and of sheep or goats,] تَرِدُ الظَّاهِرَةَ [They come to the water every day, at noon]: and Sh says that they return from the water at the عَصْر. (TA.) And شَرِبَ الفَرَسُ ظَاهِرَةً The horse drank every day, at noon. (TA.) ظَاهِرَةُ الغِبِّ [The coming to the water at noon on alternate days] is for sheep or goats; scarcely ever, or never, for camels; and is a little shorter [in the interval] than what is called [simply] الغِبُّ. (O, TA.) مَظْهَرٌ ذ i. q. مَصْعَدٌ [i. e. A place of ascent, or a place to which one ascends]; (O, K; in some copies of the latter of which, both words are erroneously written with damm to the م; TA;) and دَرَجَةٌ [as meaning a degree, grade, rank, condition, or station, or an exalted, or a high, grade, &c.]: (O:) used by En-Nábighah ElJaadee as meaning Paradise. (O, TA.) [ مُظْهَرٌ ذ Made apparent, &c. ― -b2- And hence, as also ↓ ظَاهِرٌ , but the former more commonly, applied to a noun, Explicit; and, elliptically, an explicit noun; opposed to مُضْمَرٌ and ضَمِيرٌ (a concealed noun, i. e. a pronoun); and to مُبْهَمٌ (a noun of vague signification).] مُظْهِرٌ ذ Possessing camels for riding or for carrying goods: pl. مُظْهِرُونَ. (S, * K, * TA.) -A2- And A camel made to sweat by the ظَهِيرَة [or vehement heat of midday in summer]. (Sgh, K, TA.) And accord. to As, one says, ↓ أَتَانَا فُلَانٌ مُظَهِّرًا , meaning Such a one came to us in the time of the ظَهِيرَة [or midday in summer, &c.]: but accord. to A 'Obeyd, others say مُظْهِرًا, without teshdeed; and this is the proper form: (S) or both mean, in the time of the ظُهْر. (O.) مُظَهَّرٌ ذ : see ظَهِيرٌ, near the end of the paragraph. مُظَهِّرٌ ذ : see مُظْهِرٌ. مُظْهُورٌ ذ pass. part. n. of ظَهَرَ [q. v.]. ― -b2- See also ظَهِرٌ.

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