فَرَضَهُ ذ , (S, A, O, Msb, &c.,) aor. فَرِضَ , (Msb, TA, &c.,) inf. n. فَرْضٌ, (S, O, Msb, K, &c.,) He made a mark in it, or upon it, by notching, or otherwise: (O:) he notched it: made a notch, or an incision, in it; (S, O, Msb, K;) namely, a piece of wood, (Msb,) a زَنْد, [or rather فَرَضَهَا said of a زَنْدَة, from which fire is produced,] and a سِوَاك [or toothstick], (S, O,) and in like manner a bow; (A;) as also [↓ افترضهُ ; (see this verb below;) and] ↓ فرّضهُ , inf. n. تَفْرِيضٌ: (K:) or this last signifies he notched it much; or made notches in it; (S, O, TA;) or you say, فَرَضَ قَوْسَهُ and فَرَّضَ قِسِيَّهُ: (A:) and فَرَضَهُ signifies he notched it with his teeth; namely, a tooth-stick: (As:) and he cut it; namely, a thing; or a hard thing; which is said by some to be the primary signification: (TA:) and he (a tailor) cut it out; namely a garment: (Kull p. 275:) and he cut it out and made it round; namely a shield: (TA:) and فَرْضٌ also signifies the cutting, or dividing, lengthwise; cleaving; or the like; applied in a general manner; or the making a trench, or an oblong excavation, in the middle of a grave; فَرَضْتُ لِلْمَيِّتِ signifying I made a trench, or an oblong excavation, in the middle of a grave, for the corpse. (TA.) -A2- فَرَضَ لَهُ, [aor. and] inf. n. as above, (K, &c.,) He apportioned to him [a thing]: he appointed to him [a thing]: (Bd in xxxiii. 38, and TA: *) because that which is apportioned, or appointed, [to a person] is cut off from the thing from which it is apportioned, or appointed: (TA:) he made [a thing] lawful, or allowable, to him; (Jel in xxxiii. 38, and Kull in p. 275, and TA; *) relating to a case into which a man has brought himself: (Kull:) this is said to be the meaning when the phrase فَرَضَ ا@للّٰهُ لَهُ occurs in the Kur: (TA:) he appointed, or assigned, to him a definite portion; (K;) as also له ↓ افرض . (O, L, K.) You say فَرَضَ لَهُ فِى العَطَآءِ [He appointed, or assigned, to him a definite portion in the gift]. (As, S.) And فَرَضَ لَهُ فِى الدِّيوَانِ (As, S, A) [He appointed, or assigned, to him a definite portion in the register of soldiers or pensioners; or] he registered his stipend therein. (As, A, TA.) And فَرَضَهُ, (S,) and ↓ افرضهُ , (S, K,) He gave to him. (S, O, K.) ― -b2- فَرَضَ, (S, A, Mgh, Msb,) aor. as above, (TA,) and so the inf. n., (Msb, TA,) also signifies He (God, S, A, Mgh, Msb) made a thing, (S, TA,) or prayer, (A, Mgh,) or statutes or ordinances, (Msb,) obligatory, or binding, syn. أَوْجَبَ, (S, A, Mgh, Msb, TA,) by a known decree, (TA,) [or He imposed a thing &c.,] عَلَى إِِنْسَانٍ on a man, (TA,) or عَلَيْنَا on us; (S;) and so ↓ اِفْتَرَضَ : (S, A, Mgh, O, K:) or فَرْضٌ is like إِِيجَابٌ; but the latter is so termed in consideration of its befalling; and the former is so called in consideration of the sentence, or decree, respecting it: (B:) [this is said in books on the law, in explanation of the opinion of Aboo-Haneefeh, as opposed to that of Esh-Sháfi'ee: for] accord. to Esh-Sháfi'ee, these two terms are alike; (L, TA;) but accord. to Aboo-Haneefeh, the difference between الوَاجِبُ and الفَرْضُ is like the difference between heaven and earth: (TA:) this distinction, however, is founded upon contested derivations of the two terms: (Kull p. 276:) and it is said that wherever the phrase فَرَضَ ا@للّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ occurs, it means إِِيجَابٌ. (TA.) Also He (the apostle of God) instituted, or prescribed, [a thing as a statute, or an ordinance, or a command or prohibition;] syn. سَنَّ; (O, K;) on the authority of IAar alone: (O, TA:) but accord. to others, he made necessarily obligatory or binding; and this, says Az, is the obvious meaning. (TA.) Also He (a judge) decreed, or adjudged, [TA.) Also He (a judge) decreed, or adjudged, [a thing, as, for instance,] expenses [&c.]. (Msb.) Also He assigned, or appointed, a particular time for doing a thing; or he determined, defined, or limited, a thing as to time, or otherwise; the inf. n., فَرْضٌ, being syn. with تَوْقِيتٌ: (Ibn-'Arafeh, A, O, K:) as in the phrase فَمَنْ فَرَضَ فِيهِنَّ الحَجَّ [And whoso determineth the performance of the pilgrimage therein]; (Ibn-'Arafeh, O, K;) occurring in the Kur [ii. 193]; and in like manner it is expl. by Ibn- 'Arafeh as occurring in xxxiii. 38 of the Kur (O, TA:) but the phrase quoted above is also expl. as meaning and whoso maketh it obligatory, or binding, on himself to perform the pilgrimage therein, by his entering upon the state of إِِحْرَام. (TA.) ― -b3- سُورَةٌ أَنْزَلْنَاهَا وَفَرَضْنَاهَا, (K,) in the Kur, [commencing chap. xxiv.,] (TA,) means [This is a chapter which we have revealed and] in which we have set down the obligatory statutes: (O, K:) or in which we have bound you to do according to what is made obligatory therein: (Az, O:) or, as some read, ↓ وَفَرَّضْنَاهَا , (S, O, K, *) meaning and in which we have set down obligatory statutes, (O, L, K,) one after another: (O, K:) or which we have distinctly explained: (Az, S, O, K:) or we have distinctly explained what is in it, of lawful and unlawful [things]. (T, TA.) ― -b4- فَرْضٌ also signifies The act of reading, or reciting. (IAar, O, K.) You say, فَرَضْتُ جُزْئِى I read, or recited, my portion. (O, TA.) -A3- فَرُضَ, inf. n. فَرَاضَةٌ, He was, or became, skilled in the فَرَائِض; (A, O, K, TA;) i. e. in the science of the division of inheritances. (TA.) MF says that, accord. to IKtt, the verb is also written فَرَضَ, like كَتَبَ: but [says SM] what I find in his “ Kitáb el-Abniyeh ” is the mention of the two modes of writing in the instance of فرضت said of a cow; and the verb applied to a man he has not mentioned. (TA.) -A4- فَرَضَتْ, aor. فَرِضَ , inf. n. فُرُوضٌ; and فَرُضَتْ, inf. n. فَرَاضَةٌ; She (a cow) became old, aged, far advanced in age, (S, O, K,) or extremely old. (TA.) ― -b2- And فَرَضَ, inf. n. فُرُوضٌ, signifies It (a thing) became wide; it widened, or dilated. (TA.) 2 فَرَّضَ see 1, first sentence: and again, in the last quarter of the paragraph. -A2- فرّض, inf. n. تَفْرِيضٌ, said of a man, He had a فَرِيضَة [to give from] among his camels. (O, K.) 4 افرض لَهُ ذ : and افرضهُ: see 1, latter part of the first half of the paragraph. -A2- أَفْرَضَتِ المَاشِيَةُ The beasts amounted to the number which rendered it obligatory on the owner to give from among them a فَرِيضَة. (S, O, K. *) 8 افترضهُ ذ : see 1, first sentence. ― -b2- لَمْ يَفْتَرِضْهَا وَلَدٌ, occurring in a trad., means [A child had not been brought forth by her; lit.] لَمْ يَحُزَّهَا, and لَمْ يُوءَتِّرْهَا [a mistake for لم يُوءَشِّرْهَا]. (TA.) -A2- See also 1, latter part of the first half of the paragraph. -A3- افترض الجُنْدٌ The soldiers received their stipends. (A, K.) -A4- افترض القَوْمُ The people, or company of men, perished, none of them remaining; syn. انقرض. (K.) فَرْضٌ ذ A mark [made by notching, or otherwise; as is shown by the first explanation of 1]: (TA:) a notch, or an incision, in a thing: (O, TA:) of a bow, (S, A, K,) the place of the string; (K;) the notch (S, A, O) in the curved extremity thereof, (A,) into which the string falls; (S, O;) as also ↓ فُرْضَةٌ ; (A, TA;) or this is the place of the notch for the string thereof: (Msb:) pl. of the former فِرَاضٌ (S, O, K) and فُرُوضٌ; (TA;) and of the latter فُرَضٌ (Msb, TA) and فِرَاضٌ: (Msb:) also, of a زَنْد, (S, K,) or [rather] of a زَنْدَة, (A,) the notch; (K;) or the place, or part, whence the fire is produced; (S, K;) the hole, or perforation, that is made in the head thereof, into which the زَنْد is put, and then twisted round, in producing fire; also called وَكْرٌ; (A;) and ↓ فُرْضَةٌ signifies the same: (TA:) and فُرَضٌ also signifies notches in an unfeathered and headless arrow [such as is used in the game called المَيْسِر]. (TA.) -A2- I. q. ↓ مَفْرُوضٌ (A, Msb, K) [Apportioned: appointed; made lawful, or allowable: and] a thing made obligatory, or binding, by God; (S, A, O, K;) for neglecting which one will be punished; like وَاجِبٌ; accord. to EshSháfi'ee; (TA in art. وجب;) because it has marks and limits; (S, O, TA;) said to be from the same word signifying “ a mark, ” because it inseparably pertains to a man, like a mark; (TA;) or, as some say, because it necessarily pertains to a man like as does the فَرْض, i. e. notch, to the arrow; (O, TA;) as also ↓ مُفْتَرَضٌ : (TA:) pl. فُرُوضٌ. (Msb.) As a law-term, it is of two sorts, فَرْضُ عَيْنٍ and فَرْضُ كِفَايَةٍ: the former is That whereof the observance is obligatory on every one, and does not become of no force in respect of some in consequence of the observance [thereof] by some [others]; as religious belief, and the like: the latter is That whereof the observance is obligatory on the collective body of the Muslims, and, in consequence of the observance [thereof] by some, becomes of no force in respect of the rest; as warring against unbelievers, and the prayer over the dead in the bier. (KT.) You say, هٰذَا أَمْرٌ فَرْضٌ عَلَيْهِمْ, and ↓ مَفْرُوضٌ , and ↓ مُفْتَرَضٌ , This is [a thing] made obligatory, or binding, on them by God. (TA.) And حَقُّكَ فَرْضٌ, and ↓ مَفْرُوضٌ , and ↓ مُفْتَرَضٌ , Thy right, or due, is [a thing] made obligatory, or binding, by God. (A.) ↓ نَصِيبًا مَفْرُوضًا , in the Kur [iv. 8 and 118], means A share, or portion, determined, defined, or limited, as to time, or otherwise: (Zj, Ibn-'Arafeh:) or, in iv. 118, a share, or portion, cut off and limited. (S, O.) [See also فَرِيضَةٌ.] ― -b2- A statute, an ordinance, a command or prohibition, of the Apostle of God; syn. سُنَّةٌ. (IAar, O, K.) [But فَرْضٌ is generally distinguished from سُنَّةٌ: the former, for instance, being applied to prayer appointed in the Kur-án; and the latter, to prayer appointed by Mohammad without allegation of a divine order.] ― -b3- A gift, or a soldier's stipend or pay, syn. عَطَآءٌ, (A,) or عَطِيَّةٌ, (S, O, K,) assigned, or appointed. (S, O, K. *) In the copies of the K, مَوْسُومَة is put by mistake for مَرْسُومَة. (TA.) You say, مَا أَصَبْتُ مِنْهُ فَرْضًا وَلَا قَرْضًا I did not obtain from him an assigned, or appointed, gift, or soldier's stipend, (S, O, TA,) nor a gift to be requited, or a loan. (O, TA.) And فَرْضٌ also signifies A thing which one makes obligatory, or binding, on himself, and freely gives: or a thing which one gives liberally, not for a recompense. (IDrd, O, K.) -A3- Also Soldiers who receive stipends; (K:) so accord. to Lth, as related by Az; but [Sgh says] I have not found it in the book of Lth: (O:) or soldiers having definite portions assigned to them: (A:) pl. فُرُوضٌ. (A, TA.) You say, عِنْدَهُ مِائَةٌ مِنَ الفَرْضِ He has with him a hundred soldiers &c. (A.) -A4- A shield. (S, O, K.) Sakhr-el-Gheí says, describing lightning, (O, TA,) likening it to a light shield which an announcer of tidings was turning over and over with his hands that a party might see it and be gladdened [by the signal], (TA,) “ أَرِقْتُ لَهُ مِثْلَ لَمْعِ البَشِيرِ
يُقَلِّبُ بِالكَفِّ فَرْضًا خَفِيفًا
” [I was sleepless by reason of it, it being (in its flickering) like the signalling of the announcer of tidings turning over and over with the hand a light shield]: one should not say قُرْصًا خفيفا. (S, O, TA: but my copies of the S have قَلَّبَ instead of يُقَلِّبُ.) [See also what follows.] ― -b2- And A stick, or piece of wood; syn. عُودٌ; thus [it means] in the verse (فِى البَيْتِ) accord. to El-Jumahee, (O, TA,) i. e. in the verse above-cited: (TA:) he says, الفَرْضُ فِى البَيْتِ عُودٌ: (O, TA:) whence the author of the K has been misled to explain الفَرْضُ as meaning عُودٌ مِنْ أَعْوَادِ البَيْتِ. (TA.) ― -b3- And An arrow before it has been furnished with feathers and a head: (Akh, S, O, TA:) a meaning also heard by El-Jumahee: (O, TA:) and to this, in the hand of the player, 'Abeed ElAbras has likened lightning, accord. to the S; but Sgh says, in the TS, that he did not find the verse cited by J in the poetry of 'Abeed. (TA.) ― -b4- And A piece of rag: another explanation heard by El-Jumahee. (O.) ― -b5- And A garment, or piece of cloth: (O, K:) a meaning mentioned by As on the authority of some one or more of the Arabs of the desert, of Hudheyl. (O.) [See also فِرَاضٌ.] ― -b6- And it is said that in the verse cited above it means the notch in the زَنْد [or rather زَنْدَة, mentioned in the first sentence of this paragraph]. (O, TA.) -A5- A sort of dates (S, O, Msb, K) of 'Omán: (Msb:) As says that the best dates of 'Omán are these and the بَلْعَق: (S, O:) and AHn says, Certain of the desertArabs of 'Omán informed me that when the tree thereof has its fruit ripened, and the gathering is delayed, the fruit falls from its stones, and the raceme remains with nothing upon it but stones hanging to the ثَفَارِيق [by which they are attached to the ends of the stalks]. (TA.) فِرْضٌ ذ The fruit of the دَوْم [or Theban palm] while continuing red. (AA, O, * K.) فُرْضَةٌ ذ : see فَرْضٌ, first sentence, in two places, ― -b2- A gap, or an opening, in a wall and the like: pl. فُرَضٌ. (Msb.) ― -b3- A gap, or breach, in the bank of a river, (S, Mgh, O, Msb, K,) whence one draws water, (S, O, K,) or by which one descends to the water, (Mgh, Msb,) and by which the ships, or boats, ascend; (Msb;) i. e. (Mgh) its مَشْرَعَة: (As, A, Mgh:) pl., in this and the following senses, فُرَضٌ (TA) and فِرَاضٌ. (A, TA.) Hence the saying, in a trad., فَا@جْعَلُوا السُّيُوفَ لِلْمَنَايَا فُرَضًا (assumed tropical:) Therefore make ye the swords to be مَشَارِع [here used in the sense of means of access] to death; (O, TA;) and offer, or expose, yourselves to martyrdom. (TA.) Hence also, فِرَاضٌ is used in the sense of ثُغُورٌ [pl. of ثَغْرٌ, q. v.]. (TA.) ― -b4- Of a sea, or great river, The place where ships unload; syn. مَحَطُّ السُّفُنِ: (S, O, K:) or where they are stationed, near the bank of a river, or near the land. (Mgh.) ― -b5- Of a receptacle for ink, The place of the ink. (S, O, K.) ― -b6- Of a door, The نَجْرَان [or piece of wood in which is the foot; i. e. upon which turns the foot]. (S, O, K.) ― -b7- Of a mountain, A part sloping down from the middle and side. (TA.) -A2- فُرْضَتَانِ i. q. فَرِيضَتَانِ, q. v., accord. to ISk. (IB.) فَرَضِىٌّ ذ and ↓ فَارِضٌ (S, A, Mgh, O, K) and ↓ فَرَّاضٌ (A, Mgh, B) and ↓ فَرِيضٌ (A, O, L, K) A man skilled in the science of the فَرَائِض; (S, * A, Mgh, O, K, * B;) i. e. in the science of questions relating to inheritance; (Mgh;) or in the science of the division of inheritances. (TA.) فِرَاضٌ ذ The mouth of a river or rivulet. (S, O, K. *) ― -b2- And Roads, or ways. (Lth, O, K.) [In this latter sense, app., (as well as in others shown above,) pl. of فُرْضَةٌ, q. v.] -A2- Also The fire that is elicited from the زَنْدَة. (AHn, TA.) [See also فَرْضٌ (of which it is a pl.), first sentence.] -A3- And Clothing: (S, O, K:) one says, مَا عَلَيْهِ فِرَاضٌ There is not upon him any clothing; (S, O;) or, accord. to AHeyth, covering. (TA.) [See also فَرْضٌ, near the end.] فَرِيضٌ ذ An arrow having its notch cut; (S, A, O, K;) as also ↓ مَفْرُوضٌ . (TA.) ― -b2- See also فَرَضِىٌّ: -A2- and see فَارِضٌ. -A3- Also The cud of the camel; accord. to Kr: but accord. to others this is called, قَرِيض [q. v.], with ق. (TA.) فَرِيضَةٌ ذ , of the measure فَعِيلَةٌ in the sense of the measure مَفْعُولَةٌ: pl. فَرَائِضُ: said by some to be derived from فَرْضٌ signifying the act of “ apportioning, ” or “ appointing; ” because فرائض are apportioned, or appointed: by others said to be from فَرْضٌ in relation to a bow. (Msb.) [These remarks apply to the word in all the senses here following.] ― -b2- A subst. signifying A thing made obligatory, or binding, on a person or persons, (S, Mgh, TA) by God; (S, TA;) an obligatory statute or ordinance of God, in a general sense: pl. as above. (TA.) ― -b3- A portion, or share, made obligatory, or binding, (K, * TA,) on a man: (TA:) or anything apportioned, or appointed: [and particularly a primarily-apportioned inheritance: (see an ex. in the first paragraph of art. عول:)] and hence, فَرَائِضُ is applied to the portions, or shares, of inheritances; [i. e. the fixed primary portions of inheritances assigned by the Kur-án; which are a half, third, fourth, sixth, and eighth;] because they are apportioned, or appointed, to their several owners. (Mgh.) And hence, (Mgh,) عِلْمُ الفَرَائِضِ, and elliptically الفَرَائِضُ, (S, * Mgh, O, * Msb,) The science of the division of inheritances; (S, O, TA;) or the science of questions relating to inheritance. (Mgh.) It is said in a trad., (Mgh,) تَعَلَّمُوا الفَرَائِضَ وَعَلِّمُوهَا النَّاسَ فَإِِنَّهَا نِصْفُ العِلْمِ, accord. to the relation commonly followed, with the pron. fem., referring to الفرائض; and وَعَلِّمُوهُ فَإِِنَّهُ, with the pron. masc., referring to عِلْم understood as prefixed to الفرائض; [i. e. Learn ye the science of the division of inheritances, &c., and teach ye it to (other) men, for it is the half of science:] it is said to be called the half of science in consideration of the division of statutes into those which pertain to the living and those which pertain to the dead; or by way of amplification. (Mgh, * Msb.) The phrase الفَرِيضَةُ العَادِلَةُ [The equitable portion of inheritance], in a trad. of Ibn-'Omár, is that respecting which the Muslims have agreed: or that for which the authority is elicited from the Kur-án and the Sunneh without there being in these any express statute respecting it: or that is equitably divided, agreeably with the portions and shares mentioned in the Kur-án and the Sunneh. (TA.) ― -b4- What is made obligatory, or binding, [on the owner, to give,] of pasturing beasts, [i. e. camels,] in payment of the poor-rate; (S, O, K;) the camel that is taken in payment of the poor-rate: so termed because it is made obligatory to be given, of a certain number of camels: the ة is added because the word is made a subst., not an epithet: pl. فَرَائِضُ: (TA:) فَرَائِضُ الإِِبِلِ signifying the dues of the poor-rate, of camels: (A, Mgh: *) the فريضة of twenty-five camels is a بِنْت مَخَاض, (Mgh,) or she-camel one year old; (AHeyth;) that of thirty-six, a بِنْت لَبُون, (AHeyth, Mgh,) or she-camel two years old; (AHeyth;) that of forty-six, a حِقَّة, or she-camel three years old; and that of sixty-one, a جَذَعَة, or she-camel four years old. (AHeyth.) الفَرِيضَتَانِ signifies The جَذَعَة of sheep, or goats, with the حِقَّة of camels; (ISk, S, O, K;) and ↓ الفُرْضَتَانِ signifies the same, accord. to ISk. (IB.) And فَرِيضَةٌ, by an extension of its meaning, is applied to A camel, in other cases than those of the poor-rate. (TA.) ― -b5- See also فَارِضٌ. فِرْيَاضٌ ذ Wide, or broad. (O, K.) فَرَّاضٌ ذ : see فَرَضِىٌّ. فَارِضٌ ذ : see فَرَضِىٌّ. -A2- Old, aged, or advanced in age; applied to a cow; (S, A, O;) in the Kur ii. 63; (S, O;) and to a ram: (TA:) or extremely aged; or old and weak; applied to a cow; (Fr, Katádeh;) as also فَارِضَةٌ and ↓ فَرِيضٌ (TA) and ↓ فَرِيضَةٌ : (K, TA: [but to what these are applied is not shown further than by their being mentioned as fem. epithets:]) or large and fat; applied to a cow: pl. فَوَارِضُ: (AZ:) and the pl. also signifies sound, or healthy, and large; (Ibn-'Abbád, O, TS, K;) not small, nor diseased: (Ibn-'Abbád, O, TS:) and, contr., diseased. (Ibn- 'Abbád, O, TS, K.) ― -b2- (tropical:) Old, aged, or advanced in age, and large, big, or bulky; applied to a man: (TA:) or large, big, or bulky; applied to a man; (S, A, O, K;) and to a full-grown unripe date (بُسْرَة); (A, TA;) and to the bursa faucium of a camel (شِقْشِقَة); and to a uvula (لَهَاة); (O, K;) and to a skin for water or milk (سِقَآء); (IB;) and to a beard (لِحْيَة); (A, O, K;) or, applied to this last, it is with ة; (Akh, S;) or with and without ة: (L:) and without ة, applied in the same sense to anything; (S, O, K;) being masc. and fem.: (As, O:) pl. فُرَّضٌ, (IAar, S, A, O, K,) applied to men; (IAar, S, A, O;) or this, so applied, signifies goodly, or handsome: (TA:) and فَوَارِضُ is applied to dates [&c.]. (A, TA.) Also (assumed tropical:) Old, or ancient; (K;) applied to a thing. (TA.) You say ضِغْنٌ فَارِضٌ (tropical:) Great rancour, or malevolence, or malice; (L;) as also ضَغِينَةٌ فَارِضٌ: (A, L:) or old rancour, &c. (O.) And ضَبٌّ فَارِضٌ (tropical:) Great enmity. (IAar.) أَفْرَضُ ذ The most [and more] skilled, of men, in the science of the فَرَائِض; (S, Mgh, O, K; *) i. e. in the science of the division of inheritances; (S, O, TA;) or in the science of questions relating to inheritance. (Mgh.) It is said in a trad., أَفْرَضُكُمْ زَيْدٌ The most skilled, of you, &c., is Zeyd. (S, Mgh.) مِفْرَضٌ ذ An iron instrument with which notches, or incisions, are made. (S, O, K.) مُفَرَّضٌ ذ Notched much, or in many places; serrated; or jagged. (El-Báhilee.) ― -b2- And hence, The [kind of beetle called] جُعَل: (El-Báhilee:) or the male of the [beetles called] خَنَافِس. (IAar.) مَفْرُوضٌ ذ : see فَرِيضٌ: -A2- and see also فَرْضٌ, as syn. with مَفْرُوضٌ, in four places. مُفْتَرَضٌ ذ : see فَرْضٌ, as syn. with مَفْرُوضٌ, in three places.
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